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Exam 4 Study Guide

by: Katy Davit

Exam 4 Study Guide Bio 1023

Katy Davit
GPA 3.5

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This is an overview of all the material that was learned for the fourth exam
Plants and humans
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katy Davit on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Outlaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Plants and humans in Biological Sciences at Mississippi State University.

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Date Created: 04/23/16
PLANTS & HUMANS EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE Lecture 14 Overview: Biological Evolution:  Heritable change in one or more characteristics of a population from generation to  generation  Small scale­ changes in a single gene  Large scale­ formation of a new species or groups of species Natural Selection:  More offspring produced than can survive  Competition for limited resources  Individual with better traits flourish and reproduce­ adaption  Selective Breeding:  Also called Artificial Selection  Programs and procedures designed to modify traits in domesticated species  Nature chooses parents in natural selection while breeders choose in artificial selection  Made possible by genetic variation  Breeders choose desirable phenotypes and breed for them  Charles Darwin:  British naturalist born 1809  Theory shaped by several different fields of study o Geology o Economics o Voyage of the Beagle Lecture 16 Overview:  Ecology­ Study of interactions between organisms and their environment  Biotic Interactions­ Interactions among living things  Abiotic Interactions­ Interactions between organisms and their nonliving environment  Population Ecology­ Focuses on groups of interbreeding individuals  Community Ecology­ Studies how populations of species interact and form communities   Ecosystem Ecology­ Studies the flow of energy and cycling of chemical elements among  organisms within a community and between organisms and the environment Scale of Ecology:  2 sub­disciplines o Physiological Ecology­ how organisms are physiologically adapted to their  environment PLANTS & HUMANS EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE Behavioral Ecology­ how the behavior of an individual organism contributes to survival and  reproductive success  Succession­ how species composition and community structure change over time, after a  disturbance  Community­ assemblage of many populations that live in that same place at the same  time Succession:  Gradual and continuous change in species composition and community structure over  time  Primary Succession­ succession on a newly exposed site not previously occupied by soil  and vegetation   Secondary Succession­ succession on a site that has already supported life by that has  undergone a disturbance, such as fire, tornado, hurricane or flood  Lecture 17 Overview:  Genetic Diversity­ amount of genetic variation within and between populations  Species Diversity­ number of species in a community   Ecosystem Diversity­ diversity of structure and function within an ecosystem  Conservation biology seeks to protect biological diversity at all levels  Economic Value:  Zea Diplopernnis­ ancient corn  Resistant to many corn viruses and its genes are being used to develop resistant corn  Desert pupfishes are models for research on human kidney disease  World’s ecosystem worth more than 33 trillion a year Conservation Strategies:  Habitat conservation focuses on 3 things   Mega diversity Countries­ countries with the greatest number of species  Areas rich in endemic species  Representative habitats  Indicator species­ species whose status confirms the overall health of an ecosystem  Umbrella species­ habitat requirements so large that protecting them also protects other  species in the same habitat   Flagship species­ large or instantly recognizable species  Keystone species­ species within a community that have a large effect in a community  beyond it’s level of abundance PLANTS & HUMANS EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE  Complete restoration­ attempt to put back exactly what was there prior to disturbance Habitat Restoration:  Rehabilitation­ return habitat to something similar but less than full restoration   Ecosystem replacement­ replace original ecosystem with different one Captive Breeding:  Breeding of animals and plants to produce stock for release into the wild


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