POS1041 Exam 3 study guide
POS1041 Exam 3 study guide POS 1041
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POS1041 Exam 3 Study Guide (CH:10,11,12,13,14) CH 10: Public Opinion Public Opinion: the collected attitudes of citizens, what the people think In the U.S basic constitutional guarantees like regular elections, broad suffrage, freedom of speech and press, freedom to form and join political organizations allow citizens to express their views freely and compel gov’t leaders to take public opinion into account when trying to keep their jobs, These guarantees also make it both possible and essential for political leaders and policy advocates to try to shape and mobilize public opinion on behalf of their causes. Public opinion leads to elected officials which leads to public policy Confounding Problems: the issues that arise such as multiple publics, unstable and shifting opinion and political ignorance when trying to observe public opinion. Multiple publics: meaning that people have different views and ideas about the way policy should be made, these multiple publics make it hard for gov’t leaders. Which public should they listen to? Unstable and shifting opinion: opinion changes over time, as a leader do you respond to an issue where it was in the past, present or future? Political Ignorance: public simply does not have a meaningful or informative opinion on a whole lot of issues. This issue is wide spread across the U.S. Measuring Public Opinion polls: Select a random sample of the population of interest, ask the people in the sample questions about their views, and count up their answers. The larger the sample, the more closely the sample answers questions will approximate the answers the pollsters would get if the entire population could be asked. However, as the rate has the sample gets larger the rate of improvement in accuracy declines. Scientific Polling: Devoted to sounding out the public on an array of issues. Developed as a tool for systematically investigating the opinions of ordinary people. (Origins in the 1930s). Sampling Theory: Sample of individuals selected by chance from any population is “representative” of that population. (with a margin of error). Sample Accuracy: (how well the sample represents the population) A.) way it is selected: Pure random sample is best Literary Digest failure in 1936 was not a random sample Never put your faith in self selected listener opinion polls (Survey results etc.) B.) sample size: larger the sample (if random), greater the accuracy Sampling error/Margin of error is inversely related to sample size. This means that the margin of error/sampling error goes down as sample size increases. Margin of error: an amount (usually small) that is allowed for in case of miscalculation or change of circumstances . Literary Digest example: sent over 10 million post cards to forecast the Landon and FDR presidential election. The forecast predicted Landon to win by a large amount. FDR won. The problem was that they didn’t take a random sample. Basically utilizing the wealthiest Americans at the time that were mostly Republicans. SLOP Surveys: SLOP poll is based on a sample of individuals who choose to answer a poll or survey vs. a random sample of the population, which is based on the variables of a population. An example of a SLOP poll would be choosing or declining to be interviewed in a survey while you are walking through the mall. Because the SLOP poll is self selective, there is no way that the poll will hold any real weight or represent the whole population, because we only get information on those who choose to do an interview versus the people who decline interviews. (Random is better). Shapes of public opinion: Important to public officials because they are able to see where the majority of voters are at in terms of stance on policy (liberal, moderate, conservative) Normal/bell shaped curve: Ranges from a liberal to conservative opinion with the majority in the moderate middle. Candidates/elected officials can place their views at a more moderate level knowing this information. Skewed: a normal distribution where everybody has their opinion in the same place, whether its to the left or right side. Candidates/ elected officials find it easier to take a policy position. Bimodal: meaning you have two answers that are being giving very frequently and about equally. Candidates/elected officials find this harder. Usually tap dance their way around issues like abortion, guns etc. Stability Opinion: opinions usually shift and move. Ex: Gay rights has shifted throughout history. Ex: Constitution and wanting to keep it the same has been stable throughout history. Problems and limitations with polls: people are usually politically ignorant. A.)Problems with respondents: “Door step opinions”: people answers questions that they know nothing about, sometimes making them up on the spot. B.) Illusion of salience: when you give polling data as a pollster, and treat the data as the people did know the topic of the survey. Most of the time, people haven’t though about or care about the questions being ask. (not salient) C.) Leading/push poll questions: push polling means that the question is worded in such a way that its pushing, leading the respondent into a certain answer. These arise when presidential election roll around, phone calls with question that push and lead. Ex Gallop surveyed people and asking them how much stock they owned, turns out people in Iowa and Nebraska were inputting actual cattle (stock). Ginsberg’s concerns with polling: Polling has transformed public opinion. States that we have given up control of public opinion as a public. When rely on polls and polling data, public opinion is no longer expression of concerned individuals. Just whatever the random people who were sampled say, in which many cases they haven’t even thought about the issue. Presentations through attitudes rather than behaviors Constrained responses rather than spontaneous assertions. People, control too much of the system (control questions asked). Fiorina’s Culture War arguments: he believes that Americans are not bitterly or deeply divided about issues, he will say that there is not really a culture war raging in the streets. He also believes that there are people at multiple ends of the spectrum, but are not representative of the population (most Americans). Argues that economic issues are still important, culture war style issues have not replaced economic issues as a basis in which Americans vote and think about politics. He reaches the conclusion that Americans are not bitterly and deeply divided, but that we are closely divided. Closely divided based on close elections but it is not the same thing as being deeply divided, most of us, on most issues like culture war issues (gay marriage, abortion etc.) we are not really that strongly opinionated about that them, most of us seek some moderate ground. We don’t care all that much about them. Abramowitz’s counter argument and conclusions: He argues that Fiorina is misleading you, he says that Fiorina does you a disservice by looking at politics and the opinions of all. Abramowitz believes that we must break down opinions along party lines. He also argues that democratic identifiers are moving to the left and republican identifiers are moving to the right. Fiorina, by not breaking down the opinions by party lines is not reflecting what is going on in the U.S. “The (political) party divide has become increasingly associated with other, deeper divisions in American society: a racial divide between a declining white majority and a rapidly growing nonwhite minority, an ideological divide over the proper role and size of government, and a culture divide over values, morality, and lifestyles”. “Todays Democratic base is dominated by nonwhites and secular white liberals who view Republican politicians and voters as religious extremist, racial bigots, and defenders of corporations and the wealthiest 1%. It is progovernment, prochoice on abortion, and progay marriage”. “Todays Republican base is dominated by socially and economically conservative white voters who view President Obama as an extremist liberal or socialist and his supporters as unpatriotic moochers who would rather live off the governments handouts than work. It is antigovernment, antichoice on abortion, and antigay marriage”. Attitudes: is “an organized and consistent manner of thinking, feeling, and reacting with regard to people, groups, social issues, or any event in one’s environment”. Combines feelings, beliefs, thoughts, and predispositions to react in a certain way. When people are invited to state opinions and cast votes, they respond in ways that express the underlying attitudes evoked by the choices they face. Individuals differ widely in the attitudes they bring to bear on political choices. Political Socialization: the process of acquiring political attitudes, takes place during childhood and young adulthood, but new experiences can alter attitudes at any stage in life. Information (payoffs and costs) and cognitive misers: People tend to develop more complex, richly informed attitudes only when the pay off is greater than the cost of doing so. People raised among politically active people, spend more years in school etc. are more likely to develop elaborate and well informed political views. People are “cognitive misers”, reluctant to pay the cost of acquiring information that has no payoff, the opinions they express on issues often appear to be both uninformed and unstable. Framing: explains how both the mass media and political campaigns can affect people’s expressed political opinions. The message sent by the media and the candidates do not have to change underlying attitudes to change expressed opinions. All they have to do is frame the issue in a way that draws out one response rather than the other. By covering some issues and ignoring others, the news media help to define the political agenda, influencing which considerations are in the foreground when citizens make political judgments; in technical terms, they prime their audience to use particular frames in responding to political phenomena. Aggregate Public Opinion: the sum of all individual's opinions is both stable and coherent. The distribution of public opinion tends to be highly stable according to research. Is given its coherence and focus by opinion leaders, typically based in institutions, whose knowledge, ideas, proposals, and debates define the positions and options from which ordinary citizens, acting logically as cognitive misers, adopt their expressed views. Opinion leaders: Public opinion is given rationality and coherence by these opinion leaders, arises naturally as people respond to different incentives. Cognitive shortcuts: People avoid incurring information costs by delegating opinion formation to reliable agents chosen for that purpose. These shortcuts are available interested people and groups have a stake in gathering information and disseminating political information. Issue publics: Subsets of the population who are better informed than everyone else about an issue because it touches them more directly and personally. Ex: Farmers pay attention to farm programs, retired people keep taps on Medicare policy etc. Ch:11 Campaigns and elections (emphasis on presidential) Nomination stage: 2 major stages (prepprimary phase and delegate selection phase) 1.) Preprimary phase/Invisibleprimary: has actually become much more public due factors like social media. Candidates approach this, years in advance (cost, raising money, complexity, can not wait till the last minute.) 2.) Delegate selection/primary phase (intraparty competition) (goals): takes place state by state primary elections and caucuses, where the main objective is to do well, rack up delegates and win majority. To gain majority party presidential nomination, candidate must win a majority of convention delegates To win in the general election, one must win majority of electoral votes. In each state, citizens vote for these electoral slates. 1968 Democratic Convention: A whole lot was occurring during this convention, Vietnam war, Bobby Kennedy was assassinated etc. All hell broke loose because LBJ’s vice president came out of no where and won the democratic convention with out having to compete in any primaries or caucuses. It happened because a majority of the delegates at the convention where not chosen via primary caucus process, they were under control of the state party bosses, who decided to vote Hubert Humphrey (LBJ’s VP), this was against the will of the people. McGovernFraser commission: New guidelines for delegate selection. “Opening up” selection process to rank and file, so that all the delegates are selected on the basis of the Democrats who take part in open primary elections and caucus events. Before 1968 one didn’t have to compete in any primary or caucuses and you could still win the democratic nomination as long as state party bosses where on your side. 1972 the circumstances changed, one had to compete in primaries and caucuses to be able to win democratic nomination. Primary election: an election held before the general election in which voters decide which of a party’s candidates will be the party’s candidate’s nominee for the general election. Take a ballot, you vote in secrete, you turn in your ballot. (FL has Primary). Caucus: They are more like party meetings were you show up, debate, discuss with your neighbors for a couple of hours and then you have shows of support for the candidates as the caucus is coming to an end. Most important one is the Iowa caucus. Because they are the first event to go in the nation in this process, the delegate selection phase. Each individual state determines who can participate in their primary and caucus event. “Closed”: the state has party registration and you have to be registered as a republican to take part in the republican primaries or registered as a democrat to take part in the democratic primary for President. If you are registered as an independent, you can not take part in the primary (vote). “Semiclosed”: New Hampshire for example, independents may show up on election day and decide what process they will take part of, ether democratic and republican. Proportional (with a threshold) and winnertakeall: How are the delegates allocated? Its on proportional or winner take all basis. And republicans allow winner take all. Democrats do not. Democratic party rules require proportional allocation of delegates. Require proportional allocation with 15% threshold, 75% are (congressional) district delegate votes and the remaining 25% are statewide at large delegate votes. They must pass the 15% threshold to receive delegates from that state. If these proportions are not followed, severe penalties are put in place Its important for the campaign advisors to understand this rule and compete in this process. Super delegates: Democratic party wanted more of an insider candidate, and they created super delegates. Basically allow the delegates to go to these conventions and vote for whom ever choose at that particular convention. Every democratic member of congress/governor/member of democratic national committee goes to the convention as a super delegate and can vote for who ever. These folks play an important role in close races. Because they get to decide who becomes the nominee. Ex: 2008 with Obama. Btw, this all started because the democrats didn’t like Jimmy Carter and some other guy. General candidate strategies in the nomination: Start early, plan years in advance, get advisors in place (establish an organization, assess chances and campaign early states like Iowa, New Hampshire, South Carolina, Nevada etc.) also raise money. Candidates sometimes move these places to establish a following (building up the vote). Lower expectations for yourself/ raise them for your opponents Project a positive candidate image (paid and “free”/earned mass media advertising) SocialPsychological model of vote choice: Party ID, issues, and candidate image all play a role in the vote choice of an individual. For ex: If you identify with the democratic party, then you are most likely to side with their issues. This will lead you to vote for a democratic candidate. Party ID is something that is deeply rooted with many aspects like family. Currently in the primary elections and caucuses, voters can’t vote based on issues. So they are left with the image of the candidates, do they trust them? The parties are campaigning in a nasty way, trying to establish a good image. “I am the one you can count on”. They attack the other party. Statusbased strategies in the nomination stage: Candidates usually know what status they are before entering into an election. Ex: Hilary Clinton knew she was a front runner, meaning she had to promote her campaign a certain way. Frontrunner strategy: Have name recognition, money in place (donors), and an organization in place, and survive early surprises. (amass delegates). Nonfrontrunner/dark horse strategy: Ex: Bernie Sanders. (those who hope to become nominee) focus on Iowa and or New Hampshire, and exceed expectations build momentum, money, media. (3m’s) Pulpit strategy: those candidates that know they do not have a chance of winning, but are running to spread a message. Ex: Ron Paul, Jessie Jackson etc. General Election: U.S does not have a national presidential election!!! Must win majority of electoral votes (270/538) to be elected. (Implications) Focus on states Winner take all, plurality system for allocating electoral votes in each state (exceptions are Maine and Nebraska) In reality, 51+ separate elections Biggest prizes are big population states But campaigns typically get concentrated in competitive, big population states. Electoral vote system (electoral college): In November, voters vote for a slate of electors from that state, who when they show up in the middle of December will technically caste an electoral vote in a part called the electoral college, these votes later get sent to congress where they are added up and the winner is selected. Swing states like Florida receive attention because they can go ether way, democratic or republican. Overview of TV advertising in general election: The adds usually air most throughout the swing states like Florida, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Colorado and Nevada. Candidates and spouses campaign in these states as well, this is all a by product of the electoral college. These are also the only states that sell TV adds during the general election. 210 media markets only about 50 sell adds 1 million adds aired in 2012 The political parties usually buy adds that go against the opponent (negative) Mitt Romney had super PACS that put adds out for him and republican party Group foundations of presidential voting coalitions: Campaign Finance: Their own campaign organizations can raise $ from individual citizens. (By law, citizens can donate $2,700 per election) nomination stage, general election count as separate. Candidates try not to accept this because the money comes with strict rules in what it can be spent on. What they do now is try to raise as many contributions as possible. Obama was good at this. Candidates can spend their own money. No restrictions. Ex: Donald Trump, Ross P. spent the most in history, 70 million and got 40% of the vote. Can also rely on Super PACs, which are technically independent (separate) of the candidate and their organizations. (started in 2012). They can raise and spend unlimited amounts of money, from wealthy individuals, corporations, unions. 2 federal court cases in 2010 fundamentally changed “the rules/ landscape” that affected the PACs, lead to more money than ever in presidential elections. (Citizens United v. FEC (2010)) and (SpeechNow.org v. FEC) Citizens United v. FEC (2010): Struck down a ban on corporations and labor unions using their money to air campaigns ads (including “express advocacy” ads) they can now finance and air ads on their own. Kept in place a ban on contributors and labor unions going directly to candidate. So the money would go to the super PACs that in turn support the candidate. Citizens United ruled that corporate political spending is protected, holding that corporations are like citizens, have a First Amendment right to free speech. SpeechNow.org v. FEC (2010): More directly paved the way for the existence of the Super PACs. Nonprofit group, formed by wealthy individuals who sought to pool their money to make independent expenditures, expressly advocating the election or defeat of federal candidates. This was a test to see if the Supreme court would allow this after the decisions of the Citizens United case. They allowed it, because the group was doing this on their own not leading to corruption concerns. This was a fundamental change in American Democracy. Dominate the flows of presidential money. Super PACs: Products of the two court case decisions from above. Can raise unlimited contributions from wealthy donors. (individuals, corporations, unions). Can engage in unlimited independent expenditures (express advocacy) Can not give money directly to, or coordinate (wink, wink) with candidates. It is legal for candidates and Super PAC managers to discuss campaign strategy and tactics through the use of the media. Issue voting: the typical positions of Republicans and Democrats differ in predictable ways on many issues. Similar to party voting, voters basically base the candidate’s views on issues with their own in order to make a decision. Single issue voters: party is a political party that campaigns on only one issue. Such a party is rarely successful in gaining elected office. Causes such as gun control and environmental protection. Buckley v. Valeo (1976): upheld the reporting requirements and contribution limits (to prevent “corruption or the appearance of corruption”) but rejected spending limits on the ground that they interfered with political speech protected by the first amendment. Presidential Candidates could be required to abide by spending limits as a condition of receiving public funds for their campaigns. st The court also overturned, again in the grounds of 1 amendment, ceilings on how much of their own money candidates could spend on their campaigns and how much anyone could spend to agitate for or against candidates independently of candidates campaigns. Party identification: Is one of the best single predictors of the vote in federal elections. Is also a central focus of modern electoral research, very important. Ex: Weak or strong democrat, weak or strong republicans Negative Campaigning: Campaign messages emphasizing one candidate’s personal suitability for the job invite rebuttals from the other side. A normal and sometimes ugly component of the electoral process, and an effective one. Ads aired a lot, people see this, symbolism, plays a roll on how people think about that certain candidate. Electoral Participation “Rationality” of turning out: (Anthony Down’s: An Economic Theory of Democracy) he says we can think about people’s decisions to turnout and vote (a rational choice perspective) but really its and economic space perspective. Do the benefits of this activity exceed the cost of this activity (voting)? If they do, then they will vote. Time also ways into this issue, people have to get information. Rational choice perspective on turnout: How will a certain candidate becoming president impact your wallet if you are rich? If Bernie wins, your taxes increase, if Trump wins they will most likely stay the same. Rich people have this collective benefit in voting, to make sure that Bernie does not win. Will that one vote make a difference? This is where the free rider issue comes about. Explaining Voter turn out/influences on voter turn out: SocioDemographic: Education, income level, age, gender (women are more likely to vote than men), marriage (more likely to vote), race/ethnicity (last election cycles African Americans more likely to vote than white), mobility (recent mover might not vote because of registration), homeowner status (more likely to vote) being a parent also drops their turn out. Psychological Attitudes: having a political interest, concern over election outcome. Other attitudes stick with people throughout time. Political efficacy: (external) do think that government will pay attention to you? Civic duty (good citizens should vote), Party identification (ID) attachment to party. Rep turn out more, independents least. People with high efficacy vote more. Importance of registration: people who are registered, that get passed this issue most likely vote. Some people think making it easier to vote would increase voter turn out. High stimulus elections also engage people to vote Swing states: have higher turn out like Florida because the elections are close. These states get all the ads and stimulus. (massive push from campaigns) Why do people vote? Because they have the skills and the resources, if they have political interest or someone asked them to vote. Why has U.S turnout declined if it has at all: “The puzzle of participation (19601991): Education levels were going up, these people usually are more likely to vote. Registration was getting easier as well. So if both of these are occurring then we should have high voter turn out, maybe not? This the puzzle. Some elections were not as exciting, developing distrust with government (Watergate, Vietnam) Putnam: social capital was also decreasing. People were not as united. Parties were not doing a good job to reach voters like before. Also larger numbers of non citizens and exfelons Comparative U.S turnout: Has actually increased throughout the last few years although it is relatively low compared to other countries. People are realizing that these elections are coming close, they also realize that there is a difference between what party is in control. U.S has lowest voter turn out in the world. Legal environments: registration differences Differences in political party environment More elections (and on a weekday)voter fatigue In others countries, it is illegal to not vote. They also have proportional representation: that the parties can send some people are elected. In the U.S its winner take all. U.S, citizens have responsibility to register, other countries they don’t Ch. 12: Political Parties So why political parties? Democratic Theory based: individual citizens are “deficient”, but perhaps intermediary institutions (parties and interest groups) can bridge the gap between citizens and the government pluralist theory of democracy. (connect us to gov’t) Functional Theory: parties fulfill numerous functions in a representative’s democracy. Recruit leaders (training and skills), help conduct campaigns ($, services etc.), nominate candidates for office list of general election candidates, voting cues for the public, channels for participation, propose policy programs, overcome fragmentation and organize government, watchdog for other parties (checks n balance), aggregate interest to win elections Parties are all about building coalitions to win elections Are Political Parties in decline? 3part conceptualization of parties: 1.) Party in the electorate: these are the folks that self identify themselves as democrats or republicans, they show up in primary, caucuses, us, the people. 2.) Party as an organization: these are the folks that serve on the state and national democratic events for example. The party is an organization. 3.) Party in government: those elected into office, serve as officials. All of these put together make up the political machine that really are the nuts and bolts of our political system. Parties in general have not been in decline. Role of party ID in structuring vote choice as strong as ever (and most people still id themselves with a party). As organizations, parties are stronger than ever national party committees raise huge amounts of money, large staff etc. Intra party unity in congress is quite high (disappearance of conservative coalition) Why a 2 party system? Duverger’s Law: winner take all, plurality elections2 party system (third party have basically no chance of electing anyone to office) According to spatial, proximity theory of voting: voters vote for the candidate “closet” to them ideologically It follows that 2 major parties may be centrist/moderate – “converge a median voter”. If you have parties, if people vote to the candidate, the parties would most likely converge on the median voter. (Tend to vote for party closer to them) Incentives to party build: Parties grew out of the efforts of political entrepreneurs to build such alliances and to coordinate the collective activity necessary to gain control of and use the machinery of government. To build stable legislative and electoral alliances To mobilize voters. To develop new electoral techniques To use party labels and enforce collective responsibility Two party system: In any election where a single winner is chosen by plurality vote, there is a strong tendency for serious competitors to be reduced to two because people tend to vote strategically. If their favorite candidate has no chance to win, they turn to the less objectionable of the majority party candidate who has a chance of winning. Office seekers aware of this pattern, usually join one of the two competitive parties rather than pursuing office as independents of third party nominees. Patronage: To maintain the electoral machinery, party managers had to attract resources and reward the efforts of party workers. Jobs, offices, government contracts, business license, and so forth grew in importance. By the 1840s, when they were fully developed, parties had become ends to themselves to the thousands of local politicos who depended on them for their livelihood. Spoils system: Parties pursue a collective good: victory for their candidates and policies. All who prefer the winner benefit from the party’s victory whether they contribute to it. Thus, without some prospect of private reward for party activism as well, the free rider problem would have left parties stillborn. (Gov’t jobs etc.) Party machines: were built on simple principles of exchange: party politicians provided favors and services to people throughout the year in return for their votes on election day. Progressives and their reforms: Reformers working almost entirely from within the two party system, sought to destroy the party machines by depriving party leaders of the capacity to reward followers. th Progressive Era: the decades before and after the turn of the 20 century, overlapping the end of the third party system at the beginning of the fourth. The most important reforms were the civil service, Australian ballot, and primary elections. Australian ballot: still used today, was prepared by the government, listed candidates from all parties, and was marked in the privacy of a voting booth. Exchanging favors between parties became difficult. Primary election: allowed a parties, voters to nominate candidates. This deprived them (political machines) of a crucial political resource: the ability to control access to elective public office by controlling nominations. New Deal coalitions and its erosion: Brought together democrats of every conceivable background. It united white southern segregationists with northern African Americans, progressive with machine politicians etc. People of all types just liked all the stuff from the new deal like FDR etc. Wager act of 1935 that cemented union support. Erosion: Republicans opened the new way for new issues to shape electoral politics by finally recognizing that the major New deal programs were there to stay; a national majority cannot cling to losing positions. (winning coalitions) Ch. 13: Interest groups Interest groups: Organized body of individuals who share goals and try to influence public policy. Selforientated/economic interest group: seek policy goals that directly benefit own membership/group. Public interest group: seek public good/collective benefits that society will enjoy. (benefits not reserved for/confined to group members.) Lobbying: occurs anytime and interest group (or an individual) attempts to influence policy makers. James Madison’s views on factions: These ideas resurfaced in academic political science in 1950s and 1960s. (Minority and majorities) Pluralist Model/Theory of Democracy (Pluralism) public policy is product of many (plural) competing interests (groups). Gov’t acts like a referee in group struggles. Assumptions of model (for healthy democracy) 1. All relevant interests are represented 2. Everyone joins and is active in groups 3. Political powers and resources (Potential) interest groups that pursue a collective or public good encounter the freerider problem. Must provide selective benefits: Ex AARP, provides benefits to its members “Purposive” (aka as “expressive” or “moral”) “Material” (tangible) selective benefits Ex: magazines every month Solidary or social: you like to be around those people, network etc. 2 basic forms of lobbying (direct, indirect) 1. Direct lobbying: focuses on establishing an ongoing, trusting relationships with government officials Credibility and reputation are key Information is the major resource 2. Indirect lobbying: “going public” and “grassroots”. Ex asking groups to call and pressure congressmen to do something about a certain law. Good lobbyist: expertise, experience, access, and effective information brokers. Traditional PACs (associated with interest groups) Corporations and other organized interests cannot give money directly to federal candidates Most have an affiliated (traditional PAC) PAC (political action committee) raises money in voluntary contributions from (at least 50) individuals and contribute it to (at least 5) candidates for federal office. (Differs from super PAC) strict limit on $ contribution amounts to a traditional PAC, and traditional PAC can give directly to candidate’s campaign. Max contributions from any 1 (traditional) PAC to any 1 candidate is $5,000 per election PAC misconceptions 1. Most congressional campaign money comes from PACs (but only about 25%) 2. Most PACs contribute a lot of money (in actuality, only 5% or 200 PACs make more that half of all PAC contributions, more than 2/3 of PACs contribute less than $50,000 each in an election). 3. PACs clearly are “buying the votes” of members of congress (but correlation does not equal causation). PAC $ congress members vote? In reality most of the time: Congressmen prior, was already going to vote that way. So his vote is not really bought, he is voting that way ether way. Social Movements: amorphous aggregates of people sharing general values and a desire for social change quickly imitate successful innovations, and each new group has been able to draw on the experience of its predecessors. Created because the political value of organized constituents working to promote their programs from outside of government Policy gridlock: deadlock or political stalemate refers to a situation when there is difficulty passing laws that satisfy the needs of the people. A government is gridlocked when the ratio between bills passed and the agenda of the legislature decreases. Ch. 14 The news media Where do Americans get their political news? A multiple of windows. From news papers, to television, to social media etc. It has changed especially with the growth of media and technology throughout the years. Media bias: basically when a news channel leans to a particular side and gives their show in support of certain views. For ex: Fox news are more bias to conservatives. Infotainment: broadcast material that is intended both to entertain and to inform. Ex: daily show and Saturday night live. Trial balloon: a politician “floats” a policy or some other idea with a reporter on the condition that the source of the story remain anonymous. Presidents often float balloons by persuading a member of congress to propose a policy, allowing the president to gauge the political breezes before committing to a course of action. Leaks: refers to giving strategically consequential information to the news media on the condition that its source not be identified by name. Beats: both newspapers and broadcasts media cover the regular sources of important stories in a systematic way by assigning reporters to certain venues called beats. Ex: white house, congress, state department, pentagon etc. Pack journalism: is the characterization of news reporting as having become homogeneous. The term was coined by Timothy Crouse. Study guide created with book, notes, and class recordings
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