Communications Final Exam Study Guide
Communications Final Exam Study Guide COMM 1001
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by AmberNicole on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1001 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Richards in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communications in Communication at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
Communications Final Exam Study Guide Face-Negotiation Theory Thing-Toomey assumes that people of every culture are always negotiating face o Face Projected image of one’s self in a relational situation o Facework Specific verbal and nonverbal messages that help to maintain and restore face loss (our image) and to uphold and honor face gain Ex: tripping and making it look like it wasn’t your fault and everything is okay Collectivism and Individualistic Cultures Ting-Toomey bases face-negotiation theory on distinction between collectivism and individualism o Collectivism and individual differ in how one perceives Self Goals Duty Collectivistic culture o People identify with a larger group responsible for providing care in exchange for group loyalty; we-identify Individualistic Culture o People look out for themselves and their immediate families; I-identity More than two-thirds of the world born into collectivistic cultures Less than one third in individualistic cultures o The we-identity of the Japanese is quite foreign to the I- identity of the American Self-Construal People are not cultural clones o People within a culture differ on the relative emphasis they place on individual self-sufficiency or group solidarity o Self Construal Self-image; degree to which people conceive of themselves as relatively autonomous from, or connected to others Independent self values I-identify and is more self-face oriented; individualistic cultures Interdependent self values we-identify and emphasizes relational connectedness; collectivism The Multiple Faces of Face Face is a universal concern o Extension of self-concept, a vulnerable, identify-based resource Face-Negotiation Theory Face maintenance is a crucial intervening variable that ties culture to people’s way of handling conflict Predictable Styles of Conflict Management 5 generally accepted responses to conflict o 1. Avoiding (withdrawal) responding to conflict by withdrawing from open discussion o 2. Obliging (giving in) Accommodating or giving in to the wishes of another in a conflict situation o 3. Compromising (negotiation) Conflict management by negotiation or bargaining; seeking a middle ground o 4. Integrating (problem solving) Problem solving through open discussion; collaboration; a win-win resolution of conflict o 5. Dominating (Competing) Competing to win when people’s interests conflict Predictable Styles of Conflict Management Ting-Toomey and Oetzel stress 3 responses associated with western countries An ethnically diverse sample identifies 3 new conflict styles o 1. Emotional expression Managing conflict by disclosure or venting of feelings o 2. Passive aggression Making indirect accusations, showing resentment, procrastination, and other behaviors aimed at thwarting another’s resolution of conflict Ex: slowing down in traffic Mispronouncing someone’s name o 3. Third-party help Method of conflict management where disputing parties seek aide of mediator, arbitrator, or respected neutral to help them resolve their differences Application: Competent Intercultural Facework Ting-Toomey believes cultural knowledge, mindfulness, and facework interaction skills are requirement for effectively communicating across cultures Critique Procedures and feelings cause concern o Analysis based solely on self-report data, which may be self-serving Speech Codes Theory Ethnography: Work of a naturalist who watches, listens, and records communicative conduct in its natural setting in order to understand a culture Speech Code: Historically enacted, socially constructed system of terms, meanings, and rules, pertaining to communicative conduct Philipsen studied speech codes in a community outside of Chicago, IL (He called it Teamsterville) and Santa Barbara, CA Teamsterville and the Nacirema o People of Teamsterville spoke English, but Philipsen noted their pattern of speaking was radically different from speech codes he knew and heard in other places The Distinctiveness of Speech Codes Proposition 1: Wherever there is a distinctive culture, there is to be found a distinctive speech code o Most Teamsterville conversations: “Where are you from and what’s your nationality?” Related to whether a person is from “the neighborhood” Proposition 2: In any given speech community, multiple speech codes are deployed o Observe when people are affected by other codes or employ dual codes Teamsterville men gauge relative worth by comparing their talk with residents in other neighborhoods, stress unified nature of their neighborhood speech patterns The Multiplicity of Speech Codes Any attempt made to “improve” speech is regarded as an act of disloyalty o Men define their way of speaking by contrasting it with other codes o “Ya’ll”, “Might could” others? Proposition 3: A speech code involves a culturally distinctive psychology, sociology, and rhetoric Speech code reveals structures of self, society, and strategic action Critique: Different Speech Codes in Communication Theory Most ethnographers applaud Philipsen’s commitment to long- term participant observation and his perceptive interpretations o Critical of efforts to generalize across cultures Chapter 34: Genderelect Syles Male-female conversation is cross-cultural communication – Tannen o Genderlect: Tem suggesting that masculine and feminine styles of discourse are best viewed as two distinct cultural dialects Tannen’s theory of genderlect suggests that Harry’s and Sally’s words, and the way they are said, reflect separate worlds of men and women o Each person obviously finds the other’s view alien and threatening o Sally, as a woman, wants intimacy; Harry, as a man, wants independence Women’s Desire for Connection Versus Men’s Desire for Status Women seek human connection Men are concerned mainly with status o Girls and women feel it is crucial that they be liked by their peers. Boys and men feel it is crucial that they be respected by their peers. (Tannen) Rapport Talk Versus Report Talk Tannen scrutinizes conversation of speakers from feminine culture and masculine culture to determine their core values Private speaking versus public speaking o Men use talk as a weapon o Women talk more than men in private Rapport talk: typical conversational style of women, which seeks to establish connection with others Report talk: typical monologic style of men, which seeks to command attention, convey information, and win arguments Listening o A woman listening to a story or explanation tends to hold eye contact, offer head nods, and react with response to indicate she is listening Cooperative overlap: supportive interruption often meant to show agreement and solidarity with speaker Asking Questions o Women ask questions to establish a connection with others Tag question: Short question at end of a declarative statement, often used by women to soften the sting of potential disagreement or invite open, friendly dialogue Is is kind of cold in here, isn’t it? Conflict o Men are more comfortable with conflict and less likely to hold themselves in check o Men have early warning system that is geared to detect signs that they are being told what to do Tannen shows that sensitivity training is an effort to teach men how to speak in feminine voice; assertiveness training effort to teach women to speak in masculine voice o Understanding each other’s styles, and the motives behind them, is a first move in overcoming destructive responses Critique: Is Tannen Soft on Research and Men? Tannen’s analysis of common misunderstandings between men and women has struck a chord in a million other readers o Perhaps using selective data is the only way to support a claim that women are one way and men are another Kunkel and Burleson directly challenge the different cultures perspective o Empirical research does not support Tannen’s two-culture worldview Chapter 35: Standpoint Theory Standpoint Theory Standpoint: Place from which to critically view the world around us Harding and Wood claim “the social groups within which we are located powerfully shape what we experience and know as well as how we understand and communicate Women as a marginalized group Standpoint theorists see important differences between men and women o Wood claims any gender difference between women and men is the result of cultural expectations and treatment each group receives from the other Besides gender, Harding stresses economic condition, race, and sexual orientation o Cultural identities can either draw people to the center of society or push them to fringes Social location is important because people at the top of societal hierarchy are the ones privileged to define what it means to be female, male, or anything else in a given culture Knowledge from Nowhere Versus Local Knowledge Local Knowledge: Knowledge situated in time, place, experience, and relative power o There is no possibility of unbiased perspective that is disinterested, impartial, value-free, or detached from a particular historical situation Strong Objectivity: Less Partial Views From the Standpoint of Women “People with subordinate status have greater motivation to understand the perspective of more powerful groups than vice versa (Wood) They also have little reason to defend the status quo Theory to Practice: Communication Research Based on Women’s Lives Wood discovered that gendered communication practices reflect and reinforce our societal expectation that care giving is women’s work Critique: Are Standpoints on the Edge Less False? Feminist scholars are concerned that Harding’s version of standpoint theory underestimates the role language plays in expressing one’s sense of self and view of the world Key Definitions Face: The projected image of one’s self in a relational situation Facework: Specific verbal and non-verbal messages that help to maintain and restore face loss, and to uphold and honor face again Collectivistic culture: Wherein people identify with a larger group that is responsible for providing care in exchange for group loyalty; we- identifty; a high-context culture Self-construal: Self-image; the degree to which people conceive of themselves as relatively autonomous from, or connected to , others. Face concern: Regard for self-face, regard for self-face, other-face, or mutual-face Face-restoration: The self-concerned facework strategy used to preserve autonomy and defend against loss of personal freedom Face-giving: The other-concerned facework strategy used to defend and support another person’s need for inclusion Avoiding: Responding to conflict by withdrawing from open discussion Obliging: Accommodating or giving in to the wishes of another in a conflict situation Compromising: Conflict management by negotiating or bargaining; seeking a middle way Dominating: Competing to win when people’s interests conflict Integrating: Problem solving through open discussion; collaborating for a win-win resolution of conflict Emotional expression: Managing conflict by disclosure or venting of feelings Passive aggressive: Making indirect accusations, showing resentment, procrastination, and other behaviors aimed at thwarting another’s resolution of conflict Third-party help: A method of conflict management in which disputing parties seek the aid of a mediator, arbitrator, or respected neutral party to help them resolve their differences Power distance: The way a culture deals with status differences and social hierarchies; the degree to which low-power members accept unequal power as natural Mindfulness: Recognizing that things are not always what they seem, and therefore seeking multiple perspectives in conflict situations Ethnography: The work of a naturalist who watches, listens, and records communicative conduct in its natural setting in order to understand a culture’s concept web of meanings Speech code: A historically enacted, socially constructed system of terms, meanings, premises, and rules pertaining to communicative conduct Rhetoric: Both the discovery of truth and a persuasive appeal Honor: A code that grants worth to an individual on the basis of adherence to community values Dignity: The worth an individual has by virtue of being a human being Totemizing ritual: A careful performance of a structured sequence of actions that pays homage to a sacred object Performance ethnography: A research methodology committed to performance as both the subject and method of research, to researchers’ work being performance, and to reports of field-work being actable Genderlect: A term suggesting that masculine and feminine styles of discourse are best viewed as two distinct cultural dialects Rapport talk: The typical conversational style of women, which seeks to establish connection with others Report talk: The typical monologic style of men, which seeks to command attention, convey information, and win arguments Cooperative overlap: A supportive interruption often meant to show agreement and solidarity with the speaker Tag question: A short question at the end of a declarative statement, often used by women to soften the sting of potential disagreement or invite, open, friendly dialogue Aha factor: A subjective standard ascribing validity to an idea when it resonates with one’s personal experience Standpoint: A place from which to critically view the world around us Local knowledge: Knowledge situated in time, place, experience, and relative power, as opposed to knowledge from nowhere that’s supposedly value-free Strong objectivity: The strategy of starting research from the lives of women and other marginalized groups, which upon critical reflection and resistance provides them with a less false view of reality
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