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TULANE / Psychology / PSYC 3430 / What is subtle persuasion?

What is subtle persuasion?

What is subtle persuasion?

Description

School: Tulane University
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Social Psychology
Professor: Laurie o'brien
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Psychology and SocialPsychology
Cost: 50
Name: Intro to Social Psych Study Guide 3
Description: This study guide for exam 3 covers attraction and close relationships, helping and pro-social behavior, aggression, prejudice, and positive psychology.
Uploaded: 04/23/2016
14 Pages 151 Views 4 Unlocks
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"}.lst-kix_968m69713xqu-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_968m69713xqu-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_8yzq9w47t8iu-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_968m69713xqu-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_968m69713xqu-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_59i3p3vz7na4-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_8yzq9w47t8iu-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_968m69713xqu-4 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_968m69713xqu-4,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_i5tark744pnm-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_i5tark744pnm-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_i5tark744pnm-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_8yzq9w47t8iu-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_8yzq9w47t8iu-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_i5tark744pnm-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_i5tark744pnm-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_jmsz9d85w1zb-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_968m69713xqu-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_968m69713xqu-7}.lst-kix_guq169beawd2-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_guq169beawd2-2,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_cirejdl2z82b-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_guq169beawd2-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_guq169beawd2-1 0}.lst-kix_guq169beawd2-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_guq169beawd2-1,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_yppq82sfikv3-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cirejdl2z82b-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_aur85sz5gufk-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n8id1ji4fynm-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n8id1ji4fynm-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-4 0}.lst-kix_guq169beawd2-5 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_guq169beawd2-5,lower-roman) ") "}.lst-kix_bb2g6j537lag-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_s30007zd4tsd-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xvzexi3oa8ki-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_hsm38ult30py-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_15ifevwccwm8-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_s30007zd4tsd-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-6}.lst-kix_xvzexi3oa8ki-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hsm38ult30py-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_15ifevwccwm8-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hsm38ult30py-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_eu4lcnohihhg-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-1 0}.lst-kix_15ifevwccwm8-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ezmgy7sczarz-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ezmgy7sczarz-2 0}.lst-kix_xa55tn6xfnfc-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_8yzq9w47t8iu-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_detqwp7nzfin-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3l5nqvkvz5tz-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xa55tn6xfnfc-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3l5nqvkvz5tz-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_eu4lcnohihhg-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ho5807bf3wfx-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_59i3p3vz7na4-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_detqwp7nzfin-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dbu5gv1mvlrh-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ho5807bf3wfx-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_xvzexi3oa8ki-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_cirejdl2z82b-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cirejdl2z82b-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cirejdl2z82b-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cirejdl2z82b-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cirejdl2z82b-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cirejdl2z82b-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cirejdl2z82b-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_bb2g6j537lag-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_cirejdl2z82b-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cirejdl2z82b-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_555qgp1n94v8-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_d2gov1emwhcb-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d2gov1emwhcb-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d2gov1emwhcb-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_555qgp1n94v8-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_d2gov1emwhcb-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d2gov1emwhcb-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d2gov1emwhcb-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d2gov1emwhcb-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d2gov1emwhcb-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_d2gov1emwhcb-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_968m69713xqu-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_968m69713xqu-2}ul.lst-kix_59i3p3vz7na4-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_64ozil3rnljc-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_59i3p3vz7na4-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_64ozil3rnljc-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_59i3p3vz7na4-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_64ozil3rnljc-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_59i3p3vz7na4-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_59i3p3vz7na4-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_64ozil3rnljc-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_59i3p3vz7na4-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_64ozil3rnljc-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_59i3p3vz7na4-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_64ozil3rnljc-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_64ozil3rnljc-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_64ozil3rnljc-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_64ozil3rnljc-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_555qgp1n94v8-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_555qgp1n94v8-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_detqwp7nzfin-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ve9hr9ouhn2p-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ve9hr9ouhn2p-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_detqwp7nzfin-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_detqwp7nzfin-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_detqwp7nzfin-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_detqwp7nzfin-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ve9hr9ouhn2p-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_detqwp7nzfin-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_detqwp7nzfin-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ve9hr9ouhn2p-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ve9hr9ouhn2p-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ezmgy7sczarz-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ezmgy7sczarz-0}ul.lst-kix_59i3p3vz7na4-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_59i3p3vz7na4-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b659e7s40onn-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b659e7s40onn-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b659e7s40onn-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b659e7s40onn-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b659e7s40onn-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b659e7s40onn-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b659e7s40onn-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_detqwp7nzfin-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_detqwp7nzfin-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b659e7s40onn-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_b659e7s40onn-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1q4h7qbwy8al-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_s30007zd4tsd-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1q4h7qbwy8al-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1q4h7qbwy8al-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-1,lower-latin) ") "}.lst-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-3 > li:before{content:"(" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4h7ntbg7z1zc-3,decimal) ") "}.lst-kix_xvzexi3oa8ki-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_s30007zd4tsd-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xvzexi3oa8ki-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_eu4lcnohihhg-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_eu4lcnohihhg-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xa55tn6xfnfc-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gvng8t3zerps-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_64ozil3rnljc-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_xa55tn6xfnfc-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ezmgy7sczarz-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ezmgy7sczarz-7}.lst-kix_qcnpatpcflu7-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_59i3p3vz7na4-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_qcnpatpcflu7-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_eu4lcnohihhg-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_64ozil3rnljc-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gvng8t3zerps-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_ho5807bf3wfx-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ho5807bf3wfx-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ho5807bf3wfx-4 > 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SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 3 If you want to learn more check out What is atherosclerosis?

Attraction and Close Relationships If you want to learn more check out Which one of the following will decrease the net working capital of a firm?

  1. Need to belong - Fundamental human need, having at least a minimum quantity of lasting, positive, interpersonal relationships
  2. Subtle influences on liking
  • Red color
  •  Photographs with inclusion of red got a higher rating of attractiveness
  • Nodding
  • Physical gestures can give us information on how we feel
  1. Push/Pull Lever - when subjects pulled the lever for a particular symbol they ended up liking better

We also discuss several other topics like What type of surfaces do infants prefer walking on?

Ben Franklin Effect

  • If you do something nice for someone you end up liking them more

Don't forget about the age old question of How do we look to shareholders?

Propinquity Effect

  • The more we interact with someone, the more likely we are to befriend them

If you want to learn more check out What occurs below earth’s crust that causes earthquakes?
We also discuss several other topics like Why is it that people tend to think mass media has a significant uniform effect on people?

Mere Exposure Effect

  • Repeated exposure to stimulus makes it more familiar and we like it more

Ex. Prefer mirror images of self but direct images of others

Matching Phenomenon

  • People tend to end up with partners that are similarly attractive to them

Reciprocal liking

  • Tend to like other who like us

Ex. Dilated pupils indicate interest → leads to reciprocal liking

Role of Similarity

  • “Likeness leads to liking”
  • People like those with similar traits, values, experiences; perceived similarity matters most

Ex. People voted faces more positively when contained aspects of own face- not sexually attractive though

VS. Complementary

  • Long term relationships can lead to complementary in couples

Asset Matching

  • Can often explain dissimilarities

Ex. Young girl married to older, wealthy man

                         

Reward Theory

  • People are attracted to those who are rewarding to them

Halo Effect

  • “What is beautiful is good”
  • Attractive people are seen as more intelligent, kind, competent, warm, social
  • Can lead to self-fulfilling prophecies- except an attractive person to be nicer → you act nice towards them → they are nice back →fulfills your expectation that attractive people are more sociable

Attractiveness and Real Outcomes

  • More likely to be hired and earn more money
  • Attractive people spend less time in prison
  • Win elections
  • Voted as better teachers

Misattribution of arousal/excitation transfer

  • Arousal caused by one stimulus is attributed to a second stimulus

Ex. Men are more attracted to woman after crossing a “scary” bridge than a “sturdy” bridge

Features of an attractive face (Evolutionary explanations)

  1. Good Skin
  2. Signal of high estrogen and fertility in women

Average Sized features 

Facial Symmetry

  • Signs of good genes, strong immune system

  • Women - large eyes, small nose, big smile/lips, red cheeks + lips, youthfulness→

                fertility signals

  • Men - large eyes, large chin, big smile, tall, masculine body type → signals of social dominance, protection

        - older, state job, wealth → signals of resources

Small Sex Differences: Both places most emphasis on appearance

Why do we like attractive people?

  • Evolutionary reasons
  • Halo effect
  • BIRG-ing (basking in reflected glory)
  • Social Learning

Passionate Love

  • “In love”
  • Emotionally intense, high arousal
  • DA- rich brain area = reward areas (Dopamine)
  • Often emotionally volatile and not long lasting

Companionate Love

  • Intimacy and Affection
  • Secure, trusting, interdependent
  • “Deep” emotions and attachment
  • Stable, dependable , grows over time

Role Of Culture

  • Western Cultures - emphasis on passion

                            -  Differences in love over time between arranged love marriages →

                               Love marriages  → Passionate love increases in arranged marriages

Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love

Six Love Styles

  1. Eros - Passionate Love
  • Western cultures, most common Americans (men and women)
  1. Storge - Friendship Love
  • Women score higher
  1. Ludus- Uncommitted Love
  • First love, teenagers
  1. Mania- Obssesive, Possesive, Jealous
  • First love teenagers
  1. Pragma - Practice

            Arranged Marriage

                        Chinese, Women

  1. Agape = Selfless Love

Chinese/Collective activist

Attachment styles

  • Begins in infancy, stable across relationships
  • Learned so can be unlearned
  • Secure Attachment - feeling of trust
  • Correlated with better relationship outcome
  • Avoidant - defensive detachment
  • Anxious/Ambivalent - Fear of abandonment
  • Better to have at least one secure partner in relationship

Social Exchange Theory - It benefits outweigh costs we experience satisfaction

                                          Comparison Level - People’s expectations of outcome

                                          Ch Alt - Expectations about outcomes with alternative partner

Investment Theory - Higher investment (ex. time) leads to more tolerance for costs and greater commitment

Equity Theory - Costs and benefits should be equal per partner.

  •            - Your contributions > Partner’s = anger and resentment

                       - Partner Contributions > Your’s = guilt

Exchange Relationships - Focus on equity, count benefits  and costs

                                       - Common in new relationships

Communal Relationships - Concerned with being responsive to others need

                                         - Close relationships (friends, family)  

Increasing Satisfaction

  • Good should outweigh bads
  • New Activities that increase excitement → excitation transfer
  • Realization that long term relationships take work and type of love shifts away from pure passion

Helping and Prosocial Behavior

Prosocial Behavior - any behavior carried out to benefit another

Altruistic VS Egoistic Helping

  • Ultimate goal is to increase another’s welfare vs increase  own welfare
  • Difficult to distinguish

Evolutionary Reasons for Helping

  • Inclined to help others if, its likely increase evolutionary success → survival of the fittest

Reciprocal Altruism

  • Helping non-relatives who are likely to reciprocate the favor

Kinship Selection/Protection

  • More likely to help as relativity increases

  • Evidence:
  1. Full siblings have more motivation to help than half-sibling
  2. Group selection- Help people who are similar (in-group)
  3. Tendency to help vs age of relative in need
  4. Older → Everyday help
  5. Younger →Life or Death help → Younger relatives can still pass on genes

SOCIAL NORMS

Reciprocity:

    Common with familiar others; public behaviors

  • Build up “social capital”
  •  If unable to reciprocate, feel guilty/threatened

Social Responsibility

  • Help others who are dependent on us
  • Children, elderly, disabled

Social Justice

  • Help others who we believe deserve help
  • Based on attributes (situational or dispositional) of why person needs help - was situation controllable?
  •  

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