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OHIO / Biology / PBIO 2250 / What is the meaning of amniocentesis?

What is the meaning of amniocentesis?

What is the meaning of amniocentesis?

Description

School: Ohio University
Department: Biology
Course: Genetics in Human Society
Professor: Sugiyama
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Genetics, Biology, and BIOS
Cost: 50
Name: Study guide for final exam
Description: I have prepared a study guide covering the topics that will be on the final exam. Since this exam counts for almost 50% of our grade, I thought this would be really useful! I made a "terms to know" list, multiple choice questions, fill in the blank, karyotype matching and DNA profiling, and short answer questions. Hope this helps!
Uploaded: 04/23/2016
15 Pages 59 Views 1 Unlocks
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BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide


What is the meaning of amniocentesis?



Important terms  

∙ Amniocentesis – a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of  chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections by using a fine needle  to draw a small sample of amniotic fluid for testing.

∙ Chorionic villus sampling – a higher risk medical procedure used in the  prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections.  Cells are taken from the placenta by using a catheter.

∙ Polyploidy – a chromosome disorder where the number of  chromosomes is a multiple of a haploid set that is greater than the  normal amount of chromosomes. This means that there will be at least  3 sets of haploid chromosomes. (One haploid set contains 23  chromosomes.)  

∙ Aneuploidy – a chromosome disorder where the number of  chromosomes varies by something less than a set of haploid  chromosomes.


What is the meaning of chorionic villus sampling?



If you want to learn more check out What are the rules for dimensional analysis?

∙ Triploidy – a type of polyploidy where the individual has 3 sets of  haploid chromosomes. (69 chromosomes in total)

∙ Monosomy – a type of aneuploidy where an individual lacks 1  chromosome.

∙ Trisomy – a type of aneuploidy where an individual has 1 extra  chromosome.

∙ Nondisjunction – when one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes  or sister chromatids do not separate normally during nuclear division. ∙ Maternal selection hypothesis – If the growing embryo is completely  healthy, it will implant itself. If the growing embryo is not completely  healthy, it will be rejected by the mother and will result in miscarriage.  ∙ Deletion – the loss of chromosome material.


What is the meaning of polyploidy?



∙ Translocation – exchange of chromosomal segments between non  homologous chromosomes. If you want to learn more check out What does factual knowledge mean?

∙ Uniparental disomy – a situation in which both copies of a chromosome come from the same parent.

∙ Proteins – long, folded chains of amino acids that are produced by  genes.  

∙ Amino acids – the basic components of proteins.

∙ Transcription – process where one segment of DNA is copied into RNA. ∙ Translation – where messenger RNA (mRNA) is decoded by a ribosome  to produce a specific amino acid chain.

∙ RNA – a single strand copy of DNA that controls gene expression. ∙ DNA – a double helix structure that stores genetic information. ∙ DNA polymerase – an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA  using a template DNA strand and nucleotides.If you want to learn more check out What are the two important procedures that were initiated by the world trade organization?

BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide

∙ Messenger RNA (mRNA) – a single stranded complimentary copy of the amino acid coding nucleotide sequence of a gene. If you want to learn more check out What is an example of an intangible service?

∙ Polypeptide – a molecule made of amino acids and bonded together by peptide bonds.

∙ Ribosomes – Cytoplasmic particles composed of two subunits that are  the site of protein synthesis.

∙ Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – RNA molecules that form part of a ribosome. ∙ Transfer RNA (tRNA) – a small RNA molecule that brings the amino  acids to the mRNA-ribosome complex during translation.  

∙ Condon – a sequence of 3 nucleotides that represents 1 amino acid.  ∙ Prions – proteins that cause infectious diseases.

∙ Benign tumor – tumor that cannot spread to other tissues.  ∙ Malignant tumor – a tumor that spreads to other tissues in the body. ∙ Oncogene – a mutant form of proto-oncogenes that induce or continue  uncontrolled cell division.  We also discuss several other topics like What is the key issue of developing a county?

∙ Tumor-suppressor genes – genes encoding proteins that suppress cell  division.

∙ Biopharming – the production of medical molecules in other organisms. ∙ Vectors – self-replicating DNA molecules that are used to transfer  foreign DNA segments between host cells.

∙ Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) – growth hormone that is  commonly used to increase milk production in cows.

∙ Polymerase chain reaction – a process used to amplify a piece of DNA  and generate numerous copies.

∙ Short tandem repeats (STR) – short sequences of DNA that are  repeated numerous times in a head-tail manner. Often used in DNA  profiling. If you want to learn more check out What is the 1913 alien land act?

∙ Transgenic plant – plants that have a foreign gene inserted into them  to. Genetically modified plants.

∙ Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) – gene inserted into a plant to make it insect  resistant.

∙ Herbicides-tolerant (HT) – a gene inserted into a plant to make it  herbicide tolerant.

BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide

Multiple choice 

1. Amniocentesis is a medical procedure used to screen for genetic  abnormalities and diseases where:

a. A fine needle is used to draw a small sample of amniotic fluid b. A catheter is inserted to draw cells from the placenta

c. A mother’s blood is drawn and fetal cells are separated d. A fetal monitor is used to check the phenotype

2. Which has a lower risk for spontaneous abortion: amniocentesis or  chronic villi?

a. Amniocentesis

b. Chronic villi

c. They are both equally risky

3. If someone has 69 total chromosomes, it is considered: a. Aneuploidy

b. Trisomy

c. Triploidy

d. Tetraploidy

4. Monosomy is when an individual:

a. Is lacking a chromosome

b. Has one extra chromosome

c. Only has one haploid set of chromosomes

d. Has one chromosome break into two

5. Down syndrome is an example of:

a. Monosomy

b. Polyploidy

c. Triploidy

d. Trisomy

6. What is the disorder associated with having multiple X  chromosomes as well as a Y chromosome? (XXY, XXXY)

a. Turner Syndrome

b. Patau Syndrome

c. Edwards Syndrome

d. Klinefelter Syndrome

BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide

7. Which of the following is the karyotype of Down syndrome?

a.

b.

c.

8. Which strain of streptococcus pneumoniae is toxic and caused  death in Griffith’s mouse experiment?

a. Strain R

b. Strain S

c. Boiled strain S

9. _______________ is the process of copying DNA into mRNA. a. Transcription

b. Translation

c. Transfer processing

d. This is an invalid step

10. _________ controls gene expression.

a. RNA

b. DNA

BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide

c. Chromosome type

11. ___________ stores genetic information.

a. RNA

b. DNA  

c. Cytosol

12. _____________ are nucleotide sequences that are transcribed and  translated.

a. Introns

b. Exons

c. mRNA

d. Eukaryotes

13. ______________ are nucleotide sequences that are transcribed but  NOT translated.

a. Introns  

b. Exons

c. mRNA

d. Eukaryotes

14. Which of the following is the correct direction of DNA replication? a.

b.

c.

BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide

d.

15. How many nucleotides make up one amino acid?

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. 4

16. Which of the following represents Turner syndrome?

a. 47, +21

b. 47, +13

c. 45, X

d. 47, XXY

17. ____________ are proteins that cause infectious diseases? a. Prions

b. Viruses

c. Toxic amino acids

d. Toxic DNA molecules

18. The ability for a tumor to spread to other parts and tissues in the  body is called:

a. The mutation effect

b. Benign effect

c. Malignancy

d. Oncogene

19. The Ras gene causes cancer when:

a. The Ras gene is under activated

b. The Ras gene is recessive

c. The Ras gene is over activated

d. The Ras gene is dominant

20. The Rb gene causes cancer when:

a. It is completely deleted

b. It is dominant

c. It is recessive

d. It is overexpressed

21. Making human proteins in other organisms is called: a. Erythropoietin  

b. Biopharming

c. Protein replication process

BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide

d. Interferon

22. ___________ are carrier DNA molecules used to transfer DNA into  host cells.

a. Vectors

b. Restriction endonucleases

c. Clones

d. Insulin genes

23. PCR is used to:

a. Insert the growth hormone into cows

b. Test the genetic makeup of a fetus while the mother is  pregnant

c. Insert plasmid into vectors

d. Create numerous copies of a sample of DNA

24. What is the purpose of the restriction endonuclease? a. Cuts nucleic acid at specific restriction sites to produce  restriction fragments

b. Hosts vectors for biopharming

c. It binds proteins together

d. Transfers foreign DNA segments into other host cells

25. A Bt plant is genetically modified to be resistant to: a. Herbicides

b. Insects

c. Both

d. Neither, it is a plant with a growth hormone

26. An Ht plant is genetically modified to be resistant to: a. Herbicides

b. Insects  

c. Both

d. Neither, it is a plant modified to have a longer shelf life

BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide

27. Which of the following children is not the biological child of both  parents 

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. 4

e. 5

Fill in the blank 

1. _______________________________ is the medical procedure used to test  for genetic abnormalities where a catheter is inserted to draw a sample

of cells from the placenta.  

2. ___________________ is a type of aneuploidy where an individual is  

lacking one chromosome.  

3. ______________________________ is a genetic condition where a male has  

multiple X chromosomes as well as a Y chromosome. (Ex: XXY, XXXY)  4. The type of aneuploidy where an individual has one extra chromosome  

is called ___________________.  

5. ___________________________ is the genetic abnormality associated with  

trisomy 21.  

6. Wide, flat skulls, skin folds in the corner of the eyelids, spots on the  irises, and thick, furrowed tongues are all characteristics of  _______________________.

BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide

7. 45, X is associated with __________________________.  

8. _____________________ is the failure of homologous chromosomes to  

separate properly during meiosis.  

9. A ______________________ is a loss of chromosomal material. 10. The exchange of chromosomal segments between non

homologous chromosomes is a ______________________.  

11. A part of a chromosome that is easily broken is called a  

___________________.  

12. _____________________________ is when both copies of a  

chromosome are inherited from a single parent.  

13. Create the complimentary sequence for this strand of DNA: 5’-

GTCCGACGT-3’ __________________________________.  

14. Create the complimentary sequence for this strand of DNA: 5’-

CATAGCATGACC-3’ _____________________________________.  

15. _____________________ are DNA-binding proteins.  

16. _____________________________ are long chains of amino acids.  17. The single stranded copy of DNA that specifies a particular  

protein is called ____________________________.  

18. ___________________ are nucleotide sequences that are transcribed

but NOT translated.

19. __________________________________ transports specific amino acids

to the ribosome for protein synthesis.  

20. _______________________ are the nucleotide sequences that are  

transcribed and translated.  

21. Proteins that cause infectious diseases are called  

_________________________.  

22. A tumor that is not yet able to spread to another part of the body

is a __________________________ tumor.  

23. A tumor that is able to spread to another part of the body has  

______________________.  

24. ________________________ is a mutant form of a proto-oncogene  

which causes uncontrolled cell division.  

25. _________________________________ are used to cut DNA for cloning. 26. ________________________________________ is a growth hormone  

typically used to increase milk production in cows.  

27. _____________________________________ is the process of copying a  segment of DNA over and over in order to use it for testing.

BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide

28. A _________________ plant is a plant that is genetically modified in  

order to enhance a certain quality.  

29. A __________________________ plant is a plant that is genetically  

modified to be insect resistant.  

30. A __________________________ plant is a plant that is genetically  modified to be herbicide resistant.  

Karyotype and DNA profiling 

Label the following karyotypes correctly. Choose from Down syndrome,  Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome.

___________

______________________

BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide

_______________ ___________________  

__________

__________________

BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide

Looking at the chart below, which one of the 2 males is the father?  _______________________

Short answer  

What happened to Griffith’s mouse when it was injected with the live S  strand? ____________  

_____________________________________________________________________________

What about the live R strand?  

_____________________________________________________

What about the boiled S strand?  

___________________________________________________

What about the R strand and the boiled S strand together? Why?  ________________________  

______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide

Explain the difference between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor  ___________________  

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

What does Ras regulate?  

_________________________________________________________  

______________________________________________________________________________

What does Rb regulate?  

_________________________________________________________  

_____________________________________________________________________________

List some symptoms/characteristics for Turner syndrome  

_______________________________  

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

List some symptoms/characteristics for Down syndrome  

________________________________  

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

List some symptoms/characteristics for Klinefelter syndrome  ____________________________  

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide

Briefly list the steps of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)  

________________________________  

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

ANSWERS

Multiple choice 

1. A

2. A

3. C

4. A

5. D

6. D

7. A

8. B

9. A

10.A

11.B

12.B

13.A

14.D

15.C

16.C

17.A

18.C

19.C

20.A

21.B

22.A

23.D

24.A

25.B

26.A

27.D

BIOS 2250 – Final Study Guide

Fill in the blank 

1. Chorionic villus sampling  

2. Monosomy

3. Klinefelter syndrome

4. Trisomy

5. Down syndrome

6. Down syndrome  

7. Turner syndrome

8. Nondisjunction

9. Deletion

10.Translocation

11.Fragile site

12.Uniparental disomy

13.3’-CAGGCTGCA-5’

14.3’-GTATCGTACTGG-5’

15.Histones

16.Proteins

17.Messenger RNA or mRNA

18.Introns

19.Transfer RNA or tRNA

20.Exons

21.Prions

22.Benign

23.Malignancy

24.Oncogenes

25.Restriction endonucleases

26.rbST or recombinant bovine somatotropin 27.PCR or Polymerase Chain Reaction 28.Transgenic

29.Bt or Bacillus thuringiensis

30.Ht or Herbicides-tolerant

Karyotype and DNA profiling 

1st set of chromosomes = Turner syndrome 2nd set of chromosomes = Klinefelter syndrome 3rd set of chromosomes = Downs syndrome The father is Male 2

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