Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide PSC 321
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday February 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 321 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Frazier in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 338 views. For similar materials see US National Security in Political Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/27/15
Test 1 Study Guide Intro to National Security 0 PreWWII multipolar system gt many empires dominating international affairs and security 0 PostWWII bipolar system gt two main superpowers controlling internatl securityinfluence 0 Cold War Bipolarity US vs USSR gt security concerns military ideological economic o PostCold War 905 to now US hegemony in international security 0 Now quotAge of NonPolarity gt geopolitical system characterized by numerous centers of power 0 No one country holds greatest sway over internatl politics no single hegemonic state 0 Effect multiple sec threats due to many center of power 0 National Security concerns traditional vs nontraditional 0 Traditional military diplomacy o NonTraditional ideology environment human rights diseases terrorism cybercrimes 0 National Security Protection of a state s ppl borders and interests 0 Natl Sec quotinterestsquot things wculturalpoliticalecon value that contribute to a state s identity 0 Must have an interest in mind first in order to establish something as a threat to it o Interests gt identification of sec threats gt creation of sec policy strategy 0 Interests lead to prioritization of threats 0 Concepts of security scope type of threats and hierarchy of importance 0 Foreign policy vs Natl Sec 0 Foreign policy interaction of one country wother countries in regards to an issue I interaction 0 National Sec policies designed to benefit a country from threats I self interest 0 Homeland Sec vs Natl Sec 0 Homeland sec focus on domestic threats threats to structure ex pandemics o Natl Sec focus on all threats domestic internal actorbased threats ex AlQaeda National Security Strategy NSS o What is a security strategy 0 Plan by which a country seeks to protect itself from external and internal threats to its secur y 0 Should have clearly defined goals but more ambiguous on how to achieve those goals I shopping list of interests wno real strategy clear goals but muddied plan 0 History of National Security Strategies 0 Natl Sec doc comes out of restructuring the DoD o GoldwaterNichols Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 gt annual publication of a NSS 0 Strategies are influenced by security threat priorities 0 3 levels of strategy implementation vision planning execution o 4 cornerstones of strategy implementation 4 instruments of power 0 Intelligence 0 Diplomacy 0 Military 0 Economy Obama s 2010 National Security Strategy document 0 Assumptions 0 US needs to underwrite global security quotworld policeman 0 American leadership is vital to US and international security 0 Obama s 2010 NSS address threats to and interests of US 0 Focus cyber resources alliances US econ human rights climate 0 US leads on issues but relies on help of allies 0 Leadership abroad begins at home domestic strength impacts international strength 0 US Natl Interests Security Prosperity Universal Values International Order 0 Security Homeland Security gt threats that reach or are on US soil 0 Protection of infrastructure and cyberspace ID and thwart domestic radicalization Privatepublic participation community engagement work wnongovt companies AlQaeda and its affiliates gt disrupt defeat and dismantle AlQaeda and violent extremism gt deny safe havens for terrorists prosecute terrorists WMD and nuclear proliferation gt quotrace to zero strengthen NonProliferation Treaty contain biological threats 0 Middle East gt end Iraq war ArabIsraeli peace responsible Iran nuclear weapons issue 0 Strong partners abroad gt maintain alliances create new alliances o Cyberspace and Cybersecurity o Prosperity gt better economyeducationhealth strong domestic US stronger internatl US 0 Values gt procivil liberties prodemocracy anticorruption 0 International Order gt utilize institutions alliances cooperation and engagement 0 Ideal internatl order for US states work together on econsec issues via institutions 0 Obama s four year evaluation 0 Good gt homeland security econ recovery out of IranAfghanistan weaken alQaeda 0 Bad I Engagement with other powers problems wSyria Russia NKorea I Violent extremism terrorist attacks on US citizens abroad I US leadership role as world leader seems to be declininglessening I Middle East issues persist 00000 National Security Council and Interagency 0 National Security Council NSC 0 Created in 1947 by the National Security Act President Truman o Serves to assist the president on national security affairs 0 Statutory members besides the President who is the chair of the NSC I Vice President gt choses best options provided by the Secretaries O I Secretary of State I Secretary of Defense I Secretary of Treasury I National Security Advisor gt chooses which options to give the President I Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff JCS gt military advisor I Director of National Intelligence DNI gt intel advisor Adjunct advisors vary from each meeting depending on international context at the time I Adjunct advisors functional directorates and geographic directorates 0 Functional directorates headssecretaries of different govt agencies 0 Geographic directorates regional specialists 0 Bush s interagency process think of the list below as a circle starting and ending at the Prez O O O 0 Prez Policy Coordination Committees gt formulate policy provide possible options to issues Deputy Committees gt NSC State Dept Def Dept JCS DC Treasury Dept Principle Committees gt key people involved on specific security issues 0 Interagency competition gt Dept w best options or Intel will get the President s attention 0 Govt agencies have different operational culture gt problematic forjoint decisionmaking o Interagency history 19th century 0 O O 0 Executive branch in charge gt NavyStateWar Depts reported directly to the President Congress created committees to serve as liaisons to depts and bypass the President State Department diplomats political and consular service business I Little congressional support gt lack of desire by Congress to spend S abroad I Elitist reputation gt only the wealthy could afford to do that type of service Military I Separation of army and navy due to different cultures and fighting methods I Decentralized gt run by staff officers not the people actually fighting abroad Results of 19th century strategy making I Agencies did things their own way wlittle overall coherency in strategy 0 Interagency History 20th century 0 Professionalism of civil service win the State Department I Rogers Act merged diplomatic and consular service via FSO exams I Porter Foreign Service Building Act upgraded embassies show US prestige Joint ArmyNavy board for coordination Budget Act est new bureau of budget and provided info about defense spending Foreign policy and national security are more in public domain I Thinktanks formed ppl taking an interest in US domestic and internatl affairs I Publicpolicy centers est to conduct research ex Carnegie Endowment WW2 forced depts to reorganize gt unified command structure after Pearl Harbor PostWW2 understanding that coordination was necessary in a new world environment Cold War new environment wchallenge of containing the Soviets I Landseaair power intel and diplomacy integrated to avoid misinformation National Security Act 47 I Centralized power and clarified responsibilities for national security and defense I Est National Security Council Joint Chief of Staff and Combatant Commanders and Sec of Def I Created the Central Intel Director of CI Intel community CIA Military FBI 0 1960s allowed civilians to enhance their control of the Def Dept gt analysts budgeting 0 Legislative Reorganization Act 70 I Expands congressional staff est Govt Accounting Office and Congressional Research Service 0 Budget and Impoundment Act 74 I More congressional control and review over the President s budget requests 0 War Powers Act 74 I Curtailed unilateral warmaking decision by the President 0 Congress now has more influence in godon t go to war decisions 0 Department of Defense Reorganization Act 86 I JCS chair gains statutory membership on NSC gt autonomy from mil branches I Combatant Commanders CoComs get control of all forces in their area of responsibility AOR I Focus on joint cooperation gt plan train and equip forjoint fighting o Interagency problems Coop during war but little coop in postwar reconstruction No consideration for nontraditional security problems 0 Interagency history 21St century 0 911 gt Department of Homeland Security formed 0 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act 2004 I From DCI to DNI Director of National Intelligence gt oversee all Intel agencies 0 NSC is key to interagency cooperation o NSC strength is affected by the following 0 National Security Advisor weak vs strong broker vs promoter I Broker NSA brokers policy plans with the president I Promoter NSA promotes whatever policy the president creates 0 President s leadership style I Formal vs informal discuss issues in meetings or over lunch I Collegial vs adversarial Pres surrounds himself wsupporters or challengers 0 International and domestic context what is occurring at home and abroad State Department 0 Key component 1 Culture 0 Idea of patriotism and commitment to service gt Pres s policies gt own political views Serve abroad Overcome negative stereotypes quothide in embassies 0 Do more with less less employees and smaller budget than Dept of Defense 0 Importance of Interpersonal Interaction facetoface meeting wdiplomats I Make meetings more meaningful and productive 0 Lack of employee diversity limited perceptive narrowminded policy options 0 Institutional hierarchy of employees I 23 careerists gt person started at the bottom and worked up the job ladder o More qualified for their job bc of years of experience and exposure I 13 political appointees in high ranks 0 Appointed for political favors little to no diplomatic experience Antiquated policies and structures I Regional vs functional bureaus gt FSOs vs Civil Service 0 FSOs are regional specialists ex specialist in South Asia or Africa etc 0 Civil Service are specialists about issues ex human rights Lack of interagency cooperation many teams agencies acting independently but serving the same goal advise President on best policy option Talking Points gt briefings and press releases I Media picks quottalking points to highlightleave outsensationalize I Better delivery of quottalking points can change people s view of State s policies Aversion to strategic planning impetus for QDDR gt lack of forward thinking on issues I QDDR Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review 0 Document laying out a plan for dealing wpresent and future issues Information Sharing Problem gt interagency rivalries ex FSOs vs Civil Service I Lack of info sharing can lead of misinformed officials and botched strategies Lack of clarity about career advancement I quotfunneledquot employee pool gt weed out ppl as you get to higher level positions 0 To supplement fewer top officials political appointees are used 0 Key Component 2 Function 0 O O 0 Mission Statement Shape a peaceful and democratic world and foster stability for Americans and everyone around the world Partner wUSAID agency that works to aid countries with internal development Focus on civilian power gt empower people to have influence over national security accountability the ability to be rewarded or held responsible for action 0 QDDR gt Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review 0 O Prioritiesgt get civilians more involved in the national security process Learn how to deal wnontraditional security threats Increase US s global presence Improve economic diplomacy Have strategies ready for anticipated crises forward thinking Focus on development efforts in 6 areas I Sustainable economic growth I Food security I Global health I Climate change I Governance and humanitarian assistance 0 Secretary of State Roles and Responsibilities 0 O O 0 Serve as the President s principal advisor on US foreign policy Conduct negotiations over foreign affairs and treaties Issue passports to US citizens and exequaturs to foreign consuls in US Advise President on appointment of US diplomats Advise President on acceptancerecall of foreign representatives Ensure the protection of the US govt citizens and property in foreign countries Provide info about political econ and social conditions in foreign countries Inform Congress and American citizens on the conduct of US foreign relations 0 Administer the State Department 3 most important things of the State Department 1 The implementation promotion and defense of the President s foreign policy 2 The maintenance of peace and stability in vital areas of interest for the US 3 The negotiation of relationships bwn US and other countries Organizational structures 0 Secretary of State 0 Deputy Secretary 0 Undersecretaries x6 0 Assistant Secretaries within Undersecretary departments for different policy areas Regional Bureaus departments that specialize in certain regions of the world Asia Africa etc 0 There are seven 0 All are contained within the quotUndersecretary for Political Affairs 0 Employees Foreign Service Officers FSOs I Diplomats I Serve in specific regions of the world based on expertise I Promote peace in the region advocate US policy engage wlocal population Functional Bureaus depts that focus on specific functions of society edu econ health 0 Employees civil service function specialists 0000 Department of Defense DOD Intermilitary rivalry can be a hindrance to executing plans efficiently and effectively Secretary of Defense s power and influence on national security issues has grown over the years Secretary of Defense has oversight of Combatant Commanders and all military operations Secretary of Defense acts as a diplomat of the US Functions of the DOD 0 Maintain and use armed forces to support and defend the Constitution 0 Ensure the security of US possessions and vital areas of interest 0 Uphold and advance national policies and interests of the US Organization 0 Sec of Def gt concerned wnational security and mil operations helps guide policy 0 Office of the Secretary of Defense OSD I Deputy Secretaries gt strategize manage and execute DOD operations I Undersecretaries gt info analysis strategy recommendation implement policies I Assistant Secretaries gt Focus on policy development and planning I Policy development assistant secs gt policy analysis and strategy options undersecs gt execution of strategy and ops deputy sec DOD guidance and leadership prepare the mil to achieve the US s national security objectives Core Missions 000000000 0 Counterterrorism and Irregular Warfare gt increase Intelsurveillance special ops Deter and Defeat Aggression gt ground troops air force navy missile defense Project Power in A2AD antiaccess area denial environment gt undersea dominance Counter WMD gt Cooperative Threat Reduction Program elimination programs Operate effectively in Cyber and Space gt cyber defense and space development Nuclear Deterrent gt modernize nuclear arsenal Homeland defense gt Joint Terrorism Task Force Stabilizing a global presence gt partnerships and interoperability Stability and counterinsurgency operations Humanitarian and disaster relief 0 Constraints and considerations for DOD O O O O 0 Resources gt sequester be able to do more wless balance capabilities wefficiency Maintain a global presence and act as a stabilizing force but avoid overextending itself Use Reserve and Guard members of the armed services as active duty supplements Intermilitary branch cooperation and coordination jointfighting How to deal with new nontraditional security threats 0 Quadrennial Defense Review QDR gt DoD s description of future security environment 0 O 0 New technologies new centers of power internatl econ aging population violent world Global Trends China cyber issues climate change quotthreat multiplier internatl coop 3 initiatives of the QDR I Update a def strategy that protects and advances US interests and leadership I Rebalancing a strategy for Joint Force 0 Crosstraining members of the armed forces for betterjointwarfighting 0 Learn how to operate in preduringpost war environments I Rebalance the DoD to control growing costs in face of budget sequester cuts 0 3 pillars of the defense strategy 0 O 0 Military Defend the homeland Build security globally By projecting US influence and deterring aggression Project power and win decisively Be prepared against enemies should deterrence fail o GoldwaterNichols Act clarified the responsibilities of each military branch 0 Structure of the military O 0000 0 President Commander in Chief Secretary of Defense Department Secretaries Joint Chief of Staff JCS Combatant Commanders gt regional division of the world to coordinate fighting I Regional divisions Areas of Responsibility AOR for each CombCom Functional Commands gt provide functional support for Combatant Commanders o CivilianMilitary relations 0 0 Military is subservient to civilian leadership like the President or the Sec of Defense Considerations O I What if a military officer disagrees wthe policies of civilian leaders I How does someone in charge of the military President learn how to command the military wo having any trainingeducationexperience in military tactics quotRevolving Door prob gt Retired military officers work in politics mil influences politics 0 Importance of an quotAll Volunteer Force vs a military force via draft 0 Service cultures 4 main military branches 0 O O 0 Intelligence Army gt focus on territory quotboots on the ground war is subservient to politics Air Force gt focus on air power technological innovations Navy gt high degree of independence sea power great global power Marines gt expeditionary force quoteveryone is a rifleman 0 Intelligence A framing mechanism for the identification of security threats Collection assessment and decimation of information 0 customers of intelligence President politicians 0 Structure of the IC community 0 O O 0 Office of the Director of National Intelligence at the top Program Managers CIA FBI NSA DIA etc Departmental National Security Intelligence Office of Intel and CounterIntel etc Services Air ForceArmyCoast GuardMarine CorpsNavy Intelligence 0 Director of National Intelligence DNI O 0000 Created in 2004 via the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act Helps to reduce institutional rivalry overlapping authority stovepiping intelligence DNI works to standardize operational behavior and oversee all intel activities Resistance to DNI by some Program Managers due to historical of autonomy of action Responsibilities of DNI I Head the IC gt oversee and direct IC activities and budget I Be the principal intelligence advisor I Member of the NSC o Prepares topics of council meetings based on current threats 0 Helps ID and shape intel needs for future action or decisionmaking o PostNSC meeting give feedback to IC DNI and improving the IC I Strengthened the quality of intel o Standardizing analysis techniques and expectations 0 Creating sourcing standards gt how to obtain info 0 Ombudsman for maintaining quality control 0 Ombud appointed official who investigates maladministration o DNI can callout wrong infoanalyses be a check on corruption 0 2 key intel documents PDB and NIE 0 Presidential Daily Briefing PDB gt daily intel updates on global activitiesthreats to US natl sec 0 National Intelligence Estimate NIE gt authoritative judgment on national security issues OO 0 CIA 00000 O O quotestimativequot document best guess scenarios based on current intel acquired Begins as a quotconcept paper then goes through reviews before presentation to Prez Long history as the principal advisory institution for the President on intel matters Only independent institution nondepartmental Problem wDCIA conflicting roles are head of IC and head of CIA problem of bias Covert Action CA gets the agency involved in politics so limited use of CA ops Institutional culture analysts vs operators I Analysts people to read about events and develop assessments I Operators inthefield workers case officers spies I Tension between them gt operators keep info from analysts for fear of leaks Problem wCA and providing analysis Afg alQaeda gt CIA given operational and analytic roles pushed for policy influence 0 IC problems 0 Probs wanalysis and politics gt what if analysis and political preferences differ exraq 0 Problem of leaks and doubleagents 0 Classification problems gt quotclassifyingquot something makes the IC less accessible
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