PSY2501, Exam 5 notes
PSY2501, Exam 5 notes PSY 2501 - 002
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PSY 2501 - 002
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Upasana Raja on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2501 - 002 at Temple University taught by Sheree Logue (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
E m o t i o n s , A g g r e s s i o n , a n d S t r e s s | 1 Emotions have four different aspects o Feelings o Actions o Physiological arousal o Motivation William James (1842-1910) o American psychologist at the twentieth century suggested emotions we experience are caused by the bodily changes Carl G. Lange (1834-1900) o Danish physician Emphasizing peripheral physiological events- regulated by the autonomic nervous system-in the perception of emotion o We experience fear because we perceive the body activity triggered by particular stimuli o Different emotions thus feel different because they are generated by a different constellation of physiological responses Cannon-Brad theory o The theory that physiological and emotional changes occur simultaneously in response to a stimulus (as opposed to the earlier James-Lange theory) o Example: A woman is hiking in the forest when she stumbles upon a bear. All at once, she starts sweating, trembling, and feeling extremely afraid Stanley Schachter or two-factor theory of emotion o States that emotion is based on two factors: physiological arousal and cognitive label o The theory was created by researchers Stanley Schachter and Jerome E. Singer Polygraph o A machine designed to detect and record changes in physiological characteristics, such as a person's pulse and breathing rates, used especially as a lie detector E m o t i o n s , A g g r e s s i o n , a n d S t r e s s | 2 o A lie-detector test carried out with a polygraph Bell's Palsy o A paralysis or weakness of the muscles on one side of your face. Damage to the facial nerve that controls muscles on one side of the face causes that side of your face to droop Facial muscles can be divided into two categories o Superficial facial muscles o Deep facial muscles Darwin suggested that o Expressions and emotions come from common ancestor o Noted the similarities in facial musculature and nerves in humans & nonhuman primates Darwin noted distinct facial expression o Grimace: Like fear or surprise in humans o Tense mouth: Like anger in humans o Play face: Like the human laugh Evolutionary Psychology o A theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain useful mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i.e., as the functional products of natural selection Brain circuits mediating seeking & expectancy o Rats will readily press a lever in order to receive a brief burst of electrical stimulation in a brain region called the septum Brain stimulation o Animals work is to produce electrical stimulation to their brain Medial forebrain o A tract from the midbrain through the hypothalamus contains many sites for self-stimulation Nucleus accumbens o An important target-involved in the dopaminergic circuit Medial forebrain bundle o A collection of axons traveling in the midline region of the forebrain Decorticate rage a.k.a. Sham rage E m o t i o n s , A g g r e s s i o n , a n d S t r e s s | 3 o Sudden intense rage characterized by actions (such as snarling and biting in dogs) that lack clear directions Papez circuit o A group of brain regions within the limbic system o Interconnected brain regions within the limbic system o Damage here alters emotions Limbic System o A loosely defined, wide-spread group of brain nuclei that innervate each other to form a network o These nuclei are implicated in emotions Kluver-Bucy syndrome o A syndrome resulting from bilateral lesions of the medial temporal lobe (including amygdaloid nucleus) o Klüver-Bucy syndrome may present with hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, visual agnosia, and docility Amygdala o Located in the temporal lobe o A key structure in the mediation of fear Classical Conditioning of fear o The neutral stimulus or context is the "conditional stimulus" (CS), the aversive stimulus is the "unconditional stimulus" (US), and the fear is the "conditional response" (CR) o By pairing a stimuli with an aversive stimulus, like shock o Eventually the first stimulus by itself can produce fear o Including freezing and autonomic changes Role of the amygdala in fear o Different regions of the amygdala react to the stimuli and send a message to the central nucleus transmits information to brainstem centers Emotions may coordinate responses to solve adaptive problems o Cooperating with a group o Choosing a mate o Avoiding predators Individual response stereotype o The tendency of individuals to have the same response patterns throughout their lives E m o t i o n s , A g g r e s s i o n , a n d S t r e s s | 4 o Infants who are high reactives to stimuli–with exceptionally strong reactions–may later have increased phobias or fear responses Central gray pathway o Emotional behavior Lateral hypothalamus pathway o Autonomic response Bed nucleus of stria terminalis pathway o Hormonal response Types of Aggression o Emotional aggression o Physical aggression Violence between individual, exclusive of predation o Sex specific aggression Maternal aggression Dams protecting pups o Intermale aggression between males of same species Affected by hormones Androgens increase aggression Affected by individual differences and personal history Inherent level of dominance & amount of fighting experience Both affect testosterone levels in dominant individual Higher levels of testosterone in winners Stress Immunization o The concept that mild stress early in life makes an individual better able to handle stress later in life Psychosomatic Medicine o A field of study that emphasizes the role of psychological factors in disease Health Psychology a.k.a. Behavioral Medicine o A field that studies psychological influences on health-related processes, such as why people become ill or how they remain healthy Psychoneuroimmunology E m o t i o n s , A g g r e s s i o n , a n d S t r e s s | 5 o The study of the immune system and its interaction with the nervous system and behavior Phagocyte o An immune system cell that engulfs invading molecules or microbes B lymphocyte a.k.a. B cell o An immune system call, formed in the bone marrow that mediates humoral immunity Antibody o A large protein that recognizes and permanently binds to particular shapes, normally as part of the immune system attack on foreign particles T lymphocyte a.k.a. T cell o Immune system cell, formed in the thymus that attacks foreign microbes or tissue Cytokine o A protein that induces the proliferation of other cells as in the immune system Brain mediation of aggression: Serotonin o Negative correlation between aggression and serotonin o Mice lacking serotonin are hyper-aggression In humans, low serotonin levels are o Found in alcohol-induced violence, excessive military violence and in children with poor impulse control Stress Activates Many Responses o Components of Stress Exposure to stress-inducing stimuli Processing of stress-inducing stimuli Activation of stress responses Hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) CRH causes release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary E m o t i o n s , A g g r e s s i o n , a n d S t r e s s | 6 ACTH causes release of cortisol and corticosterone from adrenal gland Stress also triggers release of o Growth hormone o Epinephrine o Norepinephrine B lymphocytes (B cells) o Formed in bone marrow o Produce antibodies against foreign bodies T lymphocytes (T cells) o Produced in thymus gland helper cells secrete cytokines proteins that induce cell proliferation in the immune system The brain affects the immune system o Through autonomic nerves which monitors immune system The immune system acts o As a sensory system informs the brain Stress and emotions are related to some human diseases o The brain and immune system also interact with endocrine system Reciprocal relations of the nervous, endocrine, & immune systems o Noadrenergic interaction affects antibody production o Immune system products modulate endocrine responses to infection o Perception of fear leads to release of cortisol from adrenal cortex o Thyroid hormones are necessary for development of nervous system o Immune system products called cytocines affect brain activity o Release of cortisol inhibits immune system
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