ANT 215 Final Study Guide
ANT 215 Final Study Guide ANT 215
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 215 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jeff Chivis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Origins of Civilization in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
Ancient China Civilization mainly in northern, temperate region Huang He Valley—Yellow River o Cradle for civilization o Floods spread disease/famine, yellow, produced fertile lands Climate o North: moderate, warm summers/cold winter o South: tropical, warm/hot seasons with monsoons Agriculture o Indigenous invention o Millet in Huang He Valley o Rice grown in south o Hemp textiles, pigs domesticated Yangshao Period (5000-3000 BC) Well established villages using domestication (millet crops/hemp for textiles) Spread out, using slash and burn subsistence (controlled burning); times of occupation then abandonment o Ban-po-ts’un Long/continuous occupation Houses with storage pits Craft specialization: spindles for weaving/textiles, silk/flax, pottery production (using kiln) Longshan Period (3000-2205 BC) Population consolidated and growing—moved to walled villages, fortification/space conservation Rice cultivation increased 2200 BC: decreased population, creating distinct pottery Culture Very close to state formation o Centered around long-houses o Millet/pig farmers o Social stratification b/w males & females (men viewed higher with more burial goods) o Craft specialization: carvings of jade, pottery o Copper/bronze metallurgy o Potter’s wheel/specialists o Mass burials—warfare o Social ranks depicted in burials/statues o Scapulimancy: Shamanism—one person connected to good/evil spirits and have the power to influence them, using in a trance during ritual (practice divination/healing) Oracle bones with inscriptions to be read Divination: seeking knowledge of future/unknown by supernatural means; did so by reading cracks in bones Carved questions/pictographs on bones, fired and cracked to “read”, then chose outcome by sacrifice (although influenced from people) Erlitou Period (2205-1766 BC) Xia Dynasty First dynasty of China (Shi Ji, Han Shu) Transition period to more complex Cultural complexity o Monumental architecture o Writing/script o Population increase o Specialization: use of bronze for ritual utensils, instruments, and weapons Set foundation for Shang dynasty (16/1500 BC) Erlitou site: first palace structure o Contained elite burials, ritual bronze vessels o Specialized workshops: elite bronze casting, turquoise, jade, ceramics o Jade blades: elite item, yazhang for ceremonies Shang Dynasty (1766-1122 BC) Capital o Early: Ao o Later: An-yang Become extremely skilled (over 100 craftsmen) Bronze age emerges—becomes mass produced Zhengzhou (Ao?): first capital with many skill shops, burial of dog/human skulls Anyang: city with royal burials, industrial workshops, mixed residencies Burials o Kings buried with most elite goods (jade, bronze, bones, ceramics) Sacrificed humans when kings died o Tomb of Fu Hao (Queen & military general) Late Shang: large ceremonial/administrative centers surrounded my peasants and pit house o Continued with early practices (jade/bronze specialization) o Monumental architecture with sacrificial burials, stocked tombs o Similar to Mesopotamia—specialization & wealth in burials and economy o Royal armies o Written language evolved to 3000 characters Overview: o Second Chinese dynasty o Extensive used of oracle bones/divination ritual Majority of script found on bones o Capital of Anyang o Architecture based, hunting, war, human sacrifice Zhou Period (1122-475/221 BC) Conquered Shang—incorporated existing structures into Zhou Feudal system: not all power centralized at settlement center o Kings ruled capital with little control over distant areas o “12 vassal/dukes” held kings power outside capital o hegemony (power) given to area with strongest military to protect others Developments o Iron work by 600 BC o Larger cities—large populations, protected by walls, used irrigation o Increased interregional trade o Shifted most text to bronze rather than oracle bones Warring States (475-221 BC) Main conflict b/w 350-250 BC Dukes would revolt to obtain power of lands Text on bamboo slips Confucius emerges Unification under Qin dynasty Confucius: philosopher born during warring states; focused on relationships between people Confucianism: people will live harmoniously if they follow their role o Father-Son: son is loyal, father is just and fair o Ruler-Subject: subjects loyal, ruler helps people o Mandate of Heaven: gave power to rulers to govern based on fairness Rise of Qin State (246-221 BC) Ying Zheng takes throne of Qin at 13 y/o Unifies all of China in 221 BC through war/conquest o Changed name to Shihuangdi—first emperor Capital: Xianyang was central, strong rule and land ownership under king Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) China named for this period Established Imperial rule o Legalism: people and evil, to make them behave need strict punishment o Re-wrote history to purge records by burning text/killing scholars Origin of Great Wall of China: built by slaves Emperor Qin Shihuang o Paranoid/obsessed with immorality after 3 assassination attempts Tried to find elixir of immortality (medical/magical potion to make immortal), died on trip o Brought army to afterlife—Terra Cotta soldiers o Terra Cotta soldiers: molds of parts assembled separately Mausoleum & palace: took 800,000 workers and 36 years o Miniature kingdom with mercury rives/temples Shihunagdi’s death ended dynasty Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) Founded by rebel ruler—Liu Bang Interrupted by Xin dynasty 9-23 AD “Golden age” of China o Highly centralized government, expanded territory o Founded Silk Road: trade routes to middle east/Europe o Invention/use of minted money Han Culture o Stopped legalism brought back Confucianism o Continued Qin bureaucracy—non elected officials, administered civil service exam o Invented paper/compass o Silk Road: connecting to Asia and beyond o Highly stratified, political stability Farmers below scholars Women weaved, served families Collapse Civilization constant: rise, peak, and decline Very fragile, only a little to destabilize Not all collapse is total—focus on cultural reconstruction instead of failure o New civilizations rise from ashes of old Patterns: one civilization succeeding another o States collapse from—population decrease, less central politics, less architecture/art/literature, trade & crafts infrequent, ruling elites change Evidence o Stop building and record keeping o Conflict—burials or battle wounds o Destruction of buildings (civil or invaders) o Rapid new/neighboring culture material or traditions Cycle of State level society o 1) Emergence: new powers rise—justified by religion/higher powers; rapid growth in population and cities o 2) Plateau: *stable and slow growth; less justification of rule since taken for advantage o 3) Decline: less people, less stable economy and government; cause total collapse to shift in power Reasons for Decline Economic: specialists need food/resources and when unable to provide they revolt against government; trade is weakened causing loss of power and prestige Political: hereditary leaders are unfit weakening society; single rulers don’t give back up option and death shakes society; undermining of political power and viewing unift Population: large shifts cause instability, new areas may have disease Conquest/war: outside interference causing violence/death, lose resources when conquered; lose territory and either eliminated or absorbed into dominant power Natural disasters: floods, earthquakes, drought causes production issues Summary of Collapses Natural disaster: Minoan Environmental: Anasazi, Moche, Old Kingdom/First intermediate Egypt Ecological caused by humans: Maya, Teotihuacan, Mesopotamia Warfare: Maya, Moche Invasion: Egypt, Inca Disease: Inca, Aztec Economic: Great Zimbabwe Social/political: Teotihuacan Religious: Egpyt
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