Midterm Study Guide (1)
Midterm Study Guide (1) PS1542
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Jaffe on Friday February 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PS1542 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Kabala in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 144 views. For similar materials see Global Environmental Politics in Political Science at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 02/27/15
Political Science 1542 GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLITICS Fall 2014 MidTerm Exam Study Guide Answers Short essay questions Present the debate about resource limits and environmental degradation as posed by the schools of thought known as quotcornucopiansquot and quotcatastrophists Refer to course readings as needed The cornucopians believe that the Earth has enough matter and energy to sustain the growing human population They do not think there is a limit to resources and believe science and technological advancements will compensate for the population growth On the other hand catastrophists believe that food supply and population growth are inherently related As the population grows exponentially food can only grow as much as the land allows it Land degradation limits food supply and catastrophists do not believe that science and technology will advance fast enough to support the need for food Explain the IPAT equation as it applies to the ca uses of environmental problems Use examples if that is effective It is an equation that calculates environmental impact based on the population size and growth P the af uence of society A and technological change T A5 population size and af uence increases the technological advancements must compensate for the increase in A and P in order to reduce environmental impact per unit of economic activity Example cleaner energy Describe how Herman Day s idea of quotfull world economics challenges current economic thinking about resource use and depletion Cover the ideas human capital and natural capital and their relationship Herman Daly39s main point about resource use and depletion was that the biosphere is nite nongrowing and constrained by the laws of thermodynamics He believes that the biosphere will be used up unless all subsystems like the economy all come to some sort of dynamic equilibrium Natural capital is the capital in the economy that comes from natural resources and manmade capital is transferring the resource in ow into a product out ow Ecological economists believe that one way to decrease resource use and depletion is the use of complementary natural and manmade capital to have more ef cient use of natural resources However manmade capital is limited by the decreasing trends of supply of complementary natural capital Lay out the idea of planetary boundaries as posited by Rockstrom et al Explain three of these boundaries Rockstrom believes there are 9 processes for which there must be planetary boundaries because we are reaching the Anthopocene era in which human actions are the main cause for global environmental change He believes if we sustain these 9 planetary boundaries than we will be able to revert back to the Holocene era where Earth39s regulatory capacity maintained its conditions The climate boundary is based on atmospheric concentration of carbon monoxide and radiative forcing if the threshold is passed then it would threaten ecological lifesupport systems The biodiversity boundary is the rate of biodiversity loss and if this planetary boundary is not kept than it would disrupt food chains and ecosystems A third boundary is the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles passing the boundaries disrupt the very important global cycles Contrast the views of jennifer Mitchell and Nicholas Eberstadt concerning projections of human population growth Jennifer Mitchells believes there are three dimensions contributing to the population explosion the unmet demand for family planning planning for small families and momentum Momentum is the factor she believes is most critical in upcoming population trends because it cannot be stopped due to it already being in effect Nicholas Eberstadt claims the opposite he believes the population implosion is over because fertility patterns have changed population aging will be most pronounced in today39s more developed countries and mortality crises are arising Explain how cultural factors affect levels of material consumption Cultural factors affect levels of material consumption because human satisfaction comes from matching or outdoing others or the previous year individual happiness is more correlated to rising consumption than of high consumption according to Durning39s studies An economist pointed out that each luxury becomes a necessity and then a new luxury must be found Through generations people compare their current comforts against the standards set in their childhood Needs are now socially de ned and will continue to rise with the rate of economic progress Lay out the ways in which poverty and environmental degradation are linked Refer to the Mabogunje article Mabogunje points out that the population implosion has caused a shift of global population from rural to urban areas and this has caused a shift in the concentration of the poor Poverty has been increasing more rapidly in urban areas than in rural areas with 13 of the human urban population not meeting their basic needs of shelter water and health Due to poverty there has been deforestation because of the primitive agricultural practices in developing countries This leads to biodiversity loss because the homes and ecosystems including the animals are getting destroyed Urban pollution is a huge problem because of poverty due to air pollution and water pollution transmits diseases to the poor as well Explain the several major factors that Myers and Kent posit as the drivers of environmental degradation set up by the emergence of quotnew consumers in the global economy Many factors in uence environmental degradation that has depleted about 20 million square km of land and increased the carbon dioxide emissions by 12 Factors in environmental degradation are household electricity eco footprints and human numbers population growth Cars Cars link consumption and environment degradation because cars are going to be the fastest growing sector in energy consumption as far ahead as 2025 This is due to fossil fuels C02 emissions and pollution The consumers of our society view cars as a symbol of prestige and power and therefore will continue to make and use them Cars and household electricity combined produce about 23 of carbon dioxide emissions attributable to consumer activities Meat The quotnew consumer squot increase in meat consumption fosters land degradation aggrevates grain shortages worsens water de cits promotes global warming and harms human health The globalization of economies consumer goods and economies Identi cation and de nition terms and names birth rate the total number of births per 1000 of a population in a year biomass biological material derived from living or recently living organisms As an energy source biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel carbonoxvgen cvcle involves three major processes and one minor process photosynthesis respiration combustion and decomposition Photosynthesis produces oxygen oxygen is respired by humans to produce carbon dioxide which is then reabsorbed by plants deforestation the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use results in damage to habitats and biodiversity loss demographic transition ecosystem a community of living organisms plants animals and microbes in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment things like air water and mineral soil interacting as a system electricity Coal red Coal is combusted to produce heat that turns the water into steam The steam turns the turbine producing electricity Nuclear A nuclear reactor produces and controls the release of energy from splitting the atoms of uranium Uraniumfuelled nuclear power is a clean and ef cient way of boiling water to make steam which drives turbine generators Gas red hot gases from burning fossil fuels particularly natural gas are used to turn the turbine and generate electricity Wind Using wind turbines to generate electricity soley mechanical Hydro the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or owing water soley mechanical Photovoltaic a method of generating electrical power by converting sunlight into direct current electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect A photovoltaic system employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells to supply usable solar power thermal Which types of generation are solely mechanical which are both thermal and mechanical and Which are neither erosion the process of water ow or wind removing soil and rock from one location on the Earth39s crust then transport it to another location where it is deposited exponential growth y a2 externality the cost or bene t that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or bene t Example Additional costs associated with outside problems wearing 2 shirts to work and paying double for dry cleaning fertility rate is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if she were to survive from birth through the end of her reproductive life fossil fuels coal oil petroleum natural gas three principal forms and their shares of world energy use gross domestic product GDP An estimated value of the total worth of a country s production and services within its boundary by its nationals and foreigners calculated over the course on one year gross national product GNP An estimated value of the total worth of production and services by citizens of a country on its land or on foreign land calculated over the course on one year human appr0priation of the products of photosvnthesis quotIPATquot eduation Environmental Impact Population X Af uence X Technology less developed countries LDC more develooed countriesMDC quotnew consumersquot People within an average of four member households who possess purchasing power of at least ppp 10000 per year nuclear energy Fission a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts lighter nuclei The ssion process often produces free neutrons and photons and releases a very large amount of energy even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay Fusion a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei collide at a very high speed and join to form a new type of atomic nucleu Chain reaction occurs when consequent nuclear reactions happen after an initial reaction There are two types of nuclear reactions ssion reactions and fusion reactions The most common is a ssion chain reaction involving heavier isotopes like uranium235 in which there is a continuous release and absorption of neutrons until the products are selfsustaining Fusion chain reactions involve lighter isotopes like hydrogen and helium and require a very high temperature and pressure to form heavier elements An example of this is the sun it fuses hydrogen atoms together and forms helium atoms and initiates a chain reaction Critical mass Critical mass is the minimum mass of ssionable material required to maintain a nuclear chain reaction photosynthesis Water C02 Oxygen Glucose net ohotosvnthetic prod uct the amount of energy left after subtracting the respiration of primary producers from the total amount of energy that is fixed biologically solar thermal concentratino svstems generate solar power by using mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight or solar thermal energy onto a small area Electricity is generated when the concentrated light is converted to heat which drives a heat engine usually a steam turbine connected to an electrical power generator or powers a thermochemical reaction experimental as of 2013 solar thermal passive and active systems A passive solar system does not involve mechanical devices or the use of conventional energy sources beyond that needed to regulate dampers and other controls if any Greenhouse Active solar systems use external sources of energy to power blowers pumps and other types of equipment to collect store and convert solar energy Once energy from the sun is absorbed it is stored for later use atplate PV panels substitutability of resources complementarity of resources substitutes can completely replace one another ex Crab vs Krab and complements are products that enhance one another which gets more out of both products and stretches the efficiency ex Prius vs Hummer Wangari Maathai Kenyan environmental and political activist Maathai founded the Green Belt Movement an environmental nongovernmental organization focused on the planting of trees environmental conservation and women39s rights
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