Architectural History Exam 3
Architectural History Exam 3 SAID 1021
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joy Notetaker on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SAID 1021 at University of Cincinnati taught by Jerry Larson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Modern Architectural History in Architecture at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
Sketch how the RCA meets the ground ... Art Moderne was symbolized by the use of what form? Streamlined Curve List two aspects of the design of Rockefeller Center that contribute to its success as an urban space 1. Streets cross in-between the structures (no megabuck) 2. maintains usable sidewalks The roof terraces in Rockefeller Center were said to be influenced by what ancient precedent? The Hanging Gardens of Babylon Briefly describe how Hood developed the massing of the RCA Building: Hood started with the elevators in the core of the building and expanded out from there. List one exterior detail that allowed the Empire State Building to be constructed so quickly minimal detail and many parts were pre-fabricated What determined the locations of the setbacks in the RCA building? the elevator cores and the available floor space around them ____ was the American architect whose urban idea of the tower in the park paralleled Le Corbusier's proposal for the city for 3 million. Hood Norman Bel Geddes' trademark motif was the teardrop The designer in charge of the initial planning of Rockefeller Center was Hood "Far from being a handicap, this discipline of being obliged to make a project stand on its own financial feet and to submit its details and materials to a constant critical analysis, leads to honesty and integrity of design. Under this stimulation the cobwebs of whimsy, taste, fashion, and vanity are brushed aside, and the architect finds himself face to face with the essential elements that go to make real architecture and real beauty." This is a quote by Hood Name three major industrial designers who were active in the 1930s Norman Bel Geddes, Bucky Fuller and Raymond Loewy The apparent precedent for the massing of the Empire State Building was Carew Tower in Cincinnati, Ohio The designer of the Dymaxion House was R. Buxminster Fuller The one word that best described the forms used to style Art Moderne designs was streamlined ____ was the term used to describe the method of wrapping objects with sheet metal in an attempt to give them a futurist image Streamlined "Why not try nothing" was the rationale of ____for the design of what building? Raymond Hood; New York Dailey News Building "Dymaxion" was the term coined by ____ which meant ____. Fuller; dynamic maximum tension List three differences between Art Deco buildings and Art Moderne buildings: Deco: 1. Warm Colors 2. vertical emphasis 3. 1920's with a jazzy feel Moderne 1. Cold colors 2. Horizontal emphasis 3. 1930's with a swing and blues feel Sketch the plan concept of the Johnson Wax complex: ... Frank Lloyd Wright's design of the Johnson Wax Building can be best described as his interpretation of what style? Art Moderne The major design innovation in the Usonian houses that influenced the design of post-WW II suburban tract homes was _____ Modularity and Cheap construction List two major details that Wright used in the Usonian house to control construction costs: 1. standardized units 2. Self-finished interior materials The "Usonian" house was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright Broadacre City was a project envisioned by Frank Lloyd Wright The client for Wright's "Fallingwater" house was Kauffmann Sketch the plan of a "cartesian skyscraper" and explain the reason for its configuration Its shape is to help improve structural stability and provide daylight to a greater number of workable spaces but no sun got to the north sides Name two differences between Le Corbusier's design for the City for 3 million and his Radiant City: 1. Raised buildings 2. Emphasized Human Form Where did Le Corbusier get the idea for linear housing and cities Russian Constructivism Sketch the plan of Ville Radieuse. ... What project was conceived as an experimental fragment of VR? Villa Contempraine Define Le Corbusier's idea of "a redent:" Long, Set back Apartment blocks Le Corbusier's utopian city plan developed in the 1930s was named Villa Radieuse List two design ideas incorporated in Ville Radieuse that were a direct response to the new battle techniques used in WW I: 1. Buildings spread out in anticipation fro aerial bombing 2. Pilotis/Raised homes to avoid poison gas that settles on the ground Le Corbusier first used the all-glass wall in what project? Centrosoyuz headquarters List two important differences in the American city in 1960 between the actual International Style designs and the prediction of Bel Geddes in the 1939 GM Pavilion: 1. base of the building holds the street edge 2. no elevated walkways The trademark image of the 1939 World's Fair was the Trylon and perisphere Sketch the elevation of the Barcelona chair: ... The "Barcelona Chair" was designed by Mies List three important design ideas Mies employed in the Barcelona Pavilion 1. Asymmetry 2. Reflection 3. Free-standing planes Sketch the entry sequence for the German State Pavilion at the 1929 Barcelona Fair: ... The beach house in Newport Beach for Dr. Phillip Lovell was designed by Schindler Upon his arrival in the US, Gropius assumed the directorship of the architecture school at ____while Mies eventually was named head of the school at ______. Gropius: Harvard; Mies: IIT List two requirements that had to be met by a building in order to qualify to be included in MOMA's 1932 "International Style" exhibition: 1. Architecture as a volume 2. No arbitrary ornament The projects most often associated with Nazi Germany were designed by architect Speer The only totalitarian regime in PreWWII Europe that did not adopt a literal Neo-classicism as the official style of the state was in what country? Italy Sketch a cross-section of the Lovell Beach House ... The Lovell Health House was designed by Neutra How did the elevation of the McGraw-Hill Building differ from other skyscrapers designed by Hood? Emphasized the horizontal and had continuous spandrels List two architects who immigrated to the US before Hitler rose to power who were early practitioners of the International Style in the US 1. Schindler 2. Neutra List two architects who immigrated to the US after Hitler rose to power who were early practitioners of the International Style in the US 1. Mies 2. Gropius The two Austrian architects who came to the U.S. and worked with Wright were 1. Schindler 2. Neutra The first European architect to bring the International Style to California was Schindler What American is credited with the coining the term "International Style"? Johnson Who was the last director of the German Bauhaus? Mies Name two skyscrapers built before WWII that exhibited the International Style in some of their parts, list the architect of each: 1. PSFS Building- Howe and Lescaze 2. McGraw Hill Building- Hood Sketch the plan of a typical office floor of the PSFS Building: ... The first skyscraper in the U.S. to exhibit the massing and the exterior language of the European Style" was the PSFS Building The two curators of the MOMA show, "The International Style," were Johnson and Hitchcock The McGraw-Hill Building was designed by Hood The Casa del Fascio was designed by Terragni Adolf Hitler chose_____architecture as symbolic of the Third Reich. Neo-classical (greek) The Philadelphia Savings Fund Society Building was designed by Howe and Lescaze What does Larson credit for the eventual appearance of columns in the Barcelona pavilion? Influence of Nietzche A switch from the ribbon window to the use of floor to ceiling glazing marked the work in the 1930s of Le Corbusier The Centrosoyuz Headquarters in Moscow was designed by Le Corbusier Le Corbusier first used the all-glass wall in what project? Centrosoyuz Headquarters List two details Mies used in his American buildings to divorce them from the existing urban fabric: 1. Pilotis, lifted buildings off of street level 2. Plazas, pulls away from street lines What advantage is there in offsetting the location of the core in the plan of a highrise office building? Better for planning the space around the building, more variety of floor spaces What detail in the Lever House allows the pedestrian to reconnect with tower after leaving the sidewalk? Courtyard created by U-shaped lifted terrace What was the new architectural material whose price had dropped significantly after the end of WWII, that it quickly was adopted as the exterior material of choice for the next twenty years? Aluminum Describe the lateral (wind) load structure of the Sears Building/World Trade Center Tube Structure: rigid frame structure of vertical columns, not cross bracing Describe the problem that "rationalist" International Style designers tried to avoid in the design of a skyscraper and what was the typical solution? Couldn't express each column the same, cantilever floor/ends ______was the last and tallest of the International Style glass box skyscrapers. Chase Manhattan Bank Why were the Lever House and the Seagram's Building much more expensive than the face value of their construction: Didn't use the land What kept the International Style glass box skyscraper from going no taller than the Chase Manhattan Bank? Wind resistance and bracing was too expensive "Architecture is the will of an epoch translated into space" is a quote by Mies The first post WWII glass box skyscraper in the US was the Equitable Savings and Loan Sketch the typical floor plan of the Inland Steel Building: ... Sketch the corner detail of a typical Mies skyscraper: ... What two major projects were responsible for the large size of SOM by the end of WWII? 1. Clinton Engineering Works 2. VA Hospitals What skyscraper marked the ultimate retreat from the street and the start of "Plaza-mania?" Seagram's building The conceptual design of the UN office tower was the product of Le Corbusier, Niemeyer, Harrison _____ was responsible for the conceptual design of the UN office tower. Le Corbusier, Niemeyer, Harrison "I don't want to be interesting, I want to be good" is a quote ascribed to Mies Describe the difference in how Mies designed spaces in his pre-WW II European buildings and those in his post- WW II American buildings: Pre war: Asymmetrical and free flow of space; Post-war: Rational and symmetrical List the three locations for a glass skin in a skyscraper and list a building from class that is an example of each type: Exterior (outside)- UN headquarters Interior (inside)- inland steel building Within(middle)-equitable savings bank The difference between SOM's typical corner detail as represented in the Inland Steel Building and Mies' typical corner detial as represented in the Seagram's Building is: Mies' corner is unbroken Two reasons that explain why Mies cantilievered his roofs/floors beyond the corner columns 1. express continuity 2. make all columns the same List three differences between Mies design of the Farnsworth House, and Johnson;s design of his Glass House: 1. Johnson didn't use pilotis 2. Johnson uses black steel 3. Johnson doesn't use cantilevers List two reasons why the Farnsworth House was an environmental disaster: 1. No screens for ventilation 2. No operable windows for ventilation The proportioning system developed and used by Le Corbusier was known as Le Modular The French term for the type of concrete construction used by Le Corbusier in his later projects is Beton Brut New research indicates that WWII had two influences on the subsequent designs of Le Corbusier? Softer curvilinear shapes and use of raw concrete Define brise-soleil: a screen, usually louvered, placed on the outside of a building to shield the windows from direct sunlight. Response to southern sun A relatively new interpretation of Le Corbusier's use of concrete following WWII states that he was influenced by German concrete fortifications for atomic bomb Where did the term Brutalism initially come from? Le Corbusier's use of exposed concrete in Unite d'Habitation La Tourette was designed by: Le Corbusier The Chapel at Ronchamp was designed by: Le Corbusier What is the name of the school of art in Detroit designed by Eliel Saarinen? Cranbrook School for Boys _____was given the responsibility for the design of all of the buildings at the Cranbrook School of Design. Eliel Saarinen Sketch the typical floor plan of a classroom wing in the Crow Island School: alternating between classroom and courtyard to allow access to daylight and outdoors Crow Island School, which set the model for the design of the post WWII elementary school in the US was designed by Eero Saarinen and Perkins, wheeler& Will What grade school established the prototype for the post WWII baby boom and who designed it: Crow Island School The formal pivot point of the composition in the Otaniemi Technical Institute is the Lecture Hall Sketch the section of the Säynätsalo Town Hall, showing all three levels ... Sketch the ground plan of the Säynätsalo Town Hall ... List three points of human contact in buildings that Aalto exploited with a change of materials: 1. Columns 2. Doorknobs 3. Handrails The building usually credited as the inspiration for the design of the interview floor in Aalto's National Pension Institute is: Johnson Wax Building The formal pivot point of the massing in the Säynätsalo Town Hall is the Council hall The best example of Aalto's undulating wall in his American buildings is Baker House The fan-shaped plan is a typical scheme in the planning of many buildings designed by Aalto Which building by Aalto was the first to use wood in any significant way, marking his move away from pure Functionalism? Viipuri Library Discuss the reasons for the final configuration of the floor plan of the Vuoksenniska Church: Come in on the side, forced to look at the altar; three small spaces for classes Describe the ideas behind the massing of the Baker House: Campus side is orthoginal; other faces are fluid, mimicking the river Sketch the cross-section of a reading room in a typical Aalto-designed library: ... What did Aalto do in the National Pensions Institute to articulate the massing of the building so that it reads as interpenetrating masses rather than a continuous volume? Used facades that don't quite line up Which building designed by Alvar Aalto marked his attempt to transcend the International Style? What is the reason for your answer? Baker house because he used red brick instead of white stucco and broke out of glass box Sketch the structural plan of the TWA terminal at Kennedy Airport: ... What technology did Eero Saarinen adopt from the automobile industry in the detailing of the GM Tech Center? Neoprene gasket glazing on windows What one major reservation about the design of Dulles did Larson express: Central drain in middle rather than side, visually disturbing What two major reservations about the design of Kresge auditorium did Larson express: a.Acoustically inappropriate shape of auditorium so structure is not expressed on inside b. Concrete doesn't reach the ground Sketch the transverse cross-section of the Yale Hockey Rink: ... The inspiration for the scale of Eero Saarinen's site plan of the GM Tech Center was Automobile List three technological innovations in construction developed by Eero Saarinen that would become standard techniques during the late 1960s: a.Neoprene glazing gaskets b. Lightweight insulated panel wall c. illumines ceiling Sketch the site plan of the John Deere Headquarters ... Name two American Industrial Designers that were very influential in the 1950s: 1. Charles and Ray Emmes Define Tensegrity. Who is credited with developing this theory? Tension and integrity; a rigid structure with discontinuous tension and support; Fuller How is an hyperbolic paraboloid generated? Double curvature, one goes up and one down Why must tensile surfaces be given an anticlastic curvature? To resist windload in tension How did Fuller account for the solar gain in the 1967 U.S. Pavilion? Each panel tracked the suns movement and would be covered with a shade when the sunlight was detected What is considered to have been the first Metabolist project? Marine City by Kikutake What did Tange consciously change from Saarinen's Yale Hockey Rink in his Tokyo Olympic Gymnasium? Replaced the beam with a cable and inverted it What do you consider to be the most important quality of Metabolist architecture? Large scale with modular cells, able to grow and connect What did Tange say was the difference between his 1960 Plan for Tokyo Bay and Haussmann's Plan of Paris? Orthogonal and grid like approach instead of radial arrangement of Paris In what country did Metabolist architecture originate? Japan Name two Metabolist architects who were students of Tange: a.Kurokawa b. Isozaki Who designed Habitat 67? Safdie Sketch the construction process of the Nagakin Capsule Tower: ... Sketch the site plan of the 1964 Olympic buildings: ... The architect of the Nagakin Capsule Tower was Kurokawa Describe the term "Structuralism" as used by Herman Hertzberger: Create overall space, people make it their own List three members of Archigram: 1. Cook 2. Webb 3. Herron Although influenced by Bucky Fuller, Archigram's members had one significant difference in their design approach. What was it? Fuller assumes more must be done with less material; Archigram relies on a future of interminable/unlimited resources Describe Peter Cook's "Instant City:" It is basically like a "floating city." A zeppelin comes in holding all the infrastructures and drops them all into place where ever they want. Who designed the "Walking City?" Ron Herron What two deviations from the International Style in the Yale Art Gallery represent Kahn's initial break with this style? 1. the emphasized horizontal layering 2. Use of concrete structure (exposed) Sketch Kahn's concept for the elevations of the Exeter Academy Library: ... Sketch Kahn's plan concept for the First Unitarian Church: ... The occupiable exterior wall was a technique that evolved in the work of Kahn The "occupiable wall" is a major theme used by Kahn In describing the atrium of the Yale Museum of British Art, Larson pointed out a problem that has always plagued architects. This was: here can never be corner columns when the structure is exposed in the interior part of a space Sketch a structural bay of the Kimball Art Museum: ... Kahn's pyramidal waffle slab in the Yale Art Museum was inspired by Fuller Kahn's use of hollow structure is thought to have derived from what technique of his Beaux-Arts training? Poche "Let me tell you how I was made" describes whose approach to ornament? Kahn Sketch the structure of a typical floor in the Richards Medical Center ... What did Louis Kahn mean by "discovering the 'form' of a problem?" The cosmic essence of a problem; what a thing wants to be Kahn's concept of "served and servant spaces" which developed out of his early use of hollow structures is thought by some historians to have been derived from what Beaux-Arts principle? Poche Sketch the plan of the Trenton Jewish Community Center bath house and diagram the movement pattern from entrance through locker rooms to pool. ... "Each space must be defined by its structure and the character of its natural light" is a quote by: Kahn Name the consensus choice by American architects as the best design in the US and its architect in each category, as expressed in this course: Best building in America:Salk Institute - Kahn Best urban space: Rockefeller Center - Hood Best site planning in a collection of buildings, employing portal, path, and place: Cranbrook - Saarinen Name two influences that Le Corbusier's late designs had on Brutalist architects 1. Use of Free form 2. Contrast in forms between a horizontal datum and sharp particular foreground and objects The Bauhaus teacher who became known for his post-WW2 Brutalist buildings was Marcel Breuer The concrete folded plate was part of the design oeuvre of Marcel Breuer Which two buildings by Marcel Breuer employed a folded plate: 1.UNESCO Headquarters 2.St. John's Abbey Church Paul Rudolph's Brutalist buildings employed what exterior material? Fractured Fin Concrete What building was the inspiration for the Boston City Hall? La Tourette Sketch the design/progam concept of the Boston City Hall: ... Who are considered to be the earliest British "New Brutalists" Allison and Peter Smithson What group was founded as a revolt against CIAM? Name two of its founders: Team X; Allison and Peter Smithson What was the name of Colin Rowe's first major treatise on architecture? The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa Who was the British architectural theorist that can be credited with infusing the use of history back into architectural design? Rowe Describe two differences between American Brutalism and British New Brutalism: American: a. Free form sculptures b.expression of structural, mechanical, programmatic volumes British a. more harsh b. reaction to snobbishness of aristocracy What natural phenomenon can be compared to Sterling's design of the Florey Student Housing? Geodes Sketch the design concept of Sterling's History Building in Cambridge University: ... What Aalto building could have been the formal precedent for Sterling's Engineering Building at Leicester University? Helsinki Institute of Technology Name the New York Five: 1. Eisenmen 2. Graves 3.Gwathmey 4. Hejduk 5. Meier Who was the theoretician who assisted Arthur Dexler in identifying the New York Five? Rowe What was so unique about Colin Rowe's architectural theory during the 1950s and 60s? Reincorporated history, juxtaposed modern traditional architecture List two ideas that Richard Meier has incorporated from Le Corbusier's work: 1. White Box 2. Ramp in the interior From what other architect besides Le Corbusier did Michael Graves find ideas for his earlier houses? Rietveld _____________ was the architect that Peter Eisenman did his thesis on and found much of his inspiration for his early designs. Terragni _________ designed the addition to the Guggenheim Museum in New York. Gwathmey Describe how the form of the Fuji Group Pavilion at Expo 70 was generated Air supported structure, cylindrical tubes stretched around circular base Draw the structural framework used by Kurokawa in the Takara Beautilion in Expo 70: . . . Describe the structural system of the US Pavilion at Expo 70: single membrane, cable pattern, teflon coated fiberglass held in tension off ground What was the major failure in the Montreal Olympic Stadium that prevented its completion prior to the start of the Games? the foundation was inefficient Draw the structure of the Hajj Terminal in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: . . . Larson compared the exposed structure of the Pompidou Centre as the architects' attempt to evoke what other great Parisian building? Notre Dame Cathedral Sketch the transverse section of the Pompidou Centre: . . . The first significant building in which mullionless glazing was first employed was: Faber and Dumas Building by Norman Foster The competition to design the new Pompidou Centre was won by Piano and rogers
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