Japan 50 Midterm 1 Study Guide
Japan 50 Midterm 1 Study Guide JAPAN 50
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Isabel Yin on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JAPAN 50 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Caleb Carter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
Japan50 Spring2016 INSTRUCTOR:ProfessorCarter 30 March 2016 4 big Island of Japan: Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Hokkaido Land bridges formed during Ice Age, no Japanese identity forming yet Topography of Japan ● Kitakyushu, Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya ○ Plains to cultivate crops ○ ⅔mountains not habitable, valleys and plains are where people live ○ Difficult to navigate and transportation during earlier time ○ Archipelago formed from volcanic activity - volatile to live, flooding in valleys, tsunamis, earthquakes and landslides ● Paleolithic ○ Hunting and gathering society: fishing, hunting, gathering berries that sustain small groups ○ Yokohama museum, fire stones to cook own food ○ 35,000 years ago = earliest human record in Japan ● Jomon period - longest period in Japanese history ○ Means “rope pattern” and refers to a style of clay pattern & ceramics ○ Dates 14,500 - 400 BCE ○ Hunter-gatherer societies with limited agriculture, easy access to water ○ Why are pots significant? Food and water storage, important technology, ritual and religious practices, cooking purposes ● Early middle Jomon Period 1 ○ Middle Jomon pots (2500 - 1500 BCE) fertility ritual to produce crops and offsprings more intricate designs ○ Large jars, Jomon vessels more detailed with figurines - viewed as dieties or beings ○ Incense burner and aromas are important ● Yayoi Period (900 BCE - 250 CE ○ Yayoi = a neighborhood of Tokyo ○ Iron, Bronze, Glass, cloth and wood ○ Wet rice agriculture - build terrance and landscapes that are further away from water sources leading to larger and more settlements ○ Spread from Kyushu, came from Korea ○ Societies: hierarchical societies and regional political units ○ Contact with Korean peninsula, appearance in Chinese records ○ “The land of Wa” wanokuni, and Himiko (female ruler of record) ○ Jar with human mask decorations - speculated for ritual burial ○ Bronze bell with flowing water pattern - warnings, warfare, rituals or with hunting scenes ● Reconstruction of Yoshinogari ○ Raised level, placed on hills, communities were aware of war, tower ○ Jewelries in the bodies and mirror placed in the tomb jar was to keep devils from possessing the body etc ○ Act as temporary housing - shamen world ○ Part of tributary systems to justify her sovereignty of her own ○ Linguistic roots came from Korean peninsula ○ Japanese times & Chinese Han Empire’s records of Japan ○ Chinese Kings of Kingdoms are part of Chinese Emperor ○ Chinese emperor’s Mandate of Heaven to rule the World ● Kofun - large mounded tombs ○ Mid-3rd to late 6th century ○ Influence of Korean burial methods ○ Society - Yamato court in the Kinai ○ Early stages of state formation 2 ○ Hereditary Kinship groups - distantly related groups trace back with hereditary groups ○ Groups of craftsmen called “be” ○ Kings will not appear until later years of Tomb periods ○ Power distributed through elite families ○ No imperial lineage forming yet, more fabricated towards 9th century ○ Daisen Mound (Emperor Nintoku’s tomb?) ○ Ceremonial big projects - 3D model of Daisen Mound ○ Shows the importance of the emperor to place such big tomb mounds within the center of civilization and use up such massive area of plains that were precious in terms of vegetation ○ Clay Statues ○ Haniwa in Jomon = Venus in Fertility ○ Haniwa in Tomb Period = in Kofun, guarding the tomb and person from malicious spirits ○ Grave gods - bronze mirror with design of dragons tributary system to elevate one’s social status 4 April 2016 Asuka Period (592 - 710) ● Site of Yamato Court during most of the 7th century ● Main historical events ○ 645: Coup d’etat against Soga ○ 663: Defeat of Paekchon River - at risk of invade, from your own means of defense ○ 672: Jinshin War ● Other groups that manipulated the court is a recurring pattern in Japanese history ● These events contributed to state formation ● Ritsuryo ● Don’t have a permanent capital yet but there’s a congregation of emperors who pass on their lineage 3 ● An imperial kingdom poem composed when the Heavenly Sovereign he climbed Mt. Kagu and looked upon the land ● Tenji and Tenmu are emperor’s balance between Earth and Heaven ● Geographically and spatially establishing himself as emperor, some experts say it’s a ritual | Mt. Kagu is really just a hill, positioned in terms of having the emperor to climb up Yamato Emperors - wooden tablets - mokkan ● Used as official diplomacy as a form of communication ● Ideal that leaders came to aggregate to the capital, reference dew blanket the landscape and emperor overseeing the realm Location of Asuka, near Osaka ● Nara court - first capital built, but not clear how much power the court had since the archipelago is limited ● Buddhist temples funded by major uji or emperor - new form of knowledge, architecture giving them important power Fujiwara Palace ● The Takamatsuzuka Period - 1960s discovered, given size it’s probably a high ranking official ● West Wall, Byakko Tiger, East Wall, Seiryu, North Wall (Genbu - Dark Warriors) ● Ceiling - Daoist Emperor revolve the sky - constellations resemblance as close to the heavens ● The Kitora Tomb - Important mythological animals symbolizes the emperor ● Koguryo Kangso Tomb, Hyomun (Dark Dragon), Peokho (White Tiger) ● Monmu’s accession - Imperial symbols in memorializing ancestorship Buddhism ● Founder: Siddharta Guatama (4th - 5th century B.C.E) ○ Aka the Buddha (the awakened one) or Sakyamuni “wise man of the Sakyo tribe 4 ○ Lived in Northern India / Southern Nepal ● Spread: Silk Road trade routes (land and sea) ● China: Han dynasty | Korean Peninsula 4th century | Japan 6th century ● 4 truths ○ 1. Suffering - life is suffering - birth, sickness, aging, death ○ 2. Cause of suffering - attachment or repulsion to things, ignorance ○ 3. Stopping (suffering can cease - nirvana) realize true nature of existence ○ 4. Path (leads out of suffering) Asuka Temple, Horyuji - Part of the Imperial Family, Yakushiji (grants healing power) ● Buddhist priests, pagoda is where they store Buddha’s image ● Mahayana - more than 1 buddhist ● Court - appointed ranks 647 - 701 capital was spatially organized in terms of ranks, how close you are to central power ● Upper aristocracy dress, diet: not a lot of meat, with seasonal food Nara Period - capital modeled and imitated from a typical chinese city (710 - 794) ● Main historical events ○ 712 Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters) ○ 718 Yoro Codes promulgated ○ 720 Nihon Shoki (Chronicles of Japan) ○ 735 - 737 0 smallpox epidemic ○ 752 - Dedication of Todaiji Buddha ○ 794 - move of capital of Heian (Kyoto - more long lasting period) ● Effective Tax System and government ● Nara’s capital is significant because it was the first capital intended to be permanent ● Heijo Capital Reconstruction - the emperor is situated North while overlooking the southside towards his people 5 ● Kojiki Manuscript - provides lineage of imperial family and uji, they descend from Gods and divine lineage, way of establishing the order, descendants family, compiled in 712 afterwards ● Nihonshoki - was the official history of the court ● Amaterasu Cave Scene, Susano-o & the Dragon (Sun God), Yamato the Brave and the Kumaso Brave, Izanaki and Izanami ● Todaiji, Main Hall, emperor that has first direct link in state power and that power has no limits, provinces include the small buddhas ● Kokin Wakashu ○ Presented to Emperor Daigo in 905 ○ Main compiler: Kino Tsurayuki ○ Twenty volumes, 1111 poems ○ Composed in thematic and imagery, continued influence till 19th century ○ Became the essential classic of Heian poetry ○ Creating style for the court ○ Season linked to different emotions Heian Period (794 - 1185) ● Heian is the name of the capital city, known as now Kyoto ● Writing system developed ● Main events ○ 858 Fujiwara no Yoshifusa assumes title of regent ○ 995 - 1027 Fujiwara no Michinaga controls court ○ 1068 - 1160 Ruled by retired emperors (Imperial court tried to re-establish their power) ○ 1159 - 1185: Taira clan controls capital ● the Fujiwara lineage ○ Marriage politics - assert state politics in a boarder range, able to control the court ○ The posts of regent and chancellor - ruler on behalf of child emperors until they turn older and ruler on behalf of grown emperor ○ Oppositions between imperial family and emperor 6 ○ Emperor slowly faded into a more symbolic symbol ● Fujiwara no Michinaga (966 - 1027) ○ Controlled court from 995 until death ○ Uncle to two emperors and grandfather to three The economy ● Public land and private estates (shoen system) ○ Private estates are exempt from taxes and immune from inspection ○ Privatization of estates enriches government bureaucrats and reduces influence and power of state ○ By the end of the Heian period, half of Japan’s land is private - depleting government’s resources ○ All estate owners are living in the capital lavishly, signifies high society ○ Labor of these states was also seen as a slave system The Era of Cloistered Emperors ● Retired emperors became real power behind Fujiwara ministers ● Competition between multiple factions and retired emperors evolved ● Involvement of warrior clans: Taira (Heike) and Minamoto (Genji) ● Fujiwara lost their power to monopolize the court while member of the courts gave land ● Different positions are formed to act in control as an emperor ○ 1. Fujiwara regent and Chancellor ○ 2. Imperial family emperor forming new positions ○ 3. Create a new emperor Heian Buddhism ● Tendai - Founder in Saicho, center is Mount. Hiei, Main text: Lotus Sutra - most important scripture in Asia ● Shingon ○ founder is Kukai, center is Mt. Koya, main text is Mahavairocana (Dainichi) Sutra ○ Awakening in this bodily existence 7 ○ Esoteric practices: mudras, mantras, and mandalas ● Pure Land (pietism) - multiple schools, faith in Amida (Buddha of Infinite Light) chanting of Nenbutsu ● Enryakuji, Tendai Head Temple Heian Writing ● Chinese writing (Kanbun): the international writing system of east asia ○ All official governmental documents ○ Chinese poetry and diaries ● Kana writing: used for vernacular writing in Heian courth ○ Japanese poetry ○ Kana writing The Pillow book (Makura no soshi) ● Sei Shonago - lady in waiting to Empress Teishi ● Finished around 1005 and focused on Teishi’s salan, circa 993 - 994 ● Three types of forms: lists, essays and diaries Heian literature ● Chinese poetry (shi, kanshi) ● Japanese poetry (uta, waka) ○ Kokin Wakashu - ancient and modern japanese poetry collection ● Women’s literature ○ Diaries (nikki) and other writings ○ Tales (monogatari) ● Tale of Genji ○ Murasaki Shikibu - lady in waiting to Empress Shoshi ○ Genji means “of the Minamoto clan” ○ The fictional story of a successful challenge to Fujiwara dominance ○ Sense of early art work ○ Biwa - arrangement with other Flutes, Taiko ○ Sho (mouth organ) 8 Discussion week 2 The Pillow book - Sei Shonago and Kojiki ● Makura no Soshi - Sei Shonago - daughter of Kiyohara no Motosuke, noted waka poet and editors of Gosenshu, her name is unknown ● Empress Teishi (daughter of Michitaka and sister and Korechika) briefly had emperor’s favor, rival of Murasaki shikibu (writer of Tale of Genji) The Pillow Book Considered one of the twin pillars of Heian vernacular court literature and is seen as a memorial to the author’s patron, a homage to the Naka no Kanpaku family and a literary prayer to the spirit of the deceased empress Teishi ● 300 discrete sections of the book are lists, essays, and diaries while the lists described noun sections and focussed on poetic and nature topics and essays were adjective sections that describe a state or emotion, stories heard were from one’s master or mistress and the knowledge of cultivation about aristocratic women’s education, need for aesthetic awareness as well as erudition, refinement in communication, often read as a personal record of accommodation of accomplishments ● Noted for distinct prose style: rhythmic, quick-moving, compressed, and varied sentences - free flowing yet artistic prose writing ● End with nouns and eliminate the exclamatory and connective particle = heian women literature characteristics ● Neglected during its period but gained popularity in Edo Tokugawa Period ● It displayed literary skill, casual thought, entertainment, memoir/recollections of day-to-day court life, gossip and communication between courtians ● It’s a form of waka poetry that has a 5-7-5-7-7 syllable structure and is a predecessor of Haiku poetry Kojiki ‐ record of ancient matters commissioned by Emperor Tenmu, O no Yasumaro by 712 ● Mythology and history in 3 volumes, starting with creation of Japan in the age of the gods and the descent to earth of the ancestor of the imperial family through the reign of the legendary first sovereign 9 ● Izanagi and Izanami, create the islands of Japan, gave birth to gods of various phenomenon ● Yamato emperors were thought to be descendants of the heavenly gods entitled to rule the Earth and it is important because it places on the power of speech ● Explain divine power of emperor and geographical areas ● Important in Heian Period but has lost importance until 18th century ● Uji - god’s also referring to them, important because you want to please other people ● One of the oldest extant written documents of ancient Japan ● Yamato’s conquest of Izumo - hidden political meaning ● Izanagi and Izanami - creator of Japan, Amaterasu - sun God and Susano-o ● Susano-o killed a serpent and draws out a sword that became symbol of emperor ● Ninigi no Mikoto ● Yamato Takeru - unified Japan, not important until 18th century Medieval Japan Main events (late Heian) ● Hogen conflict 1156 ● Heiji conflict 1159 - taira gained more power than Jogen ● Genpei wars 1180 - 1185 Emergent warrior clans (late Heian) - minamoto and taira, conflict arises between these two clans Minamoto Yoritomo ● Head of minamoto after he won all wars ● Stronger than court and Fujiwara allowed him to develop a court in Heian Kamakura Period 1185 - 1333 ● City in Eastern Japan = Kamakura = location of the military government ● Ironic because Yorimoto is more powerful than the emperor ● Main events include 10 ○ Yorimoto’s death 1199 - no strong successor ○ Hojo clan rules Kamakura 1199 - 1333 - shogunate assert a new level of control ○ Jokyu disturbance 1221: Emperor Go-toba rebellion, ally with other Kyoto nobilities eventually crushed by Hojo ○ Joei code 1232 first codification of warrior law The position of Shogun is to serve the emperor but it’s all symbolic, emperor is just a puppet Kamakura Period Power ● System of dual government - court still has power, Yorimoto didn’t dictate all ○ Kyoto and Kamakura (near Tokyo) ● Loss of power of cloistered emperors - from 1221 ● Kamakura control of provinces - stewards (jito - created in Heian period to get more powerful) and military governors (Shugo): province as designated area quelling uprising ● Mongol Invasions (1274, 1281) late 13th century, Yuan dynasty in China, end up caught up in Typhoon, divine winds Kamikaze that help Japan from Mongols ● Prevential warrior clans gift allies, downfall of Hojo ● Emperor < retired emperor (fujiwara) < Shogun (yorimoto) < Hojo Outside of the Elite ● Farming peasants, foragers, hunters, fisherman ● Guilds (craftsmen, musicians, etc) ● Outcaste groups War Tales ● Hogen conflict 1156 - tale of hogen Hogen Monogatari 1221 ● Heiji conflict 1159 - 1160 - Tale of Heiji ● Toyomori’s victory - The Gempei’s war - represent Taira’s monopoly power defending moral power, Taira no Kiyomori - huge warrior transgressions tales of the Heike family (member of Imperial family) 11 Kenmu restoration wars ● Kiyomori dominated - rumors that ghosts await him because he killed so many people ● Sanemori, Taira no Taromori, battle of Yashima (flee by boat), Na su no Yoichi (tale of Heike), Yoshitsune, drowning of emperor Antoku (grandson of Kiyomori) ● Poeticized sense when describe opening of tales of the Heike ○ Nature is fleeting, things are impermanent ○ Temple bells and sala trees are some buddhism symbols ● Belief that if people lived a strong life and died wrongfully, their spirits haunt the real word, parade of heads Biwa Hoshi (master of the doctrines who plays the Biwa) They are usually trained under their master and accompanies the Biwa and sing to see the unseen world of good and malicious spirits, storytelling elements along with Buddhism flairs in it Kamakura Buddhism Nara Buddhism ● Major temples based on nara capital (urban) ● Divisions based on study of six branches of doctrine ● Patronized by nobility Fujiwara, very wealthy ● Declined in influence after Nara Period Heian Buddhism ● Purge influence of Buddhism from the court, build outside the capital ● Tendai vs. Shingon ● Tendai ○ Originates at Mt. Tiantai, China ○ Japanese founder - saicho ○ Main text is the Lotus Sutra - saving power if you hear the lotus ○ Practices: worship the Lotus Sutra, esoteric rituals 12 ● Shingon (means mantra, literally true word) ○ Founder: Kukai ○ Center - Mt. Koya ○ Main text - Mahavairocana (Dainichi) Sutra ○ Concept - awakening in this bodily existence ○ Practices: esoteric rituals (rainmaking bring about by dragon during drought) physically realize power of Dainichi Esoteric rituals in Tendai and Shingon Buddhism ● Mundra (Hand signs) by taking on same position as Dainichi, you align with Buddha during meditation ● Mantra (true words) - Komyo Shingon = Vairocana Mantra of Light | not like stories about Buddha, handscript terms from India, the sound is translated to Chinese characters, if you chant those sounds you automatically align with Buddha ● Womb world/ diamond world Mandala - have to get initiated by master ( a scroll painting on both walls, while you stand in between) ● Mud = world, Lotus Sutra = teaching of truth of the world about human nature ● Diamond = hardest substance that exist that one gains wisdom of the Buddha = wisdom to gain the teachings Divine Pantheon ● Buddhas ○ Fully awakened, liberated from cycle of rebirth ○ Reside in remote buddha realms ● Bodhisattvas (2nd but sometimes more popular) ○ Postpone becoming buddha to save living humans, virtually enlightened but not enough to be a buddha ○ Reside in the world, postponing final state of awakening to help people on Earth ● Kami (local deities) ○ Japanese local gods ○ Reside in the world also seek Buddhist awakening 13 Death of Shaka Bodhisattva Kannon - in India was depicted as a man, in China became depicted by women - provide help to people who need support implements she’ll use as 1000 hands and 11 heads so her eyes can cover all directions and locate you asking for help Bodhisattva Jizo 13th century Todaiji Famous for protecting travelers on the road, away from home, inhabit a hell realms to save people from hell, savoir of children in hell, in East Asia filial piety says that you should pay back to family and parents when you grow older Pure land Buddhism ● Mappo: decline of the Dharma (state of the world) ● Practice recitation of the nenbutsu (name of Amida Buddha) ● Goal: deliverance to Amida’s pure land ● Followers: all layers of society ● World itself is moving to decline after different epidemics and great fires ● Practice itself is repeat name of buddha - amida - connect with pure land when you die ● Contrast with Tendai and Shingon that needs complex knowledge Major figures in Pure Land Buddhism ● Genshin 942 - 1017 - Tendai Priest ssentials of Salvation ● Honen 1133 - 1212 Founder of Pure Land School ○ Recitation of Nenbutsu - the only method for salvation ● Shinran 1173 - 1262 Founder of True Pure Land School ○ Humans must defend on other people of amida and faith in amida ○ Exiled to other parts of the country, faith becomes an important component ● Ippen 1239 - 1288 Recitation of Amida’s name alone, is enough (faith is unnecessary) 14 ○ Even faith is not necessary, progression of ideas that humans have less power leave the secular world. Priests become hereditary Great Buddha (Amida) of Kamakura ● Warriors = inheritance of pure land Buddhism, since the fact that they kill people means they have to pray a lot more Six realms of rebirth God (passions) - humans (optimal for buddhist path) - Asura (anger, jealousy, war) - beasts (stupidity/servitude) - hungry ghosts (starvation) - hell torture Medieval Japan (2) Nichiren 1222 - 1282 Tendai Monk sees Lotus Sutra as the most important scripture ● Influenced by mappo thought - idea that there’s a gradual decline in the world ● Practice: exclusive recitation of the title of Lotus Sutra - compare with Pure Land movements ● Promoted the divine nature of Japan ● People are degenerated and cannot upgrade due to a gradual decline, thus we will focus on chanting Lotus Sutra ● Nichiren Mandala - local gods (kami) integrate into Mandala - elevation from diamond mandala Muromachi Period ● Area of Kyoto for the new Bakufu ● Ashikaga Shogunate (1336 - 1573) ● Gradual decentralization land rights of absentee landlords greatly reduced ● Emergence of Daimyo - Onin War 1467 - 1477: Fall of Ashikaga Shogunate 14th century ● Weakened Kamakura Shogunate (by mongols, money expenditure, economy going down) 15 ● Kenmu restoration (1333- 1336) - Emperor Go-Daigo - wants to recover power in the court, Ashikaga at first aligned with him but later Ashikaga exiled him to the southern courts ● Northern and Southern courts (1336 - 1392) ○ Kyoto - northern courts ○ Yoshino - mountains of Southern courts - Tenmu also fled down the court with him Noteworthy Ashikaga Shoguns 1. Ashikaga Takauji 1305 - 1358 R. 1338 - 1358 moves Bakufu to Kyoto 2. Ashikaga Yoshimitsu unifies courts in 1392 3. Ashikaga Yoshimasa decline of bakufu Ashikaga power ● Unification of court and Bakufu in Kyoto consolidate power ● Rice cultivation tripled, epidemics decline ● Increase in commercial trade with the Ming dynasty, Zen monks become major benefactors but… Kamakura admin of public lands lost ● Rise of provincial warlords (Shugo (both become Daimyo with own military and Jito - land stewards and collect taxes to Kamakura later they take a part of own taxes) now semi-autonomously own interest ● Full-scale war breaks out in 1367 What is the status of women? ● Early history (up through 10th century) ○ Greater economic autonomy ○ Female sovereigns ○ Female shamans stationed at different shrines to give them a powerful force ○ Married couples will live independently from paretns ○ Warrior culture to reside with warrior family and serving the culture ● 11th - 16th c: gradual decline ○ Confucian values 11-12th century 16 ○ Buddhist influences - karma with stories of women and single man managed households ○ Motion of impurity and demonization of women ○ Patriarchal households via warrior culture Chan/Son/Zen Buddhism “Zen” means “still the mind” Practices: Emphasis on meditation Funerals and ancestral worship Concept that all living beings have buddha nature, reflect a nature, many lives ago we were already pure-mined but the dust of the world hide it away Spread of Zen ● 8th - 9th century emerged in China ● 10th - 13th century dominated China ● Spreads to Korean Peninsula ● Five major chinese lineages develop ● 12th - 13th century two lineages brought to Japan (Rinzai and Sofo) ● Focus on how meditation should be practiced Rinzai Zen ● Meditation through Koan practice - breakdown mental practice of logic to resolve problem ● Urban development ○ Supported by Kamakura government samurai class. Kyoto court and nobility ○ Nominal founder Eisai 1141 - 1215 ■ Based in Kyoto ■ Accommodated Tendai, Shingon, and Pure Land practices (typical of Japanese buddhist schools) 17 Soto Zen Emphasis on silent meditation Rural: developed in the mountains and countryside, monks ordained in soto traditions, they will be more of a follower-based Nominal founder: Dogen 1200 - 1253 established Eiheiji monastery Zen Politics and Culture Zen is meant to comprise on all activities of the day such as ordinary teeth brushing Zen and continental interaction ● Main avenue for trade and diplomatic relations with Chinese courts ● Embassies to china 1325, 1339, 1397 ○ Note: chinese dynasties Ashikaga Yoshimitsu ● 3rd ashikaga shogun 1358 - 1408 R 1368 - 1394) ● Kitayama estate in hills north of Kyoto ○ Golden Pavilion (kinkakuji) 1397 ○ Bring together gardens and zen-like qualities ○ At the height of his power can train his estates and leave operations to his son and retire there Zen-influenced Painting and Architecture Eighth ashikaga shogun 1449 - 1473 Conflict to succeed him destroyed shogunate - initially unable to produce a son lineage, later did he have a son and conflict between his brother and son - onin war Patron of tea ceremony (sado), no theater, ink painting 18 Linked verse renga, collaborative composition - traditional japanese poem waka is split into two halves (upper and lower) often in hundred verse sequences Zen poets who lived leisurely lifestyle since they’re patronized by courts, activities such as painting No theatre ● Origins are obscure ● Elements - main actor (shite) ● Secondary actor (waki) ● Chorus ● Musicians ● Zeami motokiyo 1363 - 1443 ● Types of plays ○ Genzi-no ○ mugen-no Warring states japan Military developments ● Warlords (daimyo) power completely independent, issued laws in their own lands, formed regional alliances ● Militarized buddhist sects ○ Ikko - sect - pure land sect ○ Lotus sec - followers of nichiren ○ Enryakuji - tendai ● Introduction of firearms - use of foot soldiers ● Development of castle building Socio-economic developments ● Shoen system has disappeared ● No effective central authority ● Regional communes and alliances 19 ● Gekokujo (those below overthrow those above) ● Increased urbanization: emergence of more villages and towns ● Key dates ○ 1467 - 1477 onin war ○ 1543 portuguese reach tanegashima ○ 1573 last ashikaga shogun driven out of kyoto ○ 1592 invasion of choson (second invasion in 1597 aka the imjin war ○ 1600 battle of sekigahara ○ 1603 establishment of tokugawa shogunate 20
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