BIO 1040 Exam 4 study guide
BIO 1040 Exam 4 study guide BIOL 1040
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Notetaker on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 217 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
BIO FINAL EXAM 1. CHAPTER 45 : PART 1 A. Population Ecology is concerned with i. The changes in population size ii. Factors that regulate populations over time B. Populations- a group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area; a group of individuals that share a common gene pool ; the number and distribution of individuals i. Increase through birth and immigration to an area ii. Decrease through death and emigration out of an area C. Individuals in a population i. Rely on the same resources ii. Are influenced by the same environmental factors iii. Are likely to interact and breed with each other D. Population dynamics i. The interactions between the biotic and abiotic factors causes variation in population sizes E. Human Population Problems i. Most resources are consumed by relatively few people in developed countries F. Population density is the number of individuals of a species per unit a rea or volume i. Examples of population density 1. The number of oak trees per square kilometer in a forest 2. The number of earthworms per cubic feet in forest soil G. Ecologists use a variety of sampling techniques to estimate population densities i. Local densities may vary greatly H. Density of population is not always easy to determine i. Where to find information? How accurate? ii. Literature search iii. Demographic data iv. Only able to sample a small area (animals move around) I. Some methods used are i. Capture-recapture ii. Quadrants (same plot method) J. Assumptions in capture – recapture i. Marking has no effects on mortality ii. Marking has no effect on likelihood to being captured iii. There is no immigration/ emigration between sampling times K. The dispersion pattern of a population refers to the way individuals are spaced out within their area (clumped, uniform, random) L. Life history pattern: set of adaptations that influence survival, fertility, and age at first reproduction i. A set of conditions pertaining to an individual’s schedule of reproduction ii. Summarized in life tables and survivorship curves M. Life Table i. Tracks age-specific patterns ii. Population is divided into age categories iii. Birth rates and mortality rates are calculated for each age category iv. Each species has a characteristic life span; not all achieve it N. Ecologists use survivorship curves to plot a cohorts age -specific survival in a habitat i. Type I: High survivorship until fairly late in life, then a large increase in death (Elephants and other large animals; humans) ii. Type II: Reflects a fairly constant death rate at all ages (lizards , birds, small mammals) iii. Type III: Death Rate that is highest early on; species that produce many small offspring and do little, if any, parenting (invertebrates) O. Exponential Growth Model: the rate of a population increases under ideal conditions P. Logistic Growth Model: a description of idealized population growth that is slowed by limiting factors as the population increases Q. Carrying capacity: what the environment can sustain (more st able) 2. CHAPTER 45: PART 2 A. At higher populations, densities (density-dependent) rates result in i. Declining births and/ or increase in death B. Intraspecific competition: competition - compete for limiting resources (food, nutrition, nesting sites ) i. Limits growth in natural populations 2 C. Factors unaffected by density (density in dependent) i. Natural disasters 1. Fires, storms 2. Habitat destruction 3. Seasonal changes in weather 4. Will occur regardless of population size D. Some populations fluctuate in density with regularity E. Boom and Bust cycles may be due to populations that fluctuate i. Food shortages ii. Predator- prey interactions (prey increase, predator increase; vice versa) F. What causes boom and bust cycles in snowshoe hares? i. When hares are abundant they overgraze their winter food supply resulting in high mortality. ii. Hare population cycles attribute by excessive predation G. Life history- the traits that affect an organisms reproduction and death make up its life histories i. Key life history traits include 1. Age of first reproduction 2. Frequency of reproduction 3. Number of offspring 4. Amount of parental care H. Populations with r-selected life history i. Found in disturbed or transitory environments ii. Have short life spans iii. Begin breeding early in life iv. Opportunistic v. Short generation times vi. Produce large numbers of offspring 1. Take little care of their offspring and infant mortality rate is high 2. Have efficient means of dispersal 3. Type III survivorshi p curve 4. Never reach K (stands for carrying capacity , the maximum population size a particular en vironment can sustain) I. Populations with k- selected life history i. Usually found in stable environments ii. Have long life spans iii. Begin breeding later in life 3 iv. Usually have long generation times v. Most produce offspring in small numbers vi. Have parental care of their young 1. Have type I or II survivorship curve 2. Efficient in exploiting an ever -narrower slice of their environment 3. Tend to reach K J. Sustainable resource management i. Harvesting crops ii. Eliminating damage to a resource 1. Cod fishing of newfoundland: overfished and collapsed in 1992 and has not recovered iii. Resource managers use population ecology to determine sustainable yield K. The human population i. Grew rapidly in 20 century (currently over 7 billion) ii. An imbalance between birth and death rates is the cause of population growth/ decline iii. Expected to keep increasing for next several decades 1. Industrial revolution 2. 1950’s 3. Baby boom L. Developing Nations i. Death Rates have dropped ii. Birth rates still high iii. Populations growing rapidly M. Age structure graphs i. The proportion of individuals in different ag e groups ii. Affects the future growth of the population iii. Population momentum iv. Preproductive/reproductive/ postreproductive N. Ecological Footprint: an estimate of the amount of land required to produce the raw materials an individual or a nation consumes i. Food ii. Fuel iii. Water iv. Housing v. Waste disposal 4 O. The US have a very large footprint, much greater than its own land. Also, running on a large ecological deficit i. Researchers estimate we would need 4.5 planets if everyone lived like the USA 3. CHAPTER 45: PART 3 A. Community ecology is concerned with factors that i. Influence species composition and distribution of communities ii. Affect community stability B. Community ecologists seek to understand how abiotic factors and interactions among populations affect compositions and distribution of communities C. A biological community is i. An assemblage of all the population of organisms living close enough together for Potential Interaction ii. Described by its species composition D. The boundaries of a community vary with the research question investigated i. A pond ii. The intestinal microbes of a pond organis m E. Habitat: a place an organism lives i. Characterized by physical and chemical features and the array of other species living in it ii. Directly or indirectly, the populations of all species in the habitat associate with one another as a community F. What are some fact ors that shape community structure? i. Climate and topography ii. Available foods and resources iii. Adaptations of species in a community iv. Species interactions v. Arrival and disappearances of species vi. Physical Disturbances G. The niche concept i. Sum of activities and relationships in which a species engages ii. Distinguish between niche/ habitat 1. Habitat: “address ” 2. Niche: “occupation ” H. Fundamental Niche: theoretical niche occupied in the absence of any competing species 5 I. Realized niche i. The niche a species actually occupies ii. Some fraction of the fundamental niche J. Know table 37.2 on interspecific interactions (slide 9) K. Commensalism i. one benefits, other is not affected ii. difficult to determine L. Competition may be i. Intraspecific (usually fiercer/ has more consequences) and interspecific M. Gause in the 1930’s proposed the principle of competition exclusion i. Competition occurs when n iches overlap ii. More overlap= greater competition iii. Exclusion occurs when 2 niches overlap completely iv. Know Gause’s experiments with paramecia v. One way to avoid competition is to locate new resources within your niche- resource partitioning 1. Your niche then becomes slightly different than a competitor N. Predator is the feeder, prey is the food i. Predators get their food from prey, but they do not take up residence on or in the prey (contrasts to a parasite) ii. Many of the adaptations of predators and their victims arose through coevolution 4. CHAPTER 45: PART 4 A. Prey do not have defenses which protect them from predators i. Camouflage ii. Warning coloration: warn predators they are not good to eat iii. Mimicry: when one species mimics another iv. Moment of truth defenses B. Communities come into being by Ecological Succession i. Change in the composition of species overtime ii. Classical model describes a predictable sequence within a stable climax community C. Primary succession: new environments: bare rock succession D. Secondary Succession: communities were destroyed or displaced 6 E. Climax Community i. Stable array of species that persists relatively unchanged overtime ii. Succession does not always move predictably toward a specific climax community, other stable communities may persist 5. CHAPTER 46: ECOSYSTE MS A. An ecosystem is an association of organisms and their physical environment, interconnected by an ongoing flow of energy and a cycling of materials through it B. The participants – in order to understand the complexity of ecosystems it is necessary to know the key participants i. Primary producers are autotrophs that can capture sunlight energy and incorporate it into organic compounds ii. Ecosystems begin at the autotrophs C. Consumers are heterotrophs that feed on the tissues of other organisms i. Herbivores ii. Carnivores iii. Omnivores D. Parasites reside in or on living hosts and extract energy from them; decomposers are also heterotrophs and include fungi and bacteria that extract energy from the remains or products of organisms E. Detrivores include small invertebrates that feed on partly decomposed particles of organic matter (detritus) – ex. earthworms F. Ecosystems are complex: they are open systems through which energy flows and materials are cycled i. They require energy and nutrient input and generate energy (usually as heat) and nutrient output G. Nutrients neither enter nor leave the cycle H. Energy is not recycled (heat energy) i. Captured by producers ii. Transferred through consumers iii. Each transfer loses energy (more is lost than passed on) I. Diets can change depending upon the availability of food (ex. Different seasons) J. Trophic levels: a hierarchy of energy transfers … who eats whom i. Level 1: Closest to energy source; consists of producers ii. Level 2: Herbivores iii. Level 3: and above and carnivores 7 K. Decomposers feed on organisms from a ll levels L. Food webs i. A food web is a simple sequence of who eats whom, called a food chain ii. Interconnected food chains comprise food webs in which the same food resource is often part of more than one food chain M. Energy flow through an ecosystem i. Considered in terms of productivity N. Gross primary productivity i. The ecosystems total rate of photosynthesis O. Net primary productivity i. The rate of energy storage in plant tissues in excess of the rate of respiration by the plants themselves P. Primary productivity vari es i. Seasonal variation ii. Variation by habitat iii. Harsher the environment, slower plant growth, decreased productivity Q. At each trophic level, the bulk of the energy received from the previous level is used in metabolism R. The energy is released as heat energy and lost to the ecosystem i. Eventually all the energy is released as heat energy S. Biological magnification results when substances become more and more concentrated in the tissues of org anisms at higher trophic levels of a food web i. Ex. DDT ( now banned in the US) 8
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