BIOL 1106 Study Guide
BIOL 1106 Study Guide Bio 1106
Popular in Principles of Biology
Popular in Biology
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by sapm594 Notetaker on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1106 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Mike Rosenweig in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Reviews for BIOL 1106 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/23/16
[BIOL 1106] [PROFESSOR'S NAME] [Exam 4 Study Guide] Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term [Lecture 19] [Animal Behavior] [Causation] Proximate: behavior within the animal Physiology: how behavior is influenced by animal’s current/recent internal states/processes Ontogeny: development of behavior in an animal Ultimate: behavior’s adaptive value Phylogeny: why behavior originally developed (evolutionary history of behavior) Adaptive Significance [Fields of Behavioral Research] Ethology: animal behavior ( mostly proximate causation) Behavioral Ecology: how animals use behavior to survive and reproduce (mostly ultimate causation at the level of Adaptive Significance) [Associative Learning] Animals modify their behavior because they learn to associate two stimuli or a behavior & a reward Classical Conditioning: association two stimuli (Pavlov’s Dogs) Operant Conditioning: association of a behavior & a reward (Skinner Boxes) [Signal Modalities of Communication] Acoustic Visual Chemical Electric Vibrational Tactile [Uses of Communication] Mate Attraction (via reproductive isolation by species) Communication within a species (food,predators,status, territory) Communication across species (predator/prey, shared vigilance among prey) [Natural Selection shapes communication] Acts on both acot & reactor via Bidirectional Selection Can lead to repetition rituals honesty deception [Parental Investment & Mate Choice] Unequal parental investment (more on female part; less on male part) Differing reproductive strategies (quality vs. quantity) Mate Competition among males Mate Choice for females [Sexual Selection] Intrasexual Selection: competition between one sex for the other Intersexual Selection: mate choice of opposite sex (favored traits) [Sexual Dimorphism] Secondary Sexual Characteristics Traits that develop in one sex when maturity is reached to aid in the ability to attract a mate Less sexual dimorphism = males have more parental investment More sexual dimorphism = males have less parental investment [Mating Systems] Monogamy: 1 male & 1 female per reproductive event Polygyny: 1 male mates with several females Polyandry: 1 female mates with several males (rare) Promiscuity: males & females mate several times with many partners [Helping Behavior] (rare & accidental) Altruism Acting to increase another individual’s lifetime number of offspring at a cost to one's own survival & reproduction 4 Hypotheses to test for Altruism Mutualism (not altruism) most predominant Manipulation Reciprocity ( requires repeated interactions & recognition) Kin Selection [Inclusive Fitness & Kin Selection] Direct Fitness + Indirect Fitness = Inclusive Fitness Hamilton’s Rule C < RB C = Cost to Donor R = Relatedness of donor & receiver B = Benefit to receiver [Group Living] Aggregation: No physical/social structure Social Groups: Social organization (pods of whales) Colonies: Social & physical organization (prarie dogs) Safety in Numbers Easier to mate & find food BUT Competition is increased Draw attention of predators [Lecture 20] [Ecology of Individuals & Populations] [Ecology] Relationships Levels Individuals Populations Community Ecosystem Ecology is NOT Environmentalism [Adaptation] Individual Adaptation: helpful change within an individual Phenotypic Plasticity Evolutionary Adaptation: inherited trait that improves the ability of individuals to survive/reproduce [Population Ecology] Metapopulations: a group of populations that have limited exchange Characteristics: Distribution Uniform Random (rare) Clumped Density Both can differ over time & with scale Detail Demographics: Sex Ration Age Structure Cohort Fecundity Mortality Generation Time [Population Growth] = (Birth Rate + Immigration Rate) (Death Rate + Emigration Rate) Exponential Growth Model No Net Immigration/Emigration No Population Limit Logistic Growth Model Carrying Capacity Limitation: one factor stops growth Carrying Capacity Regulation: keeps populations dynamically stable Density Independent: same force regardless of density Density Dependent: greater force with greater density K Selected: good survivors/competitors (few offspring) R Selected: good reproducers (many offspring) Continuum Demography Rectangular Triangular Inverted Triangular [Lecture 21] [Species & Community Interactions] [Ecological Niche] Fundamental: entire niche a species is capable of using Realized: based on species interaction [Competition between species for niche occupancy] Interspecific Competition Interference competition: physical fighting interactions Exploitative Competition: use of resources so others can’t Competitive Exclusion Niche overlap with Coexistence [Competition & Resource Partitioning] Resource Partitioning: subdivided niche Character Displacement Both lead to decreased niche overlap Allopatric: similar Adaptations Sympatric: Different Adaptations [Predator/Prey Relationships] Populated affected Explosion/Crashes Coevolution [Plant Adaptations against Herbivores] Morphological Defenses Chemical Defenses Secondary Chemical Compounds Coevolutionary responses of herbivores [Animal Adaptations against Predators] Value of Secondary Compounds in diet Chemical defenses Defensive Coloration Warning Cryptic [Mimicry] Batesian: species with no chemicals mimic species with chemicals Mullerian: 2 or more species with chemicals resemble one another [Other Species Interactions] Symbiosis Mutualism Parasitism Internal: endoparasites (worms) External: ectoparasites (ticks) Parasitoids: young eat host when hatching Parasites & Host behavior Commensalism [Ecological Processes & Interactive Effects] Indirect Keystone Species: Top Predators [Ecological Succession] Primary: From bare substrate (volcano/fire) Secondary: disturbed but organisms remain (highest species diversity) Establishment R Selected Species K Selected Species Facilitation Inhibition Disturbances [Lecture 22] [Ecosystems capture energy & cycle chemicals ] [Factors] Abiotic Factors: Biotic Factors: [Biogeochemical Cycles] Nutrient Cycles Bio: Living Organisms & processes Geo: Rocks/Soil; Abiotic Systems & processes Chemical: Elements; Chemical Reactions Water Cycle Evaporation Transpiration Condensation Precipitation Ground Water Carbon Cycle Sources (CO /Bi2arbonate) Carbon Fixation Respiration Decomposition Methane Product Fossil Fuel Combustion Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Fixation (N2 to NH3) Nitrification (NH4/NH3 to NO2/NO3) Denitrification (NO3 to N2) Human Impacts (Nitrogen Fertilizers) Phosphorus Cycle NO gas phase Weathering Decomposition [Energy Flow in Ecosystems] Unidirectional 1st Law of Thermodynamics: Energy Conversion 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Energy Solar Energy [Trophic Levels] Essentially a food chain with feeding levels 1st Level: Photoautotrophs (Primary Producers) 2nd Level: Herbivores 3rd Level: Primary carnivores 4th Level: Secondary Carnivores Detritivores/Decomposers [Energetics] Productivity Primary Productivity Gross Primary Productivity Respiration Net Primary Productivity (NPP= GPP R) [Secondary Productivity] Ingested NPP Heat/Waste Energy Secondary Production [Ecological Pyramids] Pyramids of energy flow biomass & numbers [Trophic Level Interactions] Trophic Cascades Top Down Effects Bottom Up Effects [Island Biogeography] Species Area Relationship Equilibrium Model The largest the island the greater species density The farther the island from the mainland the less species density
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'