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BIOL 1106 Study Guide

by: sapm594 Notetaker

BIOL 1106 Study Guide Bio 1106

sapm594 Notetaker
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

Exam 4
Principles of Biology
Dr. Mike Rosenweig
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by sapm594 Notetaker on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1106 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Mike Rosenweig in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 04/23/16
[BIOL 1106] [PROFESSOR'S NAME] [Exam 4 Study Guide] Highlight = Important Principle            Highlight = Important Concept           Highlight = Key Term [Lecture 19] [Animal Behavior] [Causation] ­ Proximate: behavior within the animal  ­ Physiology: how behavior is influenced by animal’s  current/recent internal states/processes ­ Ontogeny: development of behavior in an animal  ­ Ultimate: behavior’s adaptive value  ­ Phylogeny: why behavior originally developed  (evolutionary history of behavior) ­ Adaptive Significance  [Fields of Behavioral Research] ­ Ethology: animal behavior ( mostly proximate causation)  ­ Behavioral Ecology: how animals use behavior to survive and reproduce (mostly  ultimate causation at the level of Adaptive Significance)  [Associative Learning] ­ Animals modify their behavior because they learn to associate two stimuli or a  behavior & a reward ­ Classical Conditioning: association two stimuli (Pavlov’s  Dogs) ­ Operant Conditioning: association of a behavior & a  reward (Skinner Boxes) [Signal Modalities of Communication] ­ Acoustic  ­ Visual ­ Chemical ­ Electric ­ Vibrational  ­ Tactile [Uses of Communication] ­ Mate Attraction (via reproductive isolation by species) ­ Communication within a species (food,predators,status, territory) ­ Communication across species (predator/prey, shared vigilance among prey)  [Natural Selection shapes communication] ­ Acts on both acot & reactor via Bidirectional Selection ­ Can lead to repetition rituals honesty deception [Parental Investment & Mate Choice] ­ Unequal parental investment (more on female part; less on male part) ­ Differing reproductive strategies (quality vs. quantity)  ­ Mate Competition among males  ­ Mate Choice for females  [Sexual Selection] ­ Intrasexual Selection: competition between one sex for the other ­ Intersexual Selection: mate choice of opposite sex (favored traits) [Sexual Dimorphism] ­ Secondary Sexual Characteristics  ­ Traits that develop in one sex when maturity is reached  to aid in the ability to attract a mate  ­ Less sexual dimorphism = males have more parental investment  ­ More sexual dimorphism = males have less parental investment  [Mating Systems] ­ Monogamy: 1 male & 1 female per reproductive event  ­ Polygyny: 1 male mates with several females  ­ Polyandry: 1 female mates with several males (rare) ­ Promiscuity: males & females mate several times with many partners  [Helping Behavior] (rare & accidental)  ­ Altruism ­ Acting to increase another individual’s lifetime number of offspring at a cost to  one's own survival & reproduction ­ 4 Hypotheses to test for Altruism  ­ Mutualism (not altruism) most predominant  ­ Manipulation ­ Reciprocity ( requires repeated interactions &  recognition) ­ Kin Selection  [Inclusive Fitness & Kin Selection] ­ Direct Fitness + Indirect Fitness = Inclusive Fitness ­ Hamilton’s Rule ­ C < RB  ­ C = Cost to Donor ­ R = Relatedness of donor & receiver  ­ B = Benefit to receiver  [Group Living] ­ Aggregation: No physical/social structure ­ Social Groups: Social organization (pods of whales) ­ Colonies: Social & physical organization (prarie dogs) ­ Safety in Numbers ­ Easier to mate & find food  ­ BUT  ­ Competition is increased  ­ Draw attention of predators  [Lecture 20] [Ecology of Individuals & Populations] [Ecology] ­ Relationships ­ Levels ­ Individuals  ­ Populations  ­ Community ­ Ecosystem ­ Ecology is NOT Environmentalism [Adaptation] ­ Individual Adaptation: helpful change within an individual  ­ Phenotypic Plasticity ­ Evolutionary Adaptation: inherited trait that improves the ability of individuals to  survive/reproduce [Population Ecology] ­ Metapopulations: a group of populations that have limited exchange  ­ Characteristics: ­ Distribution  ­ Uniform  ­ Random (rare) ­ Clumped ­ Density  ­ Both can differ over time & with scale  ­ Detail ­ Demographics: ­ Sex Ration ­ Age Structure ­ Cohort ­ Fecundity ­ Mortality ­ Generation Time  [Population Growth] ­ = (Birth Rate + Immigration Rate) ­ (Death Rate + Emigration Rate) ­ Exponential Growth Model ­ No Net Immigration/Emigration ­ No Population Limit ­ Logistic Growth Model  ­ Carrying Capacity  ­ Limitation: one factor stops growth ­ Carrying Capacity ­ Regulation: keeps populations dynamically stable  ­ Density Independent: same force regardless of density  ­ Density Dependent: greater force with greater density  ­ K Selected: good survivors/competitors (few offspring)  ­ R Selected: good reproducers (many offspring) ­ Continuum  ­ Demography  ­ Rectangular ­ Triangular ­ Inverted Triangular [Lecture 21] [Species & Community Interactions] [Ecological Niche] ­ Fundamental: entire niche a species is capable of using  ­ Realized: based on species interaction [Competition between species for niche occupancy] ­ Interspecific Competition ­ Interference competition: physical fighting interactions ­ Exploitative Competition: use of resources so others can’t ­ Competitive Exclusion ­ Niche overlap with Coexistence  [Competition & Resource Partitioning] ­ Resource Partitioning: subdivided niche  ­ Character Displacement  ­ Both lead to decreased niche overlap  ­ Allopatric: similar Adaptations ­ Sympatric: Different Adaptations  [Predator/Prey Relationships] ­ Populated affected  ­ Explosion/Crashes ­ Coevolution [Plant Adaptations against Herbivores] ­ Morphological Defenses ­ Chemical Defenses  ­ Secondary Chemical Compounds  ­ Coevolutionary responses of herbivores  [Animal Adaptations against Predators] ­ Value of Secondary Compounds in diet  ­ Chemical defenses ­ Defensive Coloration ­ Warning  ­ Cryptic [Mimicry] ­ Batesian: species with no chemicals mimic species with chemicals ­ Mullerian: 2 or more species with chemicals resemble one another  [Other Species Interactions] ­ Symbiosis  ­ Mutualism ­ Parasitism  ­ Internal: endoparasites (worms) ­ External: ectoparasites (ticks) ­ Parasitoids: young eat host when hatching ­ Parasites & Host behavior  ­ Commensalism  [Ecological Processes & Interactive Effects] ­ Indirect  ­ Keystone Species: Top Predators [Ecological Succession] ­ Primary: From bare substrate (volcano/fire) ­ Secondary: disturbed but organisms remain (highest species diversity) ­ Establishment  ­ R Selected Species  ­ K Selected Species  ­ Facilitation ­ Inhibition ­ Disturbances [Lecture 22] [Ecosystems capture energy & cycle chemicals ] [Factors] ­ Abiotic Factors: ­ Biotic Factors:  [Biogeochemical Cycles] ­ Nutrient Cycles ­ Bio: Living Organisms & processes ­ Geo: Rocks/Soil; Abiotic Systems & processes ­ Chemical: Elements; Chemical Reactions  ­ Water Cycle  ­ Evaporation ­ Transpiration ­ Condensation ­ Precipitation ­ Ground Water ­ Carbon Cycle  ­ Sources (CO /Bi2arbonate)  ­ Carbon Fixation ­ Respiration ­ Decomposition ­ Methane Product ­ Fossil Fuel Combustion  ­ Nitrogen Cycle ­ Nitrogen Fixation (N2 to NH3) ­ Nitrification (NH4/NH3 to NO2/NO3) ­ Denitrification (NO3 to N2)  ­ Human Impacts (Nitrogen Fertilizers)  ­ Phosphorus Cycle  ­ NO gas phase  ­ Weathering ­ Decomposition [Energy Flow in Ecosystems] ­ Unidirectional  ­ 1st Law of Thermodynamics: Energy Conversion  ­ 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Energy  ­ Solar Energy [Trophic Levels] ­ Essentially a food chain with feeding levels  ­ 1st Level: Photoautotrophs (Primary Producers) ­ 2nd Level: Herbivores ­ 3rd Level: Primary carnivores ­ 4th Level: Secondary Carnivores  ­ Detritivores/Decomposers  [Energetics] ­ Productivity ­ Primary Productivity ­ Gross Primary Productivity  ­ Respiration ­ Net Primary Productivity (NPP= GPP ­ R) [Secondary Productivity] ­ Ingested NPP ­ Heat/Waste Energy ­ Secondary Production  [Ecological Pyramids] ­ Pyramids of energy flow biomass & numbers  [Trophic Level Interactions] ­ Trophic Cascades  ­ Top Down Effects ­ Bottom Up Effects [Island Biogeography] ­ Species Area Relationship ­ Equilibrium Model ­ The largest the island the greater species density  ­ The farther the island from the mainland the less species density 


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