Comm 1500 Final Study Guide
Comm 1500 Final Study Guide 81665 - COMM 1500 - 003
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Evan DePersia on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 81665 - COMM 1500 - 003 at Clemson University taught by Eddie R Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Communication in Language at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
COMM 15001501 Eddie Smith Chapters 1, 710 Final Study Guide (Eddie will send out his own study guide too) (1/13/16) Communication – Sending information to other people in such a way that those people receiving that information can receive it, understand it, and respond. Can be written, spoken (verbal), and nonverbal Person sending the information encodes it, person receiving the information decodes it Message – The idea being sent Channel – How you choose to send the message Feedback – The response Types of feedback: o Positive – Indicates you understand; can be direct or indirect o Negative – Indicates you don’t understand o Fake – Act like you understand, but don’t have a clue Communication Essentials: 1. Speak the same language 2. Similar experiences in life – ability to relate to each other 3. Willingness to communicate – desire (1/27/16) Communication Apprehension Stage Fright – most common form of communication apprehension o Afraid of failure, want to be successful o Not liking negative attention, liking positive attention o 3 ways stage fright affects you Mentally – too much material in mind, “blanking” → look away from audience (look at notes if focusing too much on audience) Physically – adrenaline → start shaking Emotionally – begin to doubt yourself and/or your speech o Steps to avoiding stage fright 1. Preparation mental and actual 2. Movement – planned movement, handing out stuff, utilizing the stage (need to use the adrenaline) 3. Look at the audience a. Empathy – “to feel along with” b. Need to feel audience’s empathy o Audiences “come equipped with a filter” They tend to see only what they want to see o No big deal Speech is nothing more than a conversation (2/3/16) Audience Types: 1. Hostile – “they hate you” 2. Friendly – “they love you”, don’t actually listen to you 3. Apathetic – aka ‘indifferent’, neither like nor dislike you, rather be somewhere else Dealing with each type of audience: Apathetic – make it so interesting or important that they have to listen Hostile – easiest to deal with; they will actually listen to you → Find the point of common agreement “Yes response” – if you can get a person to say ‘yes’ to you 5 times, they cannot say ‘no’ to you (2.10.16) How audiences operate: They have a personality – usually built from person’s strongest personality Polarization – audience and speaker moving closer/farther from each other Peer Pressure – move closer, tend to do what the audience wants you to do Audiences can’t turn – no offending the audience (religion, politics, etc.) o Demographics – background of the audience How you put together a speech: 1. Choose a topic a. Talk about things you already know about b. Things that you like c. Make sure it’s appropriate d. Something fit within a time frame 2. Determine Objective a. Inform b. Inspire c. Persuade d. Explain 3. Thesis – statement on what the speech is about a. Ask yourself questions 4. Intro a. Get attention b. State purpose c. Understanding of what is to come d. Good transition into the speech 5. Conclusion a. Get attention b. Restate purpose c. Let audience know you’re about to be done 6. Practice Group Communication Invested Interest – need to be close with group members for successful communication Systems Theory – Throughout our lives, go from one group to the next Behavior and attitude changes with changing groups Two types of groups: o Closed system group of people put together that only interact if an outside source makes them interact; analogy: box of rocks o Open system – vibrant, grows, works together, accomplishes something, members are invested in each other; analogy: terrarium Guidelines to make a team work: 1. Must have a common goal 2. Goal needs to be in reach, attainable 3. Make sure people are using their talents a. Balance talent among group 4. Needs to be good leadership Two ways of thinking as a group Negative – Group Think: all thinking the same thought Positive Synergy Important Terms: group People who have 5 traits: influence each other common purpose take on roles interdependent interact together primary group focuses on social/interpersonal relationships (personal friends) secondary group focuses on getting something done (committees/projects) team strong relationship close knit & strong sense of identity project team focuses on coordinating a task and getting something specific done work team focuses on actually getting something done group culture 4 common things shared by group that shapes their personality: values beliefs norms behavior norms ways everyone is expected to behave interdependence everyone mutually dependent on each other commitment everyone wants to succeed & complete the task well, so willing to work together cohesiveness group's willingness to stay together (form of loyalty) groupthink problem: group harmony > new ideas/disagreement, fails to critically examine ideas and listen to individuals’ opinions social loafing individuals don't work hard when part of a group; negative affect on the group persuasion Uses verbal & nonverbal message to reinforce/change: attitudes beliefs values behavior adoption asks audience to do (adopt) something; ex. vote discontinuance asks audience to stop a behavior; ex. smokin deterrence asks listener to not start a behavior (ex. don't use illegal drugs) continuance asks audience to continue a habit or behavior question of facts asks what is true & what is false question of value asks if there is value in something question of policy asks if something should be done ethos speaker's character in the audience's eyes logos logic argument pathos emotional argument trustworthiness can the speaker/speech be trusted? oral footnote verbally citing someone or another source problemsolution 2part speech: problem + solution causeeffect 3part speech: cause + effect + solution Monroe's motivated sequence 5part speech: attention + need + satisfaction + visualization + action appeal to needs persuade people by appealing to their needs logical appeal persuade people by using logic deductive reasoning general information to specific conclusion inductive reasoning specific facts to general conclusion casual reasoning cause & effect linked together reasoning by analogy uses comparison to reach conclusion emotional appeal persuasion via emotions fallacy flaw in argument because of broken logic or inconsistent thoughts questionable cause argument is not the actual cause of problem hasty generalization jumping to a conclusion without all facts either/or giving only 2 options when really more Leadership influencing a group to clarify/lead a group towards its purpose & goals Leader person who assumes the leadership position task needs requirements & actions leading to completion of a job maintenance needs requirements of organization & development so members succeed initiating structure focus: get the job done (part of leadership) consideration focus: good relationships with others (part of leadership) autocratic leader leader who acts alone and makes decisions without listening to group input democratic leader leader who works with & listens to others’ opinions laissezfaire leader leader who doesn't lead & is dependent on others for success agenda everything to cover at a meeting principled negotiation negotiation by discussion of everyone's needs and discussion to find alternatives to meet such needs information knowledge about something specific (news) and knowledge learned via study/research (factual data) information relevance making information relevant to the audience and your speech planned repetition intentional restatement of something so the audience remembers it advance organizer warning to the audience: something important is next descriptors descriptive words used in the speech presentation contrast definition definitions with an emphasis on differences synonym words almost equivalent or very similar antonym words are opposites etymology – word origin artifacts personal thing that says something about someone (ex. t shirt w/ greek letters; tattoo) self monitoring regulation of your own nonverbal cues functional approach using multiple verbal messages simultaneously to find meaning Gender inclusive language political correctness include both men & women (even though grammatically incorrect) sexist language political incorrectness exclude men or women (causing sexual stereotypes) (even though grammatically correct) SapirWhorf hypothesis language influences thought which influences our reality language determines our reality because that's the only way we understand the world high context culture context important for determining meaning low context culture context not important for determining meaning (meaning from the words themselves) vividness descriptive language that brings the conversation to life verbal immediacy language that makes the message more relevant to the listener metaphor comparison of 2 things not normally connected
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