Pols 2401 Final Study Guide
Pols 2401 Final Study Guide Pols 2401
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Date Created: 04/23/16
Global Issues: Final Study Guide Use of Force USE OF MILITARY FORCE: 3 REASONS • Defense (definition: actual ability to deter attack) • Deterrence: from MAD (mutually assured destruction) to NUTS (nuclear utilization and target selection) (definition: threat of force to stop someone from doing something you don’t like) • Coercive diplomacy – you’re not using force but threating to use force (definition: threat of force to make someone do something you want) WMD: typology-nuclear, chemical and biological CHANGE IN THE NATURE OF WARFARE - Preponderant military might of the USA - Technological advancement - Low-tech weapons - Cyber warfare (Ex. media & public opinion) - Sensitivity to casualty - Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction HIGH-TECH WEAPONS - Drones - Precision guided munitions - Surgical strike and reduction of collateral damage What is really happening? WHAT IS CYBER WARFARE ‘cyber warfare involves the actions by a nation-state or international organization to attack and attempt to damage another nation’s computers or information networks through, for ex., computer viruses or denial-of-service attack’ – RAND Corporation PROLIFERATION OF LOW-TECH WEAPONS - Easy and cheap - Can kill thousands of people - Civil war in Sudan, Genocide Rwanda, insurgency in Iraq and Afghanistan all use conventional low-tech weapons - USA, Russia, Germany, UK and the rest of the world WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION - Nuclear weapons - Chemical weapons - Chocking agents- chlorine gas - Blistering agent- mustard gas - Nerve agent- sarin (March 14, 1995 Tokyo) - Biological weapon: Anthrax, Botulism and Plague - Radiological weapons - Electromagnetic pulse PROLIFERATION OF WMD (weapons of mass destruction) - Non-proliferation treaty (1968) – exclusive club of nuclear weapon countries - The logic of deterrence: North Korea, Iran, and Israel - Should possession of nuclear weapons be considered as a right? - What type of govt. is best suited to build and maintain nuclear weapons? PROLIFERATION OF WMD • Distinguish their purpose (deterrence, defense, offense) • (pros and cons) TERRORISM Goals, tactics, immediate targets, largest audiences, and underlying causes Features of terrorism - Predetermined use of force - Inculcating fear Terror techniques - Suicide bombing - Targeted killings - Abduction - Hijacking HOW BIG IS THE THREAT? - What is the likelihood of dying from a terrorist attack? - 33 times more likely to die from meningitis than from terrorism - 822 times more likely to die for murder than from terrorism - 1833 times more likely to die in a car accident than from terrorism - 4 times more likely to be struck by lightning than die from terrorism DEFINITIONAL PROBLEMS - Politically contended issue - Means different things to different people and groups - Different levels of analysis involved - Different in domestic legal systems and show pace of international low impedes a universally binding definition or terrorism ‘one mans terrorist is other man’s freedom fighter’ TERRORISM AS A STRATEGIC TOOL - Terrorism is sometimes regarded as a weapon of the weak - In asymmetric warfare, the weaker party might prefer terrorist tactics to generate shock and awe in the enemy - The lack of military might of the terrorism SOME STANDARD DEFINTIONS ‘The calculated use of violence or the threat of violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in pursuit of goals that are generally political religious or ideological.’ –US Department of Defense DEFINITIONAL CHALLENGES (contd.) ‘terrorism is defined here as the recurrent use or threatened use of politically motivated and clandestinely organized violence, by a group whose aim is to influence a psychological target in order to make it behave in a way which the group desires.’ –C.J.M Drake CAUSES OF TERRORISM - There is no single or consistent factor that drives terrorism - Experts have categorized different motivational factors: Ø Individual level exploration Ø Ideological explanation Ø Socio-economic explanation Osama Bin Laden with his family Excerpts from “The veiled kingdom” INDIVIDUAL LEVEL ANALYSIS: Breivik and terrorist attack in Norway IDEOLOGICAL MOTIVES - Ideology is defined as the beliefs, values, and principles by which a group makes sense of the world around them and determines their goals and objectives - These ideologies can be political, religious or cultural IDEOLOGUES TERRORISTS: Al-Qa’Ida (political ideology) - Remnants of the proxy war between the USA and USSR over Afghanistan (1979-1989) - CIA trained Mujaheedens turned into religious zealots - Picks and chooses the commands from the holy scriptures - Believes in Christian-Zionist conspiracy against the Muslims - Instigates sectarian violence within the Muslim community - Operates transitionally - The hierarchical structure has been dissolved and gave way to lose franchises all over the world IDEOLOGUES TERRORISTS: Al-Qa’Ida (political ideology) - Expulsion of US military forces from Saudi Arabia - Total eviction of the foreign forces from the Islamic world - Installing a genuine Islamic regime in Saudi Arabia - Replacing other corrupt and pro Western government in MENA region - Supporting other Islamist movements across the world - Expression of antagonism against Islam and solidarity with the Palestinian people - Creating a Pan Islamic Nation under an Islamic Caliphate Aum Shinrikyo (1995 nerve gas attack on Tokyo subway) – religious ideology KKK is the USA – (cultural terrorism) Rajneesh Cult and greatest bio-terror attack in US history CAUSES OF TERRORISM: SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS - Poverty: is it the underlying cause of terrorism? Ø Sense of desperation and alienation Ø No hope for advancement or a good job Ø People susceptible to radical doctrines Ø Little evidence to support theory – e.g. Osama came from a multimillionaire family Ø If poverty leads to terrorism – it would be predominant to Sub-Saharan Africa, not the case SENSE OF RELATIVE DEPRIVATION AND IDENTITY CRISIS - The causes of terrorism can in many ways be similar to the causes of most other forms of political violence. - Social exclusion, relative deprivation, discrimination and identity crisis can lead a particular person or a group of people to the violent path of terrorism. London bombing 2005 STATE TERRORISM - Both democratic and non-democratic governments can use terror tactics against its own citizens - In case of non-democratic ones, these practices are more pronounced - Colonial powers have used terror tactics to control the native population and suppress the independence movements for as long as they could - In the 1960s and 1970s Latin America was home to state terrorism - Saddam Hussein in Iraq gassed his own population - Terror tactics like abduction, illegal detention, torture, summary execution are still frequently used by various governments across the world Halabja Genocide 1988 STATE SPONSORED TERRORISM - States can also support terrorist groups and individual terrorists for political purposes (state sponsored terrorism) - India complains about ISI’s involvement in 2008 Mumbai attack - Syria and Iran has been accused of harboring Hezbollah - The USA had been accused of supporting Israeli ‘terrorism’ against the Palestinians in the occupied territories and indirectly contributing to the creation of Al-Qa’Ida RECENT TRENDS IN TERRORISM • Mixture of terrorism and insurgency • Internationalism • Suicide terrorism • Speed of learning • Use of information and communication technology • Economic targeting • Mass casualty attacks and weapons of mass destruction • Liaison between transitional organized criminals and terrorist organizations TRANSITIONAL CRIMINAL ORGANIZATIONS & INTERNATIONAL SECTOR MUTATION OF TERRORIST GROUPS - Hezbollah and Hamas have representation of parliament - ANC is a legally accepted political party in South Africa - Al-Qa’Ida’s golden days are over - ISIS has emerged as the greatest security threat WHAT IS TRANSITIONAL CRIMINAL ORGANZATION (T CO) - “organized criminal group” shall mean a structural group of 3 or more persons, existing for a period of time and acting in concert with the aim of committing 1 or more serious crimes or offences established in accordance with this Convention, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit;” • (Article 2:a United Nations Convention Against Transitional Organized Crime) - “structured groups” shall mean a group that is not randomly formed for the immediate commission of an offense and that does not need to have formally defined roles for its members, continuity of its membership or a developed structure.” • (Article 2:c United Nations Convention Against Transitional Organized Crime) WHAT ARE TCO ACTIVITIES 1. money laundering 2. drug trafficking 3. human trafficking 4. illicit arms trade 5. theft 6. forgery 7. corruption etc. INFAMOUS TCO’s The Godfather THE Mafia STRUCTURE GLOBALIZATION & TCO 1. Emergence of large informal market of illicit goods & services 2. Change in organizational structure 3. Misuse of advanced information & communication technology TRANSITIONAL CRIME AS A SECURITY ISSUE - National security 1. Erosion of state authority over key economic & security activities 2. Challenge to state sovereignty 3. Spread of corruption 4. Drainage of national revenues TRANSITIONAL CRIME AS A SECURITY ISSUE (contd.) - International security 1. Violation of norms & regulations of the international system 2. Fueling & exacerbating violent conflicts 3. Terrorism – TCO nexus TRANSITIONAL CRIME AS A SECURITY ISSUE (contd.) - Human security: human trafficking slave trade - Organ trafficking NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING THE UNITED NATIONS Ø Established after the WWII (1945) to help stabilize international relations and give peace a more secure foundation. Ø UN is not a “world govt.” à 193 member states + complex political negotiations à global government vs. global governance Ø The primary aims of UN are: secure international peace, eliminate poverty and protect human rights Ø Tensions: - Goal of effective international action vs. state sovereignty - Relative rights of large and small states v Security council à balance of power à 5 “great powers” with permanent seats and the right to veto v General assembly à sovereign equality à one state, one vote (MAIN UN ORGANS) general assembly | security council | economic & social council | international court of justice | secretariat | trusteeship council **U.S. security general (Ban-Ki Moon) à formal spokes person for UN; diplomatic role(mediates) Millennium Development Goals (MDG) (MAIN UN ORGANS) Ø General Assembly - 193 members - Sovereign Equality of all members (article 2, UN charter) à all members are equal and have one vote - Decisions on such key issues as international peace and security, admitting new members and the UN budget required 2/3 majority. Other matters à simple majority - Decisions are not binding Ø Secretariat Ø Security council - 5 permanent members à have to veto powers à abstentions and absences do not count + 10 non permanent members - Primarily responsible for maintaining international peace and security Ø Socio-Economic council - Central platform for reflection, debate, and innovative thinking on sustainable development - Coordinates the economic and social work of the UN and UN family organizations Ø Internationals Court of Justice: adjudicates disputes over treaty obligations. Acknowledged as the authority on international law and how it should be interpreted Ø Trusteeship Council 3 PILLARS of UN: 1. Securing International Peace Ø Peacekeeping: the introduction of foreign troops or observers into a region to increase confidence that states will refrain from the use of force. à Chapter IV of the UN Charter Ø Set up by UN Security Council à the scope and mandate is predetermined Ø All peacekeeping operations are governed by 3 core princip les: - Consent of the conflicting parties - Impartiality - Non use of force except self-defense - 2 generation peacekeeping: + providing humanitarian relief, protecting civilians, and running elections 2. Protecting Human Rights Ø The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (10 December 1948) - Human rights: the rights and freedoms tow which every human being is entitled, regardless of any distinction à inalienable and interdependent - Based on the values of fairness, dignity, justice, equality and respect. - The Commission on Human Rights (1946) - Although not binding on states, has inspired 80 legally-binding international and regional human rights treaties Ø The convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) - Children can be more vulnerable than adults, and therefore may sometimes require special protection - Children should have a say in the decisions that affect them à people not with needs but with rights - Most widely ratified human rights treaty in the world à expect 2 UN members à Somalia (pending as of 20 January 2015) and the United States (signed, not yet ratified) 3. Protecting Women’s Rights THE 8 MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS - The UN millennium was a declaration meaning its not legally binding compared to a (treaty?) UN IS IT EFFECTIVE? 1. Secure International Peace - Succeeds when states or groups are willing to avoid conflict - Can not succeed when states or groups are determined to go to war 2. Eliminate Poverty - How much progress has been made? - Some of the remaining challenges… 3. Protect Human Rights - Standard setting: although not binding has inspired over 80 legally-binding international and regional human rights treaties - Implementation: human-rights violation, child labor, human trafficking. Genocide, war crimes etc. HOW MUCH PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE? - The number of people living less than $1.25 a day decreased by over 400 million in the period from 1990 to 2005 - In the developed world as a whole, net enrollment in primary education reached 89 per cent in 2009, up from 82 per cent in 1999 - Deaths of children under 5 have declined steadily worldwide – from 12.4 million in 1990 to 8.1 million in 2009 - The world is on track halving the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water by 2015 - By the end of 2010, 90% of the world’s inhabitants were covered by mob ile cellular signal SOME OF THE REMAINING CHALLENGES… - In the developing world, over 15% of people, including a quarter of children under 5, are undernourished - More than 10% of children of primary-school age are out of school and nearly half the children out of the school have never had any contact with formal education - Over 2.6 billion people still lack flushing toilets and other form of sanitation - Every year, some half a million women and girls dies as a result of complications during pregnancy, childbirth or the 6 weeks following delivery. Almost all of these deaths (99%) occur in developing countries - 2/3s of the world population have yet to gain internet access EUROPEAN UNION Ø Intergovernmentalism vs. Supranationalism Ø “Community of States” - 28 Member’s States - Pushed bounds of international collaboration - Supranational level of government - Functions like a single state in many economic areas **Structure of EU European Council (summit) European Parliament || Council of Minister’s (the council) || European Commission Crt. of Justice || Crt. of Auditors || Economic and Social Committee || Committee of the Regions European Investment Bank || Agencies || European Central Bank Ø Single Central Bank Ø Single Currency – EURO Ø Single set of laws that govern the EURO area states - Each state has its own laws but those laws broadly fall under the EU Law Guide - Each nation responsible for their own economy, citizens and borders while operating within the EU guidelines - Each country has one vote and no one has Veto Powers - Countries have the option to opt out of initiatives if they wish to - No Visa restrictions for member states, Free movement of all citizens HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Ø The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) (1951) - Economic purpose: manage these 2 industries to promote industrial recovery from the WWII - Political purpose: promoting peace (or preventing another European war) by binding the countries together in the economic sectors that were central to preparing for war Ø Schuman & Monet à this union could not be established in a single step. àhence, functionalism! - Regional integration in limited functional or economic areas - Will, then, spillover à small, incremental steps toward cooperation create the impetus for even further integration in other areas Ø 1957 Treaty of Rome à European Economic Community - Founding document of today’s EU - Common Market (stages of economic integration) pg. 209 - (West) Germany, France, Belgium, Italy, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands- BENELUX Ø Ever since, - “widening” à adding new members - “deepening” à extending cooperation between existing members Ø 1992 Maastricht Treaty à changed the organization’s name to European Union - Single currency à Economic Union - Common foreign and security policy à well, maybe not so much ORGANIZATION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Ø European Council (summit) à intergovernmental Ø The Council of the European Union (Council of Minister’s) à intergovernmental Ø European Parliament à supranational Ø European Commission à supranational Ø European Court of Justice à supranational PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS FOR THE EU Challenges: - How effective the 28-member union will be at decision making. Not only larger but much more diverse. à common interests, common conditions? - Further expansion à Turkey?? - Agricultural subsidies hinder free markets à eats up nearly half of the EU budget At the same time… - Countries that were once constantly preparing for war with each other now consider such conflict unimaginable - Economic integration has helped bring prosperity - The chance to join the EU has helped transform post communist Europe - Financial Crisis - Refugee Crisis Post communist Europe OVERVIEW • The historical evolution of the post-WWII trading systemth • The evolution of the international financial system since the 19 century • The sources and mechanisms of crisis in the contemporary international financial system • The competing arguments about the advantages and disadvantages of contemporary globalization WHY TRADE? • #1: Liberalism à because it is the most effective/ efficient thing to do • How? With specialization, overall amount of production and consumption increases à comparative advantages (Ricardo) à Economic interdependence • Abundant vs. Scarce Factors THE IMPORTANT “isms” Isms #2: Classical liberalism: Division of labor, practiced within a free market economy, leads to improved trade, profits, and quality of life. - Adam Smith - David Ricardo Comparative advantage: specialization of production allows each to produce what they can produce most efficiently. Leads to reduced costs and improved trade volume. Contradicts zero-sum argument in mercantilism. Isms #3: Socialism: the cooperative ownership of the means of production. Ex. Factory owners don’t exist, the workers all own the factory and share the th proceeds. DATE: Victorian Era and early 20 Century GLOBALIZATION OF TRADE – THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT • Historical context th th th - 16 century –late 18 / early 19 century – Mercantilism - trade among the wealthy states went up – mostly bilateral treaties (until WWI) - Trade during the Great Depression (1929- WWII) –Autarky - Trade after WWII – accelerating pace • Great Depression – 1929 - States reacted using protectionism - States hoped to get consumers to buy domestic products - Protectionism made matters worse because countries relied on domestic markets AFTER WWII – BRETTON WOODS SYSTEM ON TRADE • Debate between Keynes and Hayek – govt. spending vs. minimalist govt. • Consensus to improve trade cooperation - Rebuilding free trade cooperation - Isolationism policy of U.S. changed • Bretton wood system led to new trading and financial system - General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) –promotion of free trade - Reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers - International Monetary Fund (IMF) - World Bank GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE (GATT) • 1946-1995, replaced by World Trade Organization • Prior to WWII, trade agreements were conducted bilaterally using tariffs based on reciprocity i.e. 2 states agree to have same tariffs on each other’s goods • GATT replaced bilateral trade & reciprocity with the principles of free trade and nondiscrimination - State’s tariff same for all GATT members FROM GATT TO THE WTO • GATT only covered certain classes of products - No agriculture, No trade in services (insurance, banking) - No regulation on non-tariff barrier (Quotas, health regulations) • The WTO – World Trade Organization - 117 nations signed new agreement in 1994, currently 162 - Incorporated main GATT provisions - General Agreement on Trade in Services included - Protection for intellectual property rights - Agriculture is still main sticking point • Enforcement mechanism - WTO can penalize offenders THE PERILS OF FINANCIAL GLOBALIZATION • Global inequality: - Structural adjustment program - Intellectual property right - Agricultural subsidies • When markets out of control = domestic crises become international crises • No regulatory apparatus at international level - Debt Crisis: when a debtor country is no longer willing or able to make the scheduled payments on its debts - Monetary Crisis: investors anticipate the value of a particular currency to fall à panic à rapidly sell the currency they have à the value of that particular currency collapses GLOBALLY INEQUALLY • Structural adjustment program • Foreign aid: can’t live with it, can’t live without it • Debt crisis • Foreign trade: a new way to get out of poverty cycle? • Problem of late developers • Advanced industrialized states have used protectionism, import substitution, state subsidies to develop their economy • So where is the idea or justice? • Intellectual property right • Agricultural subsidies - Increase privatization (private) - Comparative advantage Ø What is the problem with exporting agricultural (raw) materials? - Add value à technology – labor Foreign Aid à not successful (after cold war the motto was “trade not aid”) Ø Mercantilism à export & import Ø Trade was being done bilaterally (this was before GATT / WTO) Ø Intellectual Property Right -Closely related to indigenous people -How? – you find indigenous in nature – they have wisdom (to create drugs) GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT CHALLENGES Ø Global warning - Increase in overall temperature of the planet from increase in certain gases in atmosphere - No international agreement on dealing with the problem Ø Climate change - Changes in long-term weather patterns that are the result of global warning TYPES OF RESOURCES AND POLLUTION v Nonrenewable resources - Natural products with limited supply EX. Oil, rare earth metals, species v Renewable resources - Natural products that can be sustained EX. Fisheries, forests, aquifers v Pollution - Materials that we produce too much of EX. Greenhouse gases, toxic waste Depleting ocean resources - How we are causing it/ doing it? Gulf of Mexico à gasoline in the ocean CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS Ø Population growth - The global average growth rate is about 1.14%. This means the population of the planet increases by approximately 75,000,000 people every year. That is roughly the population of Iran. - Decrease in mortality Green revolution Health care improvements IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGES Ø Consumption growth - As population rises, the consumption increases. The increased consumption requires more resources and leaves larger carbon footprint. Carbon-footprint à the carbon usage of a person on the world on a daily basis EX. Kiribati: Sinking Island STRUCTURAL ADJUSMENT PROGRAM - The global environment GLOBAL WARNING - Increase in overall temperature - No international agreement CLIMATE CHANGE - Changes CONSUMPTION GROWTH - Population increases; Consumption increases ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS - Environmental problems can either be local, transitional or global § Local – smog in LA § Transitional environmental problems o Pollution of waterways bordering more than one country o Overconsumption of water from watersheds o Air pollution flowing across borders o Overfishing of shared waters § Global environmental problems o Depletion of ozone layer o Global warming o Biodiversity loss o Overpopulation o Oil shortages NORTH-SOUTH DIVIDE - Maldives: sinking island - Climate change and food security - Climate change and refugees ENVIRNOMENTAL COOPERATION AS A COLLECTIVE ACTION PROBLEM - Environmental cooperation leads to Collective Action - Problems because most of the resources are public goods - Public goods – the resources are there for all of humanity to use and we share them with other countries. No one person or organization owns all of one resource. As it is public goods, overuse of it creates problems - Collective action problem o Public/ Collective good has 2 characteristics – • Nonrival – my consumption does not reduce another person’s consumption e.g. clean air • Nonexcludable – if available to one person, it is available to all ENVIRNOMENTAL COOPERATION AS A COLLECTIVE ACTION PROBLEM - Collective action problem: o Free rider problem – one can enjoy the benefits without bearing the cost o Creation of negative externalities – forcing costs on others • You can look at the collection action problem in environmental issues as the tragedy of the commons: - The Tragedy of the Commons o Versions of the collective action problem in which a shared resource is over consumed Fishery Air pollution INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL COLLABORATION: SOLUTIONS AND BARRIERS Solutions: Ø Solving International Collective Action Problems • Reduce the number of actors o Break global problems into regional ones • Time horizons o Value of future costs • Free rider problem – privatize the goods • Selective incentives – e.g. offering foreign aid to countries that participate in reducing global emissions BARRIERS - Conflict with free trade agreements - Competing economic priorities - Complexity - Equity - Economic competitiveness - Scientific uncertainty - Intergovernmental panel on climate change - Domestic politics INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS AND NORMS - Montreal Protocol – 1987 • First major successful global environmental treaty • Signed by 24 states and the EU • Sustainable development - The 1997 Kyoto Protocol Process • Treaty to limit greenhouse gas emissions • U.S. concerned with economic cost – didn’t sign it • After Kyoto, other countries developed economically and became competitors (BRICS) o Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa - 2009 Copenhagen Summit for follow-up treaty INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS - Other Environmental agreements - Convention of Biological Diversity – Biodiversity Treaty (1992) o Conservation of biological diversity o Sustainable use of its components o Fair and equitable sharing of the benefits NOTES FROM THE FINAL CLASS REVIEW SESSION TERRORISM & CAUSES OF TERRORISM Questions: • Why is it difficult to come up with a universally acceptable definition of terrorism? Answer: • Politically contested issue. • Means different things to different people and groups. • Different levels of analysis involved. • Difference in domestic legal systems and slow pace of international law impedes a universally binding definition of terrorism. • What are the root causes of terrorism? Hints: Different levels of analysis-individual, ideological, socio-economic • How likely are the terrorist groups to acquire and use WMD? Hints: Watch the videos where Aum Shinrikyo and Rajneesh Cult use Sarin gas and biological agents respectively. FACT CHECK • Number of EU Members- 28 • Maastricht Treaty- signed on February 7, 1992 Entered into force on November 1, 1993 CONCEPTS • Public Good - The resources are there for all of humanity to use and we share them with other countries. No one person or organization owns all of one resource. As it is public good, overuse of it creates problems • Collective action problem – Public/Collective good has two characteristics - • Nonrival – my consumption does not reduce another person’s consumption e.g. clean air • Nonexcludable – if available to one person, it is available to all
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