Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Com 212
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathleen Welling on Friday February 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Com 212 at Purdue University taught by Douglas Edward Pruim in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 239 views. For similar materials see Approaches to the Study of Interpersonal Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/27/15
M Exam 2 Unit 2 Study Guide chapters 35 Main questions for chapter 3 What is nonverbal communication We can t call every nonverbal act quotcommunicationquot because it becomes to vague and loses its meaning So 3 conditions are attached to nonverbal behaviors before they are considered acts of communication 1 Perceived consciously by either the sender or the receiver 2 Intended as a message by the sender 3 Interpreted by the receiver as intended Spontaneous Communication 48 refers to a sender s involuntary display of inner emotional states and a receiver s direct and immediate sensory awareness of those states Natural gestures 0 Biological based system that we share with other animals a reflection of our inner emotions When we get happy so we smile unintentionally 0 Our nonverbal signs gesturesfacial expressions are just external manifestations of our internal emotions they are not intentional or planned Symbolic Communication 48 involves the use of arbitrary symbols socially defined and intended to convey specific messages 0 Language 0 Gain sympathy by purposefully shrugging your shoulders and looking sullen 0 Language is the obvious one but it is not nonverbal Nonverbal ones include the puppy dogface or intentionally quotputting on a happy face for something What are the characteristics of nonverbal codes and what do they allow us to do What are the codes that make up nonverbal communication How do we adjust our nonverbal during interaction Specific concepts from chapter 3 The power of nonverbal 1 Nonverbals are given more trust I If someone says yes but their body language is saying no you are more likely to believe their body language 2 Emotionally Powerful I They tell about our emotional state If we want to convey how we feel about someone language often fails us Myriad gestures handholding interlocked arms etc physically connect people in ways that words cannot 3 More universal I We may not be able to communicate right away with people of different languages using verbal words but we can communicate by expressing nonverbal For example happiness anger disgust fear and surprise are universal the only differences being culturally WHEN these should be expressed etc 4 They are continuous and Natural I They flow together without obvious beginnings or endings and they seem to be a more natural part of our existence than words For example motioning quotcome here shows bringing someone from farther away into closer proximity 5 Cluster Together I Verbal communication is limited to a single channel while nonverbal operate as several channels usually in concert When different nonverbal codes send the same message the message is intensified The functions of nonverbal codes 0 Three ways of expressing meaning 0 Five ways modifying meaning 1 Express meaning I Used to convey how we feel about other people and how we see our relationship to them I Three fundamental dimensions of feeling liking status and responsiveness I Liking do we smile when we see them or look away and avoid them I Status how important or influential we think we are in relation to others I Responsiveness how aware we are of the other person and what level of involvement we feel with him or her laughing heartily or bursting into tears high responsiveness 2 Modify verbal messages 1 Complement nonverbal elaboration of a verbal message m sick we look at the flushed skin pale face body heat etc to see the extent of the illness or quotgood job a thumbs up 2 Accenting underline or focus attention on a specific word or phrase pounding your fist while making a point 3 Repeating when someone asks us a favor and we say yes and nod our head at the same time 4 Substituting instead of saying no giving a cold stare 5 Contradicting ask if you can stay after class and your teacher says sure I have plenty of time But then she is rushing around looking nervous etc does she REALLY have time or saying quotYeah I am so happy right now When really you are about to cry 3 Regulate flow of interaction nonverbals are responsible for regulating the flow of talk When people talk to each other nonverbals are responsible for the smoothness of taking turns avoiding long pauses changing topics and signaling when it is appropriate to end the conversation Ill Three nonverbal systems Table 31 Know all the terms in the table and subterms expressed in the text 1 Visual Communication System As humans we are visual More likely to act on what we see than what we feel or hear 0 Proxemics the study of messages sent when people use or adjust to changes in the spatial environment people adjust their distance when speaking to each other and if they changed locations then they might have different actions Ex in a hallway vs in a large very busy room 0 Environmental preferences we react to our environment uniquely but we are also genetically and culturally programmed to react in more similar ways If we feel comfortable in a setting we are more likely to communicate effectively and vice versa Physical features of an environment such as lighting color noise etc affect our preference for that environment and subjective perceptions such as familiarity and mystery will affect if we approach an environment or not Architects design buildings that will enhance a sense of community and wellbeing Some people don t like social outings at bars because they cant zone out all the flashing lights and distractions etc I Emotional reactions along these 3 dimensions 0 Arousalnonarousal Dominancesubmissiveness Pleasuredispleasure o Territoriality the legal or assumed ownership of space or the assumption of proprietary rights toward some geographical area with the realization at least for humans that there is no basis for those rights O I Public territoriesowned by no one and accessible to anyone interactional territories created and exist only in an interaction baseball team takes over the park for a practice field for a day home strangers likely to not intrude in our homes and body territories personal space 5455 Personal space four interaction zones 55 I Intimate distance 016 inches lovemaking and very private coversations I Personal distance 18 in 4 ft friends and acquaintances I Social distance 412 ft business transactions and role relations I Public distance 1225 ft appropriate for public ceremonies speechmaking classroom lectures and so on o Kinesics the study of body movements such as gestures postures and head trunk and limb movements Facial expression and eye gaze too 0 Body movements how we carry our bodies or move them in relationship to others They can show what we feel our status is in relation to others are open or closed to interaction how confident nervous happy or sad they feel etc 0 Types of gestures Emblems gestures that can easily be translated into verbal statements and there is a widespread agreement to what they mean middle finger fuck you Illustrators accompany speech and emphasize what was said holding your palms up pointing shaking your fists etc Affect displays nonverbal cues that signal emotions Emotions are mostly communicated through the face but postural and gestural cues convey how we feel too child throwing a tantrum kicking arms and legs Regulators nonverbals that help control interaction flow ex Signaling when you want to say something in a conversation Selfadapters using body movements to manage anxious or emotionally charged situations manipulations of your own body pressing a hand against your mouth chewing nails crossing your arms Object adapters material objects used in the tension management process smoking tapping a pencil chewing a straw Gaze eyes are messengers themselves not just receivers 0 Eyes serve 3 primary functions I Expressive communicate emotions like fear and surprise Can create arousal in those being stared at I Regulate amp monitor others reactions during conversation I Looking gazing in the direction of the other s eyes I Seeing visual contact with the whole person I Seeing gt looking when it comes to regulating and monitoring feedback Facial Expression single most important channel of nonverbal communication 0 Universal expressions regardless of culture there are 6 universal basic emotions happiness sadness surprise fear anger and disgust Why Part of what we inherit biologically and communicate spontaneously o Facial blend traces of more than one emotion on someone s face 0 Cultural display rules control when we have to display quotfakequot emotions Act surprised at our surprise party even though someone already spilled the beans 0 Leakage cues unintended signs of our real feelings o Misreading facial expressions is common Artifacts physical appearance and manipulations of that appearance through clothing Culture defines beauty but there are some underlying aspects of body types and proportions that appear to be fairly universal Body types change from availability of food If scarce more plump is seen as attractive Body symmetry the extent to which both sides of the body mirror each other Body proportionality the relative length size or distance between related physical features waistto hip ratio in women Clothing and adornment 63 way to communicate social status group ID and personality 0 O O O 2 The Auditory Communication System vocalics or paralanguage what is said is frequently less important than how it is said Vocal Characteristics Vocal qualities loudness pitch inflection tempo rhythm Vocal characterizers laughing crying moaning yelling whining Vocal segregates sounds that get in the way of fluent speech quotuhh umm like 3 The Invisible Communication System I Time smell and touch in the communication system I 1Chronemics interpreting messages associated with time 0 Time is related to status A Doctor s time is considered more valuable than the patient s time Or the boss determines when employees arrive take breaks and go home Conflicts in relationships often focus on time HURRY UP I don t want to be late best way to improve intimacy is by simply spending time together I 2 Olfaction messages we attach to smells emitted by the body We can be aware of these but we cant really control them I 3 Haptics the nonverbal code of touch 0 Types of touch I how much pressure is applied age of both people length of touch if we perceive it to be accidental or intentional etc o Contexts and Functions of Touch I Touch can signal aggression status friendliness etc but it is all dependent on the context I Professionalfunctional doctors and hairstylists can touch us in ways others cannot I Socialpolite allows for minimal touching during greetings conversations etc I Loveintimate hand in hand arm in arm Expectancy Violations Theory What is it and what are the valences Expectancy Violations Theory is a theory that predicts that when nonverbal communication norms are violated we will act positively or negatively depending on the violation valence and the reward value of the violator Violation Valence is our perception of the positive or negative value of the violating behavior itself For an example in a crowded bus if your space is violated it will be uncomfortable but not too out of the ordinary moderately negative valence but if the bus is NOT crowded and your space is violated it may seem more uncomfortable extremely negative valence BUT furthermore if you realize that the person violating your space is a famous actress your reward value of the person might change and you would label this as positive valence Cognitive Valence Theory How does CVT differ from EVT Cognitive Valence theory differs from EVT because it has several aspects added onto it EVT says that two factors are involved in determining how we respond violation valence and the reward value of the violator and CVT in addition to those two factors adds in perception physiological arousal and a variety of cognitive schema that lead to positive reciprocal or negative compensatory responses CVT says that when we have a violation if it is high then absolutely everything is bad about it If it is low we hardly even notice it Main questions for chapter 4 How is language different from nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication is analogic and seems to be the best at conveying relationships and immediate emotional states Verbal communication is digital and is more useful for more abstract and logical meanings What is a speech act and why is it important during communication When we talk we have specific goals in mind These goals are known as speech acts and some examples include promising threatening complimenting praising warning requesting etc Knowing a sentence s meaning involves knowing its intended speech act If someone critiques an article you wrote you cant look at semantics or syntactics you have to look at what they were trying to do compliment you Critique you Avoid telling you its awful How does language affect thought The SapirWhorf hypothesis says that language determines the way that we interpret the world We experience what we do largely because the language habits of our community predispose certain choices of interpretations Specific concepts from chapter 4 Difference between analogic and digital codes Analogic codes indicate meaning by being similar to what they convey They are connected to reality itself For example an analogue clock tells time with two hands that are signaling the progression of time as the hands move Digital codes use symbols to represent reality For example a digital clock simply uses symbols numbers to represent the passage of time Characteristics of verbal language 1 Consists of discrete separable units It can be processed and manipulated more readily than nonverbal codes and can be modified and changed and saved across time and space 2 Encourages us to create new realities It allows nonexistent things or us to talk about absent This is good for creativity but it also allows for deception We can t deceive with nonverbals 3 Leads to the ability to think in new and complex ways Abstract nouns and logical words such as and all none and grammatical markers can t be expressed nonverbally These words lead to complex philosophy and mathematical systems Lets us think more logically and rationally 4 Self reflexive we can use our words to talk about our words and improve communication Functions of language 1 Used to conquer silence and the unknown 2 Allows us to express and control emotion 3 Can camouflage or hide our thoughts and feelings 4 Permits us to make and avoid contact 5 Enables us to assert individual and social identity 6 Give or seek info Ask for directions or teach how to ride a bike 7 Control or be controlled by the world Language is power and it can be used to persuade influence regulate or dominate We make good impressions and get people to see our perspective control the world Language also affects the way we perceive the world it controls us 8 To monitor the process of communication Did you understand what I said Do you get my point Structure of language 0 Semantic denotation versus connotation WORD o Syntactic effect and impact of grammar SENTENCE o Pragmatic CMM and speech acts SPEECH ACT There are 3 levels of language that are important to the study of interpersonal communication and these are semantic words syntactic sentences and pragmatic speech acts The first level is semantic In this level we learn about two kinds of word meanings denotative and connotative Denotative is the public conventional dictionarydefinition meaning The connotative meaning is the private and often emotionally charged meaning For example the word quotdeathquot means the cessation of life in the denotative meaning and that is what it means to everybody in the language system However the connotative meaning will be very different depending on whom you talk to The second level is syntactic In this level we learn about the process in which words are combined and ordered into grammatical sequences called syntactics Part of a word s meaning is its relationship to the words before and after it in a sentence The way we put words together can leave powerful impressions For example those who use incorrect grammar tend be looked down upon as less intelligent and lazy The third level is pragmatic In this level we learn the importance of knowing how to use language in actual conversation and interaction When we talk we have specific goals in mind These goals are known as speech acts and some examples include promising threatening complimenting praising warning requesting etc Knowing a sentence s meaning involves knowing its intended speech act If someone critiques an article you wrote you cant look at semantics or syntactics you have to look at what they were trying to do compliment you Critique you Avoid telling you its awful A theory called CMM coordinated management of meaning helps to answer these questions It says that we know how to use language because we follow rules that tell us how to understand and produce speech acts There are two kinds of rules in CMM constitutive rules which tell us how to recognize speech acts and regulative rules which identify which speech acts are appropriate or inappropriate CMM levels of hierarchal meaning in CMM theory know Figure 42 Cultural Pattern North american middle class college Both north American man is lower class Girl is mid class Life Script two college students man is way older than girl Relationship attractive strangers strangers Episode boy at a bar trying to pick up a girl older guy in a dark alley with a young girl Speech Act greeting pickup line creepy greeting Content Hey cutie Hey cutie What is Action Assembly Theory and howwhere does it fit into the chapter in class Action assembly Theory is the relationship between our behaviors the context of our behavior and the outcome of that behavior We have all sorts of these routines in our head but sometimes these routines don t work out so we need to build a new path For example if you are at your grandma s house context you know that you can t swear behavior because you will get slapped or your mouth washed out with soap bad outcome This theory fits into our chapter since we are discussing when certain communication behaviors are appropriate and inappropriate SapirWhorf Hypothesis The SapirWhorf hypothesis says that language shapes our reality and our reality shapes our language For example the Eskimos have many more words for snow than people from other geographical areas do These differences allow them to talk about distinctions that most other people would not notice Because the Eskimos have labeled these types of snow with language it is easy for them to distinguish the differences Gender Bias don t worry about the different ways they use language Occupations tend to be classed as male or female So when a person ofthe quotwrongquot sex enters one of these occupations we need to linguistically mark this fact For example a female nurse is just considered a quotnursequot but when a man becomes a nurse they are known as a quotmale nurse Another gender bias is the use of ette or ess on the end of words for women These tend to imply that the woman being described is not as powerful or competent as her male counterpart Terms such as honey and sweetie are used by clerks and waitresses for women and men are addressed as sir In the wedding ceremony it is man and wife WIFE referring to the woman s new role to her husband Also 10x more sexual terms for females than males slut whore ho hooker Generic man forms quotone should look at HIS conscience quotmankindquot females unintentionally excluded Main Questions for Chapter 5 What is listening and why is it important Listening is the process of receiving constructing meaning from and responding to spoken or nonverbal messages It is important because rather than just hearing the words spoken listening allows us to take in information from all the senses and pick up on the nonverbal cues of what the words are actually saying Listening has cognitive emotional and behavioral dimensions all of which work together understanding others and being sympathetic and empathetic Do people listen in different ways Yes people tend to have different styles of listening Just as there are different ways for people to connect to each other there are different listening styles associated with making these connections For example they can be person centered listeners action centered content centered or time centered What is the connection between listening conflict and emotion Conflict can be difficult to manage One of the reasons for this is because during conflict we tend to use our emotions from our hot system which is quotemotional simple reflexive and fast We aren t thinking rationally when we use these emotions we are simply coming up with a quick response to a stressful event However use ofthese hot emotions can be stopped before they start and conflict can be much easier to manage simply by using effective listening Specific concepts from chapter 5 Types of listening Discriminatory listening basic to all other types of listening We strain to identify a scary sound in the dark quotShhh I hear something Appreciative Listening listening for pleasure music Comprehensive receiving and remembering new information learning We succeed when we understand and can recreate the intended meaning Evaluative listening listening to make judgments Infomercial evaluate ifthe product is worth buying Politician views should we agree or not A child says they are okay with being cut from the team are they really okay We succeed by making sound decisions about it Empathetic listening allow people to talk about their problems and offer suggestions to help them find their own solutions We offer support and send messages that we care DACEE Discriminatory appreciative comprehensive evaluative empathetic Listening styles Peopleoriented 0 See listening as a way to build relationships and good at empathetic listening Actionoriented o listen for a specific reason and prefer concise well organized info related to their goals Urge others to quotget to the point and they are good at discriminatory listening Contentoriented 0 Like the challenge of listening to complex information They take pleasure in learning new facts Comprehensive listening is what you like Timeoriented o Concerned with keeping on schedule Want to get in and out of the conversation ASAP Three things conflict tells us Conflicts are bit inherently good or bad Wellmanaged conflicts should be welcomed rather than avoided because they can be healthy in a relationship There are several positive characteristics of conflict 1 Conflict means interdependence o It is a sign that two people are involved in each other s lives The fact that they fight means that they still care Many times after conflict partners feel closer 2 Conflict signals a need for change 0 Without the ability to adapt a system will run down Conflict is an opportunity to become more adaptable and creative Helps partners find new ways to relate 3 Conflict allows problem diagnosis 0 Instead of denying problems conflict gives you an opportunity to diagnose problems Why are conflicts difficult to manage 1 Emotions hot system emotions happen when we are in a stressful situation They are quotemotional simple reflexive and fast and when we express them we are not thinking rationally Our prefrontal cortex controls our cool system which is where the rational complex slow and emotionally neutral emotions come from Typically in stressful situations we let our hot system take over when our cool system should be taking over 2 Biased Perceptions when anxiety is high it is hard to accept that the way we are seeing a situation may not be a true representation of what is happening Admitting we are wrong is difficult If we are made aware of our faulty perceptions then it may be easier to overcome them 3 Obstacles during conflicts people often talk about the wrong things Focusing on solutions before understanding the problem BAD quotIt s not a big deal we ll just do this it s fine They talk in the wrong ways Sometimes they make it worse rather than better Gunny sacking kitchen sinking stereotyping demand withdraw sequence Hot emotions ways to deal with 0 Take a time out Count to ten take a break to cool off Listen to music take a walk etc 0 Have a plan You know that someone gets on your nerves so have a specific plan more effective than a general one and use it next time you are with this person 0 Turning to third parties must be FAIR to both sides The third party can let them know that their emotions are natural have them achknowledge how they feel and make sure they don t say something extremely negative to the other person Biased perceptions know the list in table 51 Perceptual bias Belief Simplifying the situation I already know everything I need to know Exaggerating Differences We have nothing in common Viewing conflict as a winlose proposition If you win I lose There is no solution that can justify us both Making selfserving judgments I deserve more than you do Falsely assuming understanding I m being perfectly clear Undervaluing others proposals If you re happy with the way things turned out then I can t be Types of obstacles eg gunnysacking etc Gunny sacking failing to confront problems as they come up and storing these conflicts for later Bringing up an old problem during conflict Kitchen sinking bringing up every old argument all at once When gunnysacks quotbreakquot people often throw in irrelevant details too kitchen sinking Use of unfair stereotypes insults of families etc original argument is basically forgotten Demandwithdraw behavior where one is dominant and one gives up How do we fix this Reframing Reframe the conflict in a way that addresses shared interests Mirror listening technique in class see exercise on p125 for a general guide 1 listen and respect the other person s point of view 2 Make sure you understand what the person has said 3 Check your understanding by paraphrasing 4 When paraphrasing relate relational as well as content meaning 5 THANK the person for sharing Conflict management strategy in class If someone comes at you with a conflict this is what you should do 0 Shields up Emotional don t make this person s hot emotions your hot emotions Engage actively in listening 0 Personally Empathize what are they going through and how can I relate to it 0 Ask questions to clarify 0 Give back solutions What do YOU suggest ask them what THEY would do
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