GEOL 101 Study Guide
GEOL 101 Study Guide 101-017
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Popular in Geology
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
GEOL 101 Final Exam Review The presence of water will ___ the melting temperature of a rock. a. Increase b. Raise c. Decrease d. Have no effect on How old is the Earth? a) 4.5 thousand b) 4.5 billion c) 4.5 million d) 4.5 trillion Which of the following makes up the bulk of the Earth? a. Crust b. Inner core c. Mantle d. Outer core According to the principle of uniformitarianism, ________. a. Geologic processes we observe today have operated in the past b. Animals evolved at a uniform rate c. All of the planets formed form a uniform solar nebula d. Early Earth was covered by a uniform magma ocean Which of the following statements about the scientific method is FALSE? a. A scientific theory is never considered finally proved b. Data used to generate a hypothesis may come from observations, experiments, and chance findings. c. A theory that has accumulated substantial body of experimental support is called a hypothesis d. A scientific model represents some aspect of nature based on a set of hypotheses and theories The three main types of sediment are _____. a. Bioplastic, chemical, granitic b. Clastic, biochemical, chemical The Earth’s core is made up primarily of _____. a. Iron b. Lead c. Oxygen d. Silicon In which of the following subsystems is the Earth’s magnetic field generated? a. Climate system b. Hydrologic system c. Geodynamo system d. Plate tectonic system What powers the Earth’s external heat engine? a. Gravitational energy b. Radioactive decay c. Solar energy d. Tidal forces Which of the following concepts was developed earliest? a. Continental drift b. Plate tectonics c. Seafloor spreading d. All three concepts were developed at about the same time Minerals form as a result of: a. Crystallization form a magma b. Recrystallization in the solid state c. Precipitation from solution d. All of the above The two characteristics used to describe a rock are: a. Texture and hardness b. Color and taste c. Hardness and mineralogy d. Mineralogy and texture Where would you expect to find the largest crystals in a lava flow? a. Near the top surface of the flow b. In the center of the flow c. Near the bottom surface of the flow d. The crystals would be the same size throughout Large igneous bodies that form at depth in the Earth’s crust are called ______. a. Dikes b. Plutons c. Sills d. veins Andesite is an example of a(n) ______ igneous rock. a. Felsic b. Intermediate c. Mafic d. Ultramafic Oceanic crust that records negative magnetic anomalies formed when he Earth’s magnetic field was ___. a. The same as it is today b. The same as today except weaker c. Reversed from what it is today d. The same as today except stronger Which of the following substances is not considered a mineral a. Coal b. Diamond c. Gypsum d. Rock salt Most of the chemical bonds in common minerals are _____. a. Covalent b. Metallic c. Ionic d. None of the above The Earth’s Lithospheric plates consist of a. Continental crust b. Oceanic crust c. Continental and oceanic crust d. Continental and oceanic crust and uppermost mantle New lithosphere is created ____ . a. In deep sea trenches b. In subdution zones c. At mid ocean ridges d. Along transform faults On a map of the oceanic crust, the boundaries between normally and reversely magnetized oceanic crusts are called _____. a. Dipoles b. Isochrones c. Isograds d. Sutures What drives plate tectonics? a. Magnetic reversals b. Mantle convection c. Solar energy d. Volcanism What is the dominant type of bounding in minerals? a. Covalent bonding b. Ionic bonding c. Metallic bonding d. Nuclear bonding Isotopes of an element have different numbers of ______. a. Electrons b. Protons c. Neutrons d. Electrons, neutrons, and protons Sodium has an atomic number of 11. How many electrons will the sodium cation Na+ have? a. 1 b. 10 c. 11 d. 12 Cleavage in a mineral is controlled by the ______. a. Ionic arrangement of atoms within the material b. Covalent Bonding of molecules c. Shape of the crystal faces d. Hardness of the substance Any rock type (igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic) can be turned into any other rock type via the processes of the rock cycle. a. True b. False Which of the following igneous rocks crystallize at the earths surfaces? a. Basalt b. Gabbro c. Granit d. Peridotite Which of the following igneous rocks has the lowest silica content? a. Ultramafic b. Magic c. Intermediate d. Felsic What type of rock makes up most of the Hawaiian Islands? a. Peridotite b. Granite c. Andesite d. Basalt What type of sediments are accumulations of solid fragments produced by weathering? a. Biochemical sediments b. Clastic sediments c. Chemical sediments d. All of the above Sedimentary basins are formed by a process called_______. a. Subsidence b. Diagenesis c. Lithification d. Subduction Metamorphic rocks result from the recrystallization of existing rocks while they are still in a solid state. a. True b. False Which of the following rocks represents the highest metamorphic grade? a. Gneiss b. Phyllite c. Schist d. Slate A rock exhibiting high grade metamorphism has experienced high temperatures and/ or pressures. a. True b. False The parent rock of a quartzite is ______. a. Sandstone b. Shale c. Granite d. Limestone Which of the following metamorphic rocks is incorrectly paired with its parent rock? a. Greenstone – basalt b. Quartzite – granite c. Marble – limestone d. Schist – shale This question is on the test The absolute age of a geologic event in the rock record is___. a. The number of years that have elapsed between the event and the present day b. The amount of time that has elapsed between the event and the beginning of Earth history c. The number of years that have elapsed between the event and the beginning of human civilization d. The amount of time that has elapsed between the event and another similar geologic event The evidence that mars once had water includes__. a. Dry riverbeds and valleys b. Large salt deposits for driedup ocean c. Liquid water in current Martin oceans d. Water vapor in the Martin atmosphere Where are the oldest rocks in North America located? a. Appalachian mountains b. Canadian shield c. Basin and range province d. The rocky mountains The process whereby continents grow as a result of continental collisions is called___. a. Accretion b. Differentiation c. Assimilation d. Fractionation The three domains of life are___. a. Bacteria, eukarya , thermotoga b. Archaea, eukarya, extremophiles c. Eukarya, bacteria, archaea d. Eukarya, mictobes, archaea Huge mudflows of wet volcanic debris are called___. a. Calderas b. Diatremes c. Lahars d. Tuffs Magma generated in the Earth’s interior rises because it is ___ than the surrounding rocks A. Denser B. Less In viscosity C. Less dense D. More volatile rich Which of the following tectonic settings will be coolest at 30 km depth? a. Regions of continental extension b. Stable continental lithosphere c. Volcanic arcs d. Temperature in all three tectonic settings above will be the same at 30kn depth Which mineral is commonly used to determine a metamorphic PT path? a. Calcite b. Garnet c. Muscovite d. Quartz Strains are the forces that act on geologic materials, and stresses are the deformation they produce. a. True b. False Reverse faults form in response to ____ forces. a. Compressional b. Shearing c. Tensional d. Torsional The compass direction of a horizontal line in a 3dimensional plane is called the ____. a. Dip b. Strike c. Nadir d. Line of Horizontality In an anticline,_____. a. the oldest rocks occur in the center and the limbs dip away from the center b. the youngest rocks occur in the center and the limbs dip toward the center c. the youngest rocks occur in the center and the limbs dip away from the center d. the oldest rocks occur in the center of the limbs dip toward the center THIS IS AN EXAM QUESTION Upfolds or arches of layered rock are called a. Unconformities b. Synclines c. Anticlines d. Faults Which of the following types of tectonic forces tends to squeeze and shorten a rock body a. Tensional forces b. Compressional forces c. Shearing forces d. All of the above Stresses are the forces that act on geologic materials, and strains are the deformation they produce a. True b. False There is a general correspondence of fault type with tectonic environment. a. True b. False Brittle deformation (faulting) will be favored over ductile deformation by ____. a. Lower temperatures b. Higher strain rate c. Lower pressure d. All of the above Which of the following is the best statement of the principle of original horizontality? a. Igneous intrusions form horizontal layers b. Metamorphic isograds are horizontal before deformation c. Sediments are deposited as horizontal layers d. Most igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks in the earth’s crust form horizontal layers The study of the layers in sedimentary rock is known as ___. a. Stratigraphy b. Paleontology c. Sedimentation d. Geochronology Based on the concept of halflife in radioactive decay, after three halflives, the amount of a parent isotope remaining will be ____ of the original amount. a. ½ b. 1/3 c. ¼ d. 1/8 The principle of superposition states that _____. a. A fault is younger than the rocks it cuts b. Undisturbed sedimentary layers get progressively younger form bottom to top c. The present is the key to the past d. Sediments are deposited as essentially horizontal layers The Hypotheses that explains the formation of the solar system is referred to as the ____. a. Big Bang Hypothesis b. Origin hypotheses c. Nebular hypothesis d. Planetesimal hypothesis The four inner planets are ___. a. Mostly hot, with heavy, dense atmospheres b. All similar to the Earth in size, atmosphere, and density c. Larger and less dense than the outer planets d. Small rocky and relatively lacking in volatile elements (gases) Which of the following statements about the age of the Earth and Moon is TRUE? a. The Earth is approximately 3 billion years older than the moon b. The Earth and moon are approximately the same age c. The Earth is approximately 1.5 billion years younger than the Moon d. The Earth is approximately 4.5 billion years younger than the Moon What caused dust and condensing material to accrete into planetesimals? a. Gravitational attraction and collisions b. Heating and gases c. Nuclear fusion d. Rotation of the protosun When is it though that the big bang took place a. Approximately 4.5 million years ago b. Approximately 14 million years ago c. Approximately 4.5 billion years ago d. Approximately 14 billion years ago What mountain chain runs along the eastern margin of North America? a. The Andes b. The Appalachian c. The Caledonides d. The Cordillera What is meant by the tectonic age of a region? a. The oldest rocks in the region b. The oldest major deformation event in the region c. The youngest rocks in the region d. The youngest major deformation event in the region What is orogeny? a. A broad exposure of deformed metamorphic and igneous rocks b. A general term for mountainbuilding processes c. A special type of reverse fault d. A theory that explains the uplift of continents after large ice sheets melt Which of the following can change the rate of radioactive decay? a. Chemical reactions b. Changes in pressure c. Changes in temperature d. None of the above Where do basins form? a. Where tensional forces stretch the crust b. Where thick sequences of sediment are deposited c. Where a part of the crust has been heated and subsequently cools and contracts d. All of the above The study of Geobiology is defined as ____. a. The study of ancient life forms on Earth b. The study of how organisms influence and are influenced by Earth’s environments c. The study of the Earth’s environmental changes throughout time d. The study of the organisms lost during mass extinctions events Organisms that produce their own energy are referred to as __. a. Autotrophs b. Chemotrophs c. Phototrophs d. Heterotrophs The pathway through which a chemical element or molecule moves between the biologic and environmental components of an ecosystem is called a ____. a. Biogeochemical cycle b. Biomicrobial cycle c. Geometabolic cycle d. Geosynthesis cycle Sedimentary features that form from the interaction of microbes with their environment are called___. a. Nodules b. Stromatolites c. Branching columns d. laminations Ecosystems are composed of ___ and ___ that function in a balance manner. a. Multicellular organisms, singlecelled organisms b. Plants, animals c. Organisms, plants d. Organisms, geologic components What is the name for a basaltic lava flow that has a ropy, folded surface? a. Aa b. Breccia c. Pahoehoe d. Tuff Organisms that gain energy form feeding directly or indirectly on producers are referred to as___. a. Autotrophs b. Chemptrophs c. Phototrophs d. Heterotrophs What is molten rock beneath the Earth’s surface called? a. Granite b. Magma c. Lithosphere d. Lave At what boundary within the Earth do we believe that mantle plumes (hot spots) originate? a. Crust mantle boundary b. Lithosphere – asthenosphere boundary c. Mantle – outer core boundary d. Outer core inner core boundary The amount of ground displacement is an earthquake is called a ___. a. Dip b. Epicenter c. Focus d. Slip What is the maximum amount of slip on a fault during an earthquake? a. About 1 meter b. About 20 meters c. About 100 meters d. About 200 meters The Mercalli intensity scale measures ___. a. The amount of destruction caused by an earthquakes b. The amount of slip on a fault plan caused by an earthquake c. The amplitude of the surface waves d. All of the above The average time between large earthquake events along a fault is known as the __ interval. a. Seismic b. Hazard c. Fault slip d. Recurrence P seismic waves travel faster than S seismic waves. a. True b. False What is the approximate distance from the surface to the center of the Earth? a. 700 km b. 2900 km c. 6400 km d. 24000 km Which layer in the Earth does NOT transmit S waves? a. Crust b. Inner core c. Mantle d. Outer core Which of the following statements about the MOHO is false? a. The Moho marks the top of the outer core b. The Moho separates denser rocks below from less dense rocks above c. The Moho separates the crust form the mantle d. The speed of seismic waves increases as they pass down through the Moho. Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas? a. Carbon dioxide b. Methane c. Sulfur dioxide d. Water vapor The earth albedo is the fraction of __. a. The Earth’s surface that is covered by land b. The earth’s surface that is covered by oceans c. Solar energy absorbed by the Earth’s surface d. Solar energy reflected by the Earth’s surface Which of the following do we think had most significantly changed the carbon cycle over the past 150 years? a. Burial of organic carbon b. Burning of fossil fuels c. Deposition of carbon – rich sediments d. Volcanism How much of the land surface is covered by ice? a. Approximately 10% b. Approximately 50% c. Approximately 30% d. Approximately 80% Which of the following would cause sea level to rise a. Melting of a very large iceberg b. Melting of the Ross ice shelf c. Melting of the Greenland ice cap d. All of the above Which of the following is an extremely slowmoving sheet of ice that covers vast land areas? a. An arête b. A continental glacier c. An ice shelf d. A valley glacier The following can be cited as evidence that CO2 may not be the driving forces of climate: a. Temperature leads CO2 increase b. The troposphere isn’t warming as Fast as the earth’s surface c. Global temperatures fell during the postwar industrial boom d. All of the above Tsunamis can be generated by__. a. Undersea earthquakes b. The eruption of an oceanic volcano c. Undersea landslides d. All of the above Earthquakes the originate at depths greater than 100KM are associated with ___ plate boundaries a. Transform b. Convergent c. Divergent d. All three Approximately how often does the earth magnetic field reverse itself? a. Every 5000 years b. Every 50,000 years c. Every 500,000 years d. Every 50 years The two most common chemical elements in the earth’s atmosphere are __ and __. A. Carbon dioxide and water B. Nitrogen and oxygen C. Oxygen and carbon dioxide D. Water and oxygen During the peak of the last ice age, sea level was ___ than sea level today a. 10 meter lower b. 1000 meters c. 1 meter d. 100 meters Which of the following terms describes a curved, coarsegrained sedimentary deposit that forms on the inside bend of a stream? a. Dune b. Point bar c. Oxbow d. Meander Which of the following processes doesn’t increase the amount of dust in the atmosphere? a. Agriculture b. Deforestation c. pitation d. Erosion For which direction do the trade winds in the tropics blow? A. East B. North C. South D. west Landforms are the product of____. a. Erosion b. Sedimentation c. Tectonics d. All of the above Which of the following regions has the lowest elevation a. Atlantic sea b. Dead sea c. Death valley d. East African rift The greenhouse effect is caused by a. Carbon dioxide and water vapor that trap heat radiating from the earth’s surface b. Heating of homes and businesses, which releases excess hear into the atmosphere c. Oceans that trap heat radiating from the earth’s seafloor d. Too many plants on the surface of the earth , which prevent cooling What is the general process by which rocks are broken down at the earth’s surface? A. Deposition B. Erosion C. Lithification D. Weathering Which of the following statements about weathering is false? a. Rocks of different compositions weather at different rates. b. Heat and heavy rainfall increase the rate of chemical weathering. c. The presence of soil slows down weathering of the underlying bedrock. d. The longer a rock is exposed at the surface, the more weathered it becomes . After the oceans, which of the following reservoirs contains the most water? a. The atmosphere b. Lakes and rivers c. Glaciers and polar ice caps d. Underground water What powers the hydrologic cycle? a. Magnetism b. Solar energy c. Mantel convection d. Radioactive decay Droughts are period is time when precipitation ___. a. Is higher than normal b. Equals evaporation c. Is nonexistent d. Is lower than normal Which of the following statements is true? a. Cool air can hold more water vapor than warm air b. Warm air can hold more water vapor than cool air c. Cold air and warm air can hold the same amount of water vaper The term “juvenile water” refers to water that. a. Was brought to Earth by meteorites b. Was derived from the mantle c. Appeared on the earth’s surface at the time of condensation d. Is very young and childish Layers that store and transmit groundwater are called A. Aquicludes B. Aquifers C. Influent streams D. Unsaturated zones Which of the following unfractured rocks has the highest porosity? a. Granite b. Sandstone c. Schist d. Shale Sinkholes are a possible danger in regions underlain by what type of bedrock? a. Granite b. Limestone c. Sandstone d. Shale The process by which surface water becomes ground water is called ____. a. Discharge b. Evaporation c. Infiltration d. Transpiration Suspended load includes all materials ___? a. Rolling along the bottom of the stream b. Temporarily or permanently suspended in the flow c. Deposited on the bottom of the stream d. Rolling along the bottom and suspended in the flow Which of the following particles is most easily eroded form the bed of a stream? a. Boulders b. Cohesive clay c. Pebbles d. Sand A 10year flood is a flood that a. Lasts for 10 years b. Lasts for an average of 10 years c. Occurs every 10 years d. Occurs about every 10 years Which of the following terms measures the total sediment load carried by a stream? a. Capacity b. Competence c. Discharge d. viscosity Elevation is a balance between a. Erosion and deposition b. Tectonic uplift and erosion c. Deposition and tectonic uplift d. Deposition and isostasy The amount of windblown material that wind can carry does not depend on the ____. a. Particle size b. Surface material c. Temperature d. Wind strength Where does most volcanic activity on the seafloor take place? a. Abyssal plains b. Midocean ridges c. Continental shelves d. Oceanic trenches How deep is the deepest part of the ocean? a. About 1 Kilometer deep b. About 10 kilometers deep c. About 3 kilometers deep d. About 30 kilometers deep Which of the following currents erode and deposit finegrained sediments on the continental slope and rise? a. Longshore cure b. River currents c. Turbidity currents d. Tidal currents Most sediment accumulates __. a. In rivers and streams b. On continental shelves c. At the base of the continental slope d. On the abyssal plain Coal forms from ____. a. Large accumulations of dinosaur bones b. Large accumulation Plant material c. Large accumulation Coral fragments d. Large accumulation Bacterial matter Petroleum and natural gas are considered ____ energy resources. a. Non – renewable b. Renewable c. Geothermal d. Hydrothermal The main component of natural gas in __. a. Nitrous oxide b. Methane c. Carbon dioxide d. Sulfur dioxide Formation of oil and gas occurs within which part of the earth a. Near the surface b. 5 – 10 km depths c. 1020 km depths d. 2030 km depths Oil and gas deposits can be found in ___. a. Anticlines b. Synclines c. Monoclines d. Homoclines The main difference between intrusive an extrusive rocks is__ a Silicon composition b Where they solidify c Viscosity d All of the above Most common rock forming mineral are___. a Carbonates b Oxides c Silicates d Sulfides What types of sediments are accumulations of solid fragments produced by weathering? a Biochemical sediments b Clastic sediments Based on the fossil records the current diversity of life on Earth represents less than 0.1 of the total number of species which have existed here in the geologic past a True b False Milankovitch cycle are dependent on Earth’s a Orbital eccentricity b Precession c Angle of tilt on the rotation axis d All of the above
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