Adolescent Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide
Adolescent Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide PSYC 3390-01
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This 77 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Kaplan on Saturday April 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3390-01 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Samantha Francoi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/23/16
peers individuals who are about the same age or maturity level - Adolescents have strong needs to be liked and accepted peer group functions - Provide information about world outside the family - Influence of peers on adolescents' development differ - Type of peers What are peer interactions - Situation or location - Culture influenced by? - Parents being managers and adult presence - Parents being managers and adult What are peer context influenced by presence and when they don't (parents) ? monitor well the ad. Are more susceptible to peer pressure 1. Boys and girls spend an increasing amount of time in peer Developmental changes in time interaction as they grow older spent with peers 2. Peer relations occupy a large chunk of adolescents' lives - Boys and girls spend an increasing amount of time in peer interaction developmental changes in time as they grow older spent with peers - Peer relations occupy a large chunk of adolescents' lives What is a prosocial behavior in peer self control relations? - Fairness and justice positive peer relations - Keen observers - Intimacy skills - Difficulty establishing friendships self-injury drinking, delinquency, depression, sexual activity, and negative peer relations - Negative interpersonal events encountered by ad.= depressive symptoms - Risky social network=heavy drinking Delinquent friends =delinquent you Do parents have authority over - no to peer relations adolescent peer relations? What about moral, religious and - yes to moral, religious, and edu education areas? Does a movement towards peers no mean distancing from parents? How to parents relate to their they model how their adolescent adolescent children's peers? relates to them What is a type of positive peer secure attatchment relationship? Do parents chose the child's pool of yes (through neighborhood, school, friends? etc.) Who forms more to peer standards: young adolescents young adolescents or children? What types of adolescents are more Ad. that are uncertain about social likely to conform to peers? identity or are in the presence of someone with higher status Who forms more to peer pressure young adolescents standards more? Young adolescents or children? Which types of adolescents are Ad. that are uncertain about social identity or are in the presence of more likely to conform to peers? someone with higher status sociometric status the extent to which children and adolescents are liked or disliked by their peer groups frequently nominated as a best popular children friend and are rarely disliked by peers give out reinforcements, listen carefully, maintain open lines of communication characteristics of popular children with peers, are happy, control their negative emotions, show enthusiasm and concern for others, and are self- confident without being conceited average children receive an average number of both positive and negative nominations from their peers neglected children Infrequently nominated as a best friend but are not disliked by their peers rejected children Infrequently nominated as a best friend are actively disliked by their peers What is the best predictor if - aggression towards peers in elementary school rejected children will engage in delinquency or drop out of high - linked to development and school during adolescence? maintenance of conduct problems controversial children Frequently nominated as a best friend and as being disliked What does a low childhood peer - unemployed status increase the probability of (later in life)? - mental health problems What does the importance of being early adolescence popular peak? How does popularity with peers Amount of popularity with peers = effect an adolescent's dating life? amount of popularity in dating Early ad. Pseudomature behavior long-term problems in close associated with desire to be relationships, substance abuse, and popular with peers leads to: a higher level of criminal behavior - More impulsive and have problems sustaining attention → disruptive of ongoing activities Why do peer-rejected boys have - Emotionally reactive → prone to become angry problems in social relationships? at peers - Fewer social skills in making friends and maintaining positive peer relationships social cognition and emotion social matters related to peer relations involves thoughts about: as children move into adolescence, social they acquire more ____ knowledge Is social intelligence related to peer peer popularity, not academic popularity or academic achievement achievement? children may have difficult with peer cognitive relations if they lack he appropriate ___ skills 1. Theory of mind (thought about Ad. perform more poorly than one's mental processes work and adults in 2 social cognitive areas: the mental processes of others 2. Emotion recognition successful peer relations What does good emotional regulation lead to (with peer - Effective self-regulatory skills modulate their emotional expressiveness in a relations)? context that evoke intense emotions, as when peers say something neg. Explains that people go through 5 tests while processing social information about the world Information processing model of 1. decoding of social cutes social acceptance (Dodge) 2. interpretation 3. response search 4. selection of optimal response 5. enactment decoding of social cues looks at facial expressions and body lang., attending to tone of voice interpretation decides meaning of cues based on previous experiences response search generating a variety of responses that might be made in circumstance selection of optimal response weighs pros and cons and choses the one that will likely work best implementing the selected enactment response, determining how well it worked, and possibly trying a different option the use of a combo of techniques, conglomerate strategies rather than a single approach, to improve ad. Social skills; AKA coaching 1. Stop, calm down, and think before you act 6 essential steps 2. Go over the problem and state how you feel 3. Set a positive goal 4. Think of lots of solutions 5. Plan ahead for consequences 6. Go ahead and try the best plan How do Neglected kids- help attract by asking questions, by warmly and and hold (+) attention? friendly listening, and relating to peers' interest help listen to peers instead of dominating peer interaction, How do rejected kids help attract and hold positive attention? trained to join peers without trying to change what is taking place in peer group 1) Supplement skills interventions to change the minds of peers What are 2 solutions that would improve adolescent social skills who 2) Cooperative group training: work are actively disliked? towards a common goal that holds promise for changing reputation 1. Companionship 2. Stimulation 6 functions of friendship: 3. Physical support 4. Ego support 5. Social comparison 6. Intimacy/ affection Are the aspects of friendship similar yes, very similar in adolescence as they are in emerging adulthood? What is the difference between - more integrated close relationships in adolescence - more similar types of relationships and adulthood? What happens to the number of number of friends declines friends that you have in early adulthood? first year of college: When do best friendships decline in - Communication with high school satisfaction and commitment? friends and keeping the same best friends across the transition to college lessen the decline - Can be everything in a relationship that makes the friendship seem close or intense intimacy - In most studies it is defined narrowly as self- disclosure, or sharing of private thoughts or knowledge - Want their friends to to share with them, understand, and listen Is intimacy more prominent in 13-16 13-16 year olds year olds or 10-13 year olds? age, sex, ethnicity, etc. What are the similarity - Friends often have similar characteristics important to friendship? attitudes toward school, educational aspirations, and closely aligned achievement orientation homophily the tendency to associate with similar others What types of behavior are mixed- - delinquent behavior age friendships more likely to - sexual behavior engage in? Do the older youth guide younger adolescents towards deviant behavior unknown or are the younger adolescents already prone do deviant behavior before they developed friendship with older youth? Overtime, 6th - 10th grade girls are more likely to develop older male problem behavior friends. This places them on a trajectory for engaging in: Mix-grade friends may protect same-grade friendless ____ from girls, boys feelings of loneliness and same- grade friendless and anxious- withdrawn ___ from victimization Are friendships with the opposite more common than often thought sex common? early adolescence (more for girls When do friendships with other sex than boys) increase? - continues to increase through adolescence how to communicate with the other What do other sex friendships sex and reduce their anxiety in provide a context for? social and dating heterosexual interactions - early intercourse What negative behavior is linked to friendships with the other sex? - alcohol use - delinquency Why do parents monitor their b/c they perceive boys to have more daughters' other-sex friends more negative influences (on their than their sons? daughters) Higher level of parental monitoring of young adolescent girls leads to fewer the girls having ____ friendships with boys, which is associated with lower - alcohol use in later adolescence levels of: formal adolescent groups - Basketball team, Drill team, boy/girl scouts, Social council informal adolescent groups - groups of peers (cliques or crowds) 1) More selective of members What are 3 characteristics of 2) Not as formalized as ad. Groups childhood groups? 3) Tend to be smaller and mostly same-sex 1. Consist of broader array of members 2. More formal groups What are 3 characteristics of adolescent groups? 3. Opposite-sex participation in social groups increase 4. In late ad. Crowds begin to dissolve as couples begin to form serious relationships and make long-term place including engagement and marriage Smaller groups that range from 2-12 individuals and average about 5-6 individuals cliques - Typically same sex and same age - Share ideas and hang out together - Often develop and in-group identity and hold their clique above others 1. Similar activities 3 reasons adolescents form cliques 2. Enjoy each other's company 3. Friendship - Groups that are larger than cliques and less personal crowds - Usually reputation based - Type of crowd is important for coping with problems and self-esteem - more than 400 national youth organizations youth organization (how many national youth orgs in U.S. and what Career groups Character building groups are 4 examples of them, how many Political groups young people benefit from them Ethnic groups each year?) - 30 million young people benefit each year - More community involvement - Higher self-esteem benefits of youth organizations - Allows for practice of interpersonal and organizational skills - see themselves as more responsible - Misperception that there are not enough youth programs available barriers to youth organizations - Lack of interest in available activities - Lack of transportation - Lack of awareness about what is available - Especially well suited for development of initiative structured voluntary youth groups - Ad. developed greater confidence in their ability to affect the world (what do they develop, what skills to - Ad. come to see themselves as more responsible youth gain) - Showing persistence in completing demanding tasks - Positive relationships characteristics of successful youth - Trust programs - Commitment to youth Include learning experiences that What types of learning experiences were challenging, required reaching do successful youth programs a demanding goal, and provided include? feedback to you - Immediate advantages of (Marion study) What did this study friendship focus on? - Detrimental effect of peer rejection mid ad. Friendship participations as (Marion study) direct effects a predictor of middle adulthood life satisfaction mid-ad. Friendship participation as (Marion study) buffered effects a moderator of associations between mid-ad. Peer rejection and mid. Adulthood life-satisfaction (Marion study) peer relationships maladaptive, adaptive can be _____ or ______ What do youth activities and - excellent developmental context in organizations provide to which adolescents can develop adolescents? many positive qualities Do peer relations can have a large adolescence, adulthood effect on _____ but not necessarily on ____ Are peer groups strongly linked to yes gender and culture? Which age group typically spends younger children more time with same-sex peers? Which age group spends more time adolescents, more and more as with mixed-sex groups? they develop 1. Peer attachment 3 main focuses in studying peer groups: 2. Group size 3. Interaction in same-sex groups - intimacy What are the differences amongst - interdependence boys and girls in terms of which - empathy - hobbies factors they emphasis within - power friendship? - excitement - self-disclosure What are the two ways in which 1) socioeconomic status peer groups are typically 2) race segregated? higher socioeconomic status higher regarded social standing? typically leads to what type of social standing? Athletes have strong presence of ___ low socioeconomic status (esp. for African American adolescents) ethnic minority youth rely strongly ethnic minority on other ______ _______ youth for friendship places like india and arab countries In what types of countries are parents especially strict with their - same sex schools (if any school) - Intermingling of sexes and daughter's peer relationships? why? romantic behavior are prohibited/restricted - less conflict with parents What is characteristic of Japanese - b/c seek autonomy later than adolescent's relationships with their american adolescence (U.S. parents? why might that be? adolescents are more likely to peer pressure into parent's resistance) In which countries do peer play a sub-saharan africa, europe, north prominent role in adolescent lives? america, - placed in peer groups at earlier age How do peer groups differ in the - placed in peer groups for longer than U.S. children Murian cultures in eastern India? - children reside in dorms, and are devoted to work why? for parents and spiritual harmony - marriages are arranged by parents Does peer acceptance effect yes adolescents' life satisfaction differently in different cultures? Countries where family values are less important, peer acceptance is ____ important for ad. Life satisfaction Countries that place more importance on independence from greater family, peer acceptance place a ____ role in life satisfaction for ad. 1. Recreational: dating is fun and serves as a source of enjoyment and rec. 2. Status and Achievement: status of significant other is part of social comparison process in ad. And can be assessed in terms of looks, popularity, etc. 8 Functions of Dating (acronym) assists them in learning manners and sociable behaviorhow to get along with others and 4. Learning about Intimacy: opportunity to establish a unique, meaningful relationship with someone else and involves learning about intimacy 5. Sexual experimentation: explore sexuality 7. Identity formation and development: by helping ad. Clarify their ID. and separate from their families origin 8. Mate sorting and selection: original courtship function as a means of finding a mate Ryan Seacrest Presents Lots (of) Singers.Idol Must Continue. R - recreational Functions of dating acronym: S - status and achievement P- part of ad.socialization process L - learning about intimacy S - sexual experimentation I - identity formation and development M - mate sorting and selection C- companionship 1) (11-13) entry into romantic attractions 3 stages of dating in romantic 2) (14-16) exploring romantic relationships relationships 3) consolidating dyadic bonds (17- 19) entry into romantic attractions puberty (what is it triggered by?) exploring romantic relationships - casual dating - dating in groups consolidating dyadic bonds serious romantic relationships What % of adolescents are early 35% (11-13 year olds) starters in relationships? What age do they start? What % of adolescents are late 25% (little to no dating experience) bloomers? When do lesbian women typically 14-18 first engage in sexual activity and with what sex? boys first When do gay men typically first 13-15 engage in sexual activity and with what sex? boys first - Have sexual experience but less Why is romance important to sexual romantic relationships minority youth? - Breakups cause great distress How do greater numbers of - greater social acceptance romantic relationships effect social acceptance, substance abuse, and - higher rate of substance abuse delinquency? and delinquincy What is a negative outcome that is depression, higher rates of linked with girls dating earlier? Or substance abuse with older partners? - Falling out of love: love is not Reasons to dissolve a relationship? returned, draining, or betrayed What can the dissolved relationship lead to? - Leads to depression, obsessive thoughts, and sexual dysfunction negative aspects of breakups increased substance abuse feeling emotionally stronger, more positive outcomes of breakups self-confident, more independence, and new friendships romantic love definition - (passionate love/Eros): strong sexual and infatuation - Often predominates in the early part of a love When in the relationship does it occur? What age group does it relationship Characterizes most adolescents love and is also apply to? extremely important among college students - (companionate love): individual desires to have another person near and has a affectionate love definition deep, caring affection for person what age group does it apply to? - Characteristics of adult love than ad. Love Which type of love includes a complex intermingling of emotions romantic love such as fear, anger, sexual desire, joy, and jealousy? What type of love is more likely than romantic love friends to be the cause of depression? What types of adolescents are more physically attractive adolescents satisfied with their romantic life? What types of ethnic groups, the same socioeconomic statuses, and academic successes do girls and boys tend to date inside? critics: loss of interpersonal connection What is the criticism and support supporters: could benefit shy or anxious behind romance on the internet? people and internet relationship are more likely than in-person relationships to last for more than two years What type of attachment style insecure attachment might be related to adolescent romantic relationships? When children have a secure attachment to their parents, what closeness, warmth, and intimacy do they expect in romantic relationship? When children have unresponsiveness and unavailability dismissing/avoidant attachment to parents, what do they expect in romantic relationships? When children have preoccupied ambivalent attachment to parents, likely to be disappointed and frustrated with intimacy and what do they expect in romantic closeness relationships? How does marital conflict effect linked to increased conflict in their emerging adults' romantic relationships relationships? When children's parents get divorced, - earlier does their first romantic relationship happen earlier or later than non- divorced parent's children? What stage - early adolescence of adolescence does this reaction pertain to? When does the adolescent - during transition period experience heightened sensitivity? Are parents more involved or daughter's interested in their daughter's dating patterns or their son's? How do friendships help romantic learn modes of relating that can be relationships? carried into romantic relationships How do adolescents in mixed-sex mixed sex peer groups = move peer groups vs. limited mixed-sex more smoothly into romantic peer groups move into romantic relationships relationships? How are 15 year old girls more likely in terms of interpersonal qualities? to describe romance? How are 15 year old boys more in terms of physical attraction likely to describe romance? the cognitive models that dating scripts adolescents and adults use to guide and evaluate dating interactions What kind of dating scripts do proactive males have? What kind of dating scripts do reactive females have? In what 3 ways do values and 1) age one begins dating religion beliefs in various cultures 2) amount of freedom in dating influence dating patterns and 3) extent to which dates are elections? chaperoned by parents or adults - Arab, asian, and south american In what countries are adults more countries restrictive for girls (compared to the US)? What types of cultures within - Latino and Asian American families: the US? more conservative standards for ad. Dating than Anglo-American culture - Teacher-centered approach where teacher gives directions and control, mastery of direct instruction academic skills, high expectations for students, and maximum time spent on learning tasks - Takes the form of lectures and information based learning - Constructivist approach doesn't give enough attention to the What do advocates for direct content of the info instruction claim? - Constructivists are too vague and relativistic - Learner-centered approach that constructivist approach emphasizes the ad. Active, cognitive construction of knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher - that instruction approach makes students passive learners What do advocates for the - Memorizing relevant and irrelevant info is not constructivist approach claim? learning - Learning concepts through understanding and interacting with the material gives students the opp. To "construct their own knowledge" What educational approach a combination of the two approaches (constructivist and maximizes learning style? direct) Puberty, body image, formal operational thoughts, advances in executive What are the struggles associated function, increased responsibility, with transitioning into middle or decreased dependency on parents, high school? larger, more impersonal school, way more teacher, more heterogenous set of peers, more focus on achievement - Go from being oldest to being the exact opposite - Self-esteem is higher and like school more in last "Top Dog Phenomenon" year of elementary school - Higher likelihood of disciplinary problems in middle school than in elementary school for 6th grade boys - Positive friend relationships What can reduce stress when transitioning into middle or high - Transition in team-oriented school: school? 20-30 students take the same class - Feel more grown up Positive outcomes of the transition - More subject options into middle school and/or high - More opp.Tospend time with peers and locate good friends school? - Increased independence from direct parental monitoring - Challenged more intellectually - Massive, impersonal schools Carnegie Council on Ad. - Seemingly irrelevant curricula Development found US middle schools were lacking because of: - Trust few adults in school - Lack access to health care and counseling - Smaller "communities" - Lower student to counselor ratio What were the recommended - Involve parents and community leaders in schools changes that Carnegie Council on - Develop curricula for a strong academic foundation Ad. Development had for middle - Team-teach in flexibly designed curriculum blocks - More focus on health and fitness, in and outside of school schools issues? impersonal and promote/inspire care for the studentsschools to make them less Carnegie Council on Ad. - Teach a curriculum grounded in Development recommended rigorous academic standards for what changes for middle schools issues? students should know A follow up study recommendation in addition to the previous ones - Engage in instruction that encourages include: students to be lifelong learners American employers expect a basic - Relatively high level of reading set of skills including: - Elementary algebra - Basic computer knowledge - Hypothesis testing Does the american high school - Oral and written communication prepare students well for college - Work in diverse groups and the workforce? No - point of school:focus on academic success and getting an education (Crosnoe) What is the point of - what's stopping them:kids are obliged tonavigate various social groups (peer group culture demands conformity) school, yet something students aren't able to achieve? What's - Social groups may or may not support or value academic achievement stopping them? - If one doesn't fit in, it might result in ostracization which would just distract more from school How do you increase students Promoting a sense of belonging by engagement and motivation in personalizing instruction, showing an interest school? in students' lives and creating a supportive, caring and social environment Is this strategy often present in - Often not the case in urban high schools urban high schools? Where are the highest rates of high low income areas of inner cities school dropouts? - School-related, economic, family related, peer related, and personal related Causes of high school dropouts? - Some quit school for a job to help family - Poor relationship with parents makes ad. More likely to drop out despite academic and behavioral success - Programs include: reading intervention, tutoring, counseling and mentoring - Create a caring environment What can reduce the rate of high - Build relationships b/w peers, mentors, and the individual school dropouts? - Offer community-service opp. - Early detection of school-related difficulties - Engage youth in school in positive ways (Gasper) Switching schools for reasons other than promotion from dropping out one grade to the next puts youth at risk of: - Change and stress (same as elementary to middle) - Larger and more impersonal - More focus on doing well Transition from high school to - More adulty - More opp. To explore different lifestyles and values college: - Enjoy greater independence - Today theres more stress than before and more depressed - Overwhelmed (females > males) - College freshman feel more depressed now than earlier What is the main source of stress in Pressure to do well and to get a college caused by? good job after college - Have a degree opens up opportunities for better jobs - There's a rising cost of tuition Why is it important to transition - Bleak job prospects for recent grads from college to work? - Dev.of general skills rather than vocationally specific skills make grads less prepared for specific jobs or occupations - Difficulty getting the job they want or any job V common togofrom job tojob preschool context just one classroom (protected) and contained, just one teacher classroom is main context for learning, but incorporates aspects elementary school context as a social unit- still one teacher, but more conscious interaction among students - environment is more complex, encompassing a - larger social scene compared tosolely within the classroom middle/high school context wider range of social and ethnic backgroundsrs, experiencing - Ad.recognizes the school as a social system and is faced with the decision toeither conform and adapt or tochallenge the system What teaching approach creates a authoritative approach positive environment for learning (through classroom management?) - Encourage independence, but with moderation Theory of parenting styles lead way - Verbal give-and-take to the idea of authoritative - Caring attitude approach as a classroom strategy: - Declaration of limits: rules and regulation Effective use of this leads to What does effective use of students to be self-reliant, delay authoritative classroom gratification, get along well with management lead to? their peers, and show high self- esteem Ineffective classroom strategies: authoritarian and permissive - Focuses on order, not instruction or learning - Firm limits and control authoritarian - Little verbal exchange - Students become passive learners, fail to initiate activities, express anxiety about social comparison and have poor communication skills - autonomy but no learning or behavior skills permissive - Students developed low self- control and do not learn adequate academic skills Evaluates how well the need of person-environment fit developing ad. To match up with the opportunities afforded by them by their schools. For the best results in ad, the fit is compatible What can a mismatch of person and negative psychological changes environment lead to? When is person environment fit elementary to middle schools because most important during and teacher-student relationship can become impersonal adolescents education? lack of fit between school enviro. negative outcomes of teacher And needs of young ad. → student relationships being increasingly neg. Self-evaluations impersonal? and attitudes towards school Students benefit more when their What type of environment do students benefit most from when teachers make their enviro more personal, less formal, and more learning? intrinsically challenging undermined, impersonal Larger size of high school makes the - Distrust b/w student and teachers sense of community _____ and student-teacher relationships more - Little comm. About students' goals/values ______. What does this result in? - Ultimately harms the motivation of students Good teachers have an How do good teachers contribute understanding of ad. Dev. and are aware of ways to construct to the development of adolescents? appropriate and developmentally encouraging material for students Good teacher traits/dimension? Enthusiasm, ability to plan, poise, adaptability, warmth, flexibility, and awareness of students' differences - Caring and democratic classroom community: monitor behavior rather than punishing it good teaching practices/strategies feedback, focusing on improvements and efforts, expressing highive expectations, and fostering interest and engagement - Planning and delivering engaging, assessment-driven instruction - Support students in deep-processing and self regulation skills the amount a parent is involved with overseeing their child's academic family management process, stresses the importance of maintaining a structured and organized family environment that places a high emphasis on achievement (+) link with grades, self- what is family management positively related to? what is family responsibility management negatively related to? (-) link to school-related problems Study focusing on African American higher grades and good school families showed higher expectations for achievement linked attendance with: high level of achievement with children What is high parent involvement in school linked with? Linked to child's perceived sense of responsibility and their motivation to value and do well in school - Remember that ability is not fixed - Be involved Recommendations for how parents - Support autonomy and self-initiative can get kids to do better in school: - Be positive and optimistic - Understand that everyone's different more involved with academics bc cultural stress of learning being a East asian parents involvement in academics: parental resp. Mothers exert more control over children than US In middle school, students are many encouraged to interact with ____ students daily What does the complexity of the Forces students to turn to each middle school schedule and other for info, social support and different classroom environments coping strategies force students to do? - social standing and related to peer status = academic success more motivation = - better grades If students have academically higher grades and test scores oriented friends this leads to: What fraction of students 1/3 experience bullying in school? What gender bullies more? boys What do victims of bullying Victims experience loneliness, and experience? difficulty making friends Why are the anxious kids easy to they won't retaliate pick on? How can supportive friends impact they can reduce it bullying? Why do bullies take advantage of to try and gain a higher social others? standing Are bullies usually rejected by - no peers? Do they have higher or lower egos? - higher less If you have a positive parent relationships will you be more or Good comm., warm relationship, less likely to become a bully? and parental involvement/supervision Outcomes of bullying for the victim? depression, suicidal ideation and attempt Outcomes of bullying for the bully? antisocial and criminal behavior, difficulty in forming long lasting relationships and problems at work Effects of cyberbullying on victim? Loneliness, lower self-esteem, few mutual friendships, and low peer pop. Effects of traditional bullying on Higher link to suicidal ideation victim? Happens 2x as much more Lower socioeconomic status = ____ - less parental support difficulty in school. why? - poor school quality (rote learning) - Adolescent cog. approach Smaller class size, longer class How do you enhance achievement session, more advisory sessions, rates in school? and more time set aside for teacher to explore teaching methods segregated Although low-income schools are diverse, they are still _______ and education and diversity don't provide adequate opp. For: bc: Poorly kept classrooms, hallways and restrooms; not quality supplies, lack of why? resources African American and latino students are ____ likely than white and asian students to be enrolled in less, more academic/college prep programs and are ____ likely to be suspended from school ____ Latinas stay close to home than more go to college - Jigsaw classroom → cooperative participation to reach a common goal Strategies to improve relationships - Encourage (+) personal contact, perspective taking, and among ethnically diverse students emotionally intelligent thought about cultural issues (all of which require teachers to be competent cultural mediators): - Reduce bias - View the school and comm. As a team - Values diversity and includes perspectives of a variety of cultural groups - Aims to: multicultural education 1) Empower children →judge by character 2) Educate regarding:socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, religion, sex.Orientation, disability, etc. 3) Involves educational opportunities for all students worldwide, ___ girls than boys make less it through school Schooling begins 6/7 until ~ 14/17 Shared features of secondary schools in Australia, brazil, - Middle and high school divided germany, japan, chine, russia, and into 2+ levels in most countries US: (germany 3 + exit exam and japan req. An entrance exam) - US and Australia incorporate sports Differences in secondary schools in - Brazil requires Portugues + 4 other lang. Australia, brazil, germany, japan, - 7th grade Aus. take sheep-husbandry and chine, russia, and US: weaving courses - Jap. schools year is 225 days Rate of attendence in russia, russia, canada, japan, israel, us canada, japan, israel, and us (in order) Why does US have low college bc of cost and time commitment graduation rates? When was there an increase in - incresae between 1970-1990 when adolescents were diagnosed with learning disabilities? When was - decrease in recent years there a decrease? What was the - Increase affected by poor diagnostic increase effected by? practices and over identification boys Which gender is more likely to be identified with a learning disability? Based on genetic vulnerability and What is this based on? referral bias - Characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity impulsivity, or some combo Disorder (ADHD) - Symptoms: easily bored, inattentive, What is it characterized by? What impulsive, much energy ADHD with high hyperactivity, with high levels are the symptoms? of inattentiveness, or combo Since the 1990's, how has the Number of children diagnosed has amount of children diagnosed with increased/almost doubled since ADHD changed? 1990s high awareness of disorder or to Why are boys more often diagnosed incorrect diagnosis with ADHD compared to girls? - over diagnose by 20% and boys 2x as likely to be diagnosed - Nodefinitive cause, but proposed: - Genetic predisposition What is the cause of ADHD? - Brain damage prenatally or during postnatal dev. - Mother's actions during pregnancy - elementary school child.More likely tohave ADHD if mom smoked during pregnancy What is brain imaging used for in used to better understand it accordance with ADHD? - peak thickness of cerebral cortex What is different with the cerebral cortext with ADHD? moves 3 years later with ADHD (very prominent in prefrontal cortex) - delayed development i
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