Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSY1001
U of M
Popular in Intro to Psych
Popular in Psychlogy
This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Whitley Lubeck on Friday February 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY1001 at University of Minnesota taught by Briggs in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 626 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psych in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Lectures amp readings on Historv and scientific thinkina What are four different wavs of knowing and which kind is used in psychology Rationalism you put together a story it kind of hangs together it seems to make sense and therefore it must be true forming a narrative that makes sense philosophers think this way TraditionAuthoritv what is passed on through culture or society like text or a constitution example reasoning for torture was because we used it for centuries Intuition Don t know how we know it but we just know Empiricism we know things because of our senses we can see them hear them etc Psychology the study of behavior and mind is entirely empirical as is science What kinds of knowledge are represented in dataland and theory land What is a psychological construct or more simply a construct and where does it fit What is an operational definition and where does it fit A hypothesis A theory Dataland observation and description of behavior behavior material object measurement date Theory Land how to explain behaviors ideas concepts hypothesis theories Psvcholoqical Construct variables in theories Inferred cause of measurable events or processes 0 should have effects Mically related to it 0 effect should be mically related to each other 0 a way to think about causeeffect relationships when we cannot see the causes 0 Warts Long nose Pointed hat Magic ability Float in water ARE THESE RELATED 0 Intelligence causes problem solving IQ test score occupational success 0 CAN T MEASURE WE MAKE INFERENCES the point of psychology Operational Definition a working definition of what researcher is measuring taking the psych construct and finding a way to measure it Hypothesis A testable prediction 2 plus variables Hypotheses connect constructs and account for relationships Theory Ideas that explain observations A system of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations 0 Organize observations understand nature of phenomena explain relationship make predictions Misconceptions explains one specific event just an education guess X What are the three primarv traditions that have characterized the field of psychology What methodology is associated with each Where do behavioral psychology cognitive psychology and neuroscience fit Where do personality and intelligence belong What assumptions characterize each What are the challenges of each Experimental Psvcholoav Assumption people are the same Method experimental Goal Laws of Behavior if A happens B happens Individual Differences Assumption People differ Method Correlational Goal Meaningful Variation how people differ what is meaningful variation figure out why it is important how did it arise what are consequences ClinicalTherapeutic Assumption People in distress can be helped Method Case Study 4 Who is Wilhelm Wundt William James What approach to psychology is associated with Wundt With James How are structuralism and functionalism different Wilhelm Wundt Founder of psychology 1879 is when psychology emerged as a unique discipline since he created the firs laboratory in Leipzig Germany lnterested in consciousness sought to analyze conscious experience into basic elements rhythm increase and decrease of anticipation timbre Structuralism school of psychology aimed to identify the basic elements psychological Expenence Importance of systematic observation to study of conscious experience 0 EB Titchener Uses introspection method by which trained observers carefully reflect and report on their mental experiences was needed to break free from spiritualism the What s William James Founder of psychology Was not interested in petty issues Wanted to know why questions 0 What is the purposemeaning underlying consciousness o What do people get from being religious o What is free will and why is it important Functionalism School of psychology aimed to understand the adaptive purpose of psychological characteristics thoughts feelings behaviors 0 Charles Darwin and natural selection physical and behavioral characteristics evolved because they increased chances of survival and reproduction the Why s 5 Who are Ivan Pavlov JB Watson and BF Skinner and what kind of psychology is associated with each them What were the core assumptions of this kind of psychology Ivan Pavlov Baby Albert Study 0 Had a pet white rat and a baby Would show the baby the rat and make scary sounds making the baby cry Soon he just showed the rat and the baby would cry Then a man with a WHITE beard and baby would also cry 0 Classical Conditioning MAM Behaviorism School of psychology focuses on uncovering the general laws of learning by looking at observable behavior Assumption Behavior changes when an organism forms an association between events in the environment 0 Automatic Event 0 Conditioned Event 0 Ivan Pavlov John B Watson BF Skinner l Influential in models of human and animal learning 0 Among the first to focus on the need for objective research 0 Black box psychology rewards amp punishments JB Watson BF Skinner believed behavior is a function of environment Assumption Behavior is a function of rewardspunishments delivered by environment 0 Situation gt Behavior gt Outcome Who is Jean Piaget and what kind of psychology is associated with him What was the core assumption of this kind of psychology Jean Piaget cognitive and neuroscience psychologists believed behavior is a function of internal mental processes Cogtivism School of psychology that proposes that thinking is central to understanding Behavior Ulric Neisser Influential language problem solving memory psychotherapy intelligence concept formation 0 Insight of rewards amp Punishment 0 Coanitive Neuroscience Examines relation between brain functioning and thinking a new field of psych Who are Francis Galton and Alfred Binet What are the core assumptions of the kind of psychology associated with these individuals Francis Galton Alfred Binet 9 Who is Sigmund Freud and what kind of psychology is associated with him What are the core assumptions of this kind of psychology Siqmund Freud believed behavior results from unconscious desires Nonacademic and not research based Focuses on curing mentally ill Psvchoanalvsis School of psychology focuses on internal psychological processes of which we re unaware Early life experiences sexuality aggression Understanding that much of our mental processing goes on outside of conscious awareness slips of the tongue What is critical thinking What is the confirmation bias Belief perseverance Critical thinkina set of skills for evaluating all claims with an openminded and careful fashion aka scientific thinking Ruling out rival hypothesis 0 Correlation isn t causation 10 What are the six principles of scientific thinkinq To what do they refer 11 Ruling out rival hypotheses alternative explanations Correlation vs Causation coincidence or did it really cause something Falsifiability can be disapproved Rep cab y Extraordinary claims need extraordinary evidence Occam s Razor simplest explanation is the best 97915905 Kay for remembering Rival Causes Falsify Repeated Claimssee lecture Confirmation Bias tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and deny dismiss or distort evidence that contradicts seek and ye shall find 0 mother of all biases Belief Perseverance tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them don t confuse me with the facts What is the naturenurture debate What is the Free will versus determinism debate Nature vs nurture debate 0 Nature behavior from genes Nurture environment John Locke tabularosa blank slate is what we are born with Free Will vs Determinism Debate 0 To what extent are our behaviors freely selected rather than caused by factors outside our control 0 Insanity defense Generated automatically versus conscious control over our behavior Lectures and readings on Research methods 12 What are the goals of science 0 Description accurate measurement 0 Prediction based on our descriptions and regular relationships 0 Control using descriptions and ability to predict to create better environments 13 What is the Descriptive approach to studying human behavior What are the different types of descriptive methods What are examples of each What are the strengths and limitations of these methods Descriptive approach describing the world as it is 0 Identifying key variables Correlational methods use statistics to explore connections between characteristics and events Methods Naturalistic Observation watching behavior unfold in the real world 0 Example Jane Goodall s work with Chimpanzees in Gombe Park 0 Covert not openly researcher unknown to subjects 0 Overt open subjects unaware researcher is observing 0 Case Studies finding out things about an individual helps us understand some issue or characteristic 0 Example Sigmund Freud or Anna O o Strengthnegative allow us to study rare or unusual phenomenontake a long time down allow us to infer causation Surveys using questionnaires and other means to determine attitudes etc o StrengthNegatives can provide a lot of information o Are primarily used to understand groups 0 Help us understand the relationship between group variables 0 Basically large scale interviews 14 What are correlational methods What is the strength of this method What are its limitations What is the correlational coefficient What is a strong correlation a weak one What does the direction of a correlation positive negative refer to What is an illusory correlation What is the problem of the 3rd variable Correlational Method exists when 2 variables are related to each other using statistics to explore connections 0 O Strengths can make predictions about the future Limitation can t be positively determined why the predicted relationships exist don t know which causes which possibility of a 3rd variable Range from 10 to 10 The greater the correlation coefficient is from zero the stronger the relationship Plus and minus shows direction 0 Positive BOTH variables go UP or DOWN SAME DIRECTION Negative one variable value goes up other variable goes down DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS Illusory Correlation perception of a statistical association between 2 variables when NONE exists form the basis of many superstitions Remembering nonevents they didn t happen 15 Describe each of the components of an experiment Independent and dependent variables random assignment to condition and experimental control Why is the experiment considered the gold standard in psychology What are the limitations of experiments What is generalizability Experiment manipulating events to determine cause and effect relationships research design characterized by random assianment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable Test a hypothesis ex fear affiliation Experimental arOUD group receives the manipulation expose to fear situation Control Group group that doesn t receive the manipulation expose to more normal situation Random Assignment randomly sorting participants into 2 groups which cancels preexisting differences equate groups by flipping a coin Independent Variable manipulated by experimenter condition that varies considered to be the cause amount of fear Dependent Variable measured to see if the manipulation has an effect expressed need for affiliation Gold Standard because it is what all other designs are judged against Generalizabilitv extent to which findings can be generalized aka extended to natural setting outside of lab Find balance between experimental control and generalizability 16 In research what are confounds What is experimenter expectancy effect What is a double blind research design Confounds Factors other than the independent variable that may cause a result 17 18 19 2O Experimenter expectancv effect phenomenon in which researchers hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study Doubleblind research neither researcher nor participants are aware of who s in the experimental group or the control group What are measures of central tendency What kind of information does each provide Which is most vulnerable to extreme values What is the standard deviation Central tendencv measure of the central scores in a data set or where the group tends to cluster 0 Mean average total score divided by number of participants or etc 0 Most vulnerable to extreme values 0 Median middle score in data set 0 Mode most frequent score in data set Standard Deviation takes into account how far each data point is from the mean What is the normal curve Normal Curve a bell curve 2 14 34 34 14 2 What are descriptive statistics What are inferential statistics What is statistical significance Descriptive statistics numerical characterizations that describe data Inferential statistics mathematical methods that allow us to determine whether we can generalize findings from our sample to the full population make inferences Believable in sample to real one Need to do statistical tests Statistical Siqnificance by chance less than 5100 times plt005 AKA less than 5 chance What is measurement What is reliability What is validity Measurement the process of quantifying observations on psychological variables for applied or research purposes Reliability consistency of measurement necessary for validity because we need to measure something consistently before we can measure it well Validity extent to which a measure assesses what is purports to measure 21 What ethical principles are used to guide psvcholodical research and practice Informed consent 0 Protection from harm and discomfort Deception and debriefinq 22 What are heuristics What is System 1 or intuitive and System 2 or analytical thinking Heuristics mental shortcut or rule of thumb that helps us to streamline our thinking amp make sense of our world Forced to consider alternative explanations and rule out rival hypothesis System 1 lNTUlTlVE quick and reflexive gut hunches everyday life requires snap decisions relies on HEURISTICS Svstem 2 ANALYTICAL Slow and reflective mental effort reasoning through a problem Lectures and readings of bioloqical psvcholoqv 23 What is biological psychology What is a key assumption of Biological psychology What does homologous mean Bioloctical Psvcholoav study of the neural substrates of behavior and mental processes meaning the relationship between the brain and behaviormental processes includes perception memory emotionfeelings language thought 0 Key Assumption human brains and animal brains are homologous similar producing some similarities in behavioral patterns 24 How are human brains and animal brains amp behavior similar How do human brains differ from animal brains Why use animals in research Animal and human brains Allow for us of more invasive procedures win strict ethical guidelines 0 Provides a simplified model simple brain also simpler behavior 0 Similarities provides a model not a replica similar parts and similar functions training animals to respond to rewards decision making 0 Differences size of brain volume their behavior is much more routine because of certain environment frog in pond example aren t able to adapt to environment NEURONS AND THE NERVE IMPULSE 25 Describe the neuron dendrites soma axons terminal fields myelin sheath Neurons building blocks of the nervous system specialized for communication 26 27 Dendrites extensions on neurons receives signals cell phone receiver Soma cell body central region of the neuron contains the nucleus Axons portion of neuron that sends signals transmitter incased in the myelin sheath Terminal Fields information is conveyed into other cells from here Mvelin Sheath glial cells wrapped around axons that act as insulators of the neuron s signals protective covering of axons What is the resting potential of a neuron What are the steps involved in a neural impulse also called the action potential What is an excitatory signal What is an Inhibitory signal Resting potential of neuron electrical charge difference 60 millivolts across the neuronal membrane which the neuron is not being stimulated or inhibited no neurotransmitters acting on the neuron Neural Impulseaction potential electrical impulse that travels down the axon triggering the release of neurotransmitters Nerve impulse arrives at synapse Neurotransmitter molecules released Molecules bind to receptor molecules Channel molecules open up to let in positive or negative charged ions This generates a small positive or negative current in postsynaptic cell Neurotransmitter molecules degraded or recaptured by presynaptic cell 97915935 Excitatorv siqnal positive current from positive ions excite the postsynaptic cell Inhibitorv siqnal negative current from negative ions inhibit the postsynaptic cell What are the similarities between neurons with other cells What makes a neuron different from other cells What is plasticity Neurons are cells 0 Similarities 0 Have cell membranes around outside 0 Have a nucleus dna in it 0 Have organelles break down waste product produce energy 0 Differences 0 Long processes 0 Conduct electrical signals 0 Communicate through synapses o Dramatic Variations in Morphology shape Plasticity ability of the nervous system to change The NERVOUS SYSTEM 28 What are the Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System What are the autonomic and somatic branches of the peripheral nervous system What are the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system What bodily functions are associated with each Central Nervous Svstem CNS contains brain amp spinal cord controls mind and behavior Peripheral Nervous System PNS nerves in the body that extend outside the CNS Somatic nervous system controls voluntary behavior Communicates with muscles rest and digest Autonomic nervous system regulates our steady state in our body connects to our heart all sorts of muscles etc controls nonvoluntary functions Behaviors are automatic Regulates basic bodily functions FOUR F S 0 Fight 0 Flight 0 Feeding 0 Reproductive Behavior Sympathetic action energy mobilization Parasvmpathetic rest energy storage a What is a simple reflex pathway Sensory neurons Motor neurons Interneurons Simple reflex pathway Consists of the three below in the somatic nervous system Sensorv neurons Motor neurons muscles lnterneurons neuron that sends messages to other neurons nearby The BRAIN 30 What is the cerebral cortex What are the cerebral hemispheres How are the functions of the brain organized Cerebral cortex outermost part of forebrain responsible for analyzing sensory processing and higher brain functions Cerebral Hemispheres two halves of the cerebral cotex each of which serve distinct yet highly integrated functions 31 32 What are the four lobes of the cerebral cortex What functions are associated with each What is the Corpus caosum the prefrontal cortex Who was Phineas Gage Frontal Lobe performs executive functions that coordinate other brain areas motor planning language and memory Parietal Lobe upper middle of cerebral cortex behind frontal lobe touch and perception vision 0 Spatial attention knowing where parts are relative to you Draws conscious attention to things that may be important 0 Temporal Lobe lower part of cerebral cortex along side of brain auditory information ear language and autobiographical memory 0 Object recognition elements of a visual scene are put back together into a whole names are attached to them Agnosia deficitdisability in the ability to recognize objects Prosopagnosia deficit in the ability to recognize faces Occipital Lobe back part of cerebral cortex back of brain visual information o What you see is not a theoretical view of the world it is a reconstruction of the of the world kind of like a computer 0 Right sideleft side flip flop Corpus Callosum large band of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres Prefrontal Cortex part of frontal lobe responsible for thinking planning and language Phineas Gaqe Was working on the railroad had a rod go through his brain he lived but his personality completely change hence they were able to learn a lot about frontal lobe What is the limbic system The thalamus The hypothalamus The amygdala Hippocampus Limbic Svstem consists of the four below the emotional center of brain that also plas roles in smell motivation and memory Thalamus gateway from the sense organs to the primary sensory cortex anothalamus part of the brain responsible for maintaining a constant internal state Amygdala part of l limbic system that plays key roles in fear excitement and arousal Hippocampus part of brain that plays a role in spatial memory 33 34 35 36 Why is the dorsal pathway from the occipital lobe to the parietal lobe called the WHERE pathway Why is the ventral pathway from the occipital lobe to the temporal lobe called the WHAT pathway Dorsal pathway Called WHERE pathway from occipital lobe to parietal lobe Getting closer and closer to the motive system Related to action Ventral loathan Called WHAT pathway from occipital lobe to temporal lobe Perception What functions are associated with the following the primary visual cortex Primary auditory cortex Broca s area Wernicke s area Primarv Visual Cortex Primarv Auditorv Cortex Broca s area language area in the prefrontal cortex that helps control speech production Wernicke s Area part of the temporal lobe involved in understanding speech What are the basil ganglia Motor cortex The adrenal glands The somatosensory cortex Basil qanqlia structures in the forebrain that help to control movement Motor Cortex Adrenal Glands tissue located on top of the kidneys that releases adrenaline and cortisol during states of emotional arousal Somatosensorv cortex touch What is neglect syndrome Prosopagnosia Phantom limb syndrome Agnosia With which areas of the brain is each of these associated What is spatial attention Neglect svndrome neglect of half of space following injury to parietal cortex on one side of brain unilateral neglect Prosonaqnosia deficit in the ability to recognize faces Phantom Limb Svndrome Agnosia Deficitdisability in the ability to recognize objects 37 38 39 4o 41 Spatial Attention knowing where parts are relative to you What is the Stroop test and what does it demonstrate about the human brain Stroop test naming the colors of the ink normally go along with a set of words objects are always the easiest then the same color word as the ink is pretty easy then different colored words than the ink which is super hard Conflicting parts of the brain are drawn to attention At what age does the human brain mature Why are life insurance rates higher for teenaged drivers Brain Maturitv 25 years old Hiqher insurance rates because the frontal lobe takes the longest to develop shows we are much more distractible What is the brain stem The hindbrain What are the functions of the cerebellum pons and medulla What is the reticular activating system Brain Stem part of the brain between the spinal cord and cerebral cortex that contains the midbrain pons and medulla Hindbrain region below midbrain that contains the cerebellum pons and medulla Cerebellum sense of balance m part of brain stem that connects the cortex to the cerebellum Medulla part of brain stem involved in basic functions such as heartbeat and breathing Reticular Activatinq Svstem brain area that plays a key role in arousal What is the midbrain Midbrain tracks visual stimuli and reflexes triggered by sound What is the endocrine system The pituitary gland adrenal glands cortisol Endocrine svstem system of glands and hormones that controls secretion of bloodborne chemical messengers Pituitarv Gland master gland that under the control of the hypothalamus directs the other glands of the body 42 43 44 45 Adrenal Glands tissue located on top of the kidneys that releases adrenaline and cortisol during states of emotional arousal Cortisol NEURAL COMMUNICATION What are the steps that summarize neural communication at the synapse Neural communication at the svnapse 1 Nerve impulse arrives at synapse Neurotransmitter molecules released Molecules bind to receptor molecules Channel molecules open up to let in positive or negative charged ions This generates a small positive or negative current in the postsynaptic cell Neurotransmitter molecules degraded or recaptured by presynaptic cell 9701990 What are neurotransmitters How can drugs increase the effect of neurotransmitters in the synapse How can drugs increase the effect of neurotransmitters in the synapse What is an agonist An antagonist Neurotransmitter chemical messenger specialized for communication from neuron to neuron Psychoactive drugs that interact with neurotransmitters systems 0 They affect mood arousal or behavior 0 Target the production or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters increase release or block clearance or decrease release 0 Agonist increase receptor site activities active receptor 0 Antagonist decrease receptor site activity block receptor What neurotransmitters are associated with depression Schizophrenia Pain reduction Parkinson s disease Brain arousal Muscle contractions Neurotransmitters and illnesses 0 Mental illnesses are associated with imbalance Depression serotonin Schizonhrenia medications that block dopamine receptors Pain Reduction anandamide endorphins Brain arousal Norepinephrine NE Muscle Contractions Acetylcholine Ach On what systems do each of the following drugs act Nicotine Botox amphetamines SSRIs Narcotics codeine morphine heroine Nicotine stimulates Ach receptors Botox causes paralysis by blocking ACh 46 47 48 Amphetamines increase NE norepinephrine SSRIs used to treat depression Narcotics codeine morphine heroine LONGTERM POTENTIATION AND THE NEURAL BASIS OF MEMORY Who is Donald Hebb and what is the brief form of his rule What is Longterm potentiation LTP How is LTP induced What is a tetanus Donald Hebb Hebb s rule cells that fire together wire together Lonaterm potentiation LTP a cellular phenomenon with high frequency stimulation increasing the ability of cell A to fire to cell B There are two stages induction amp maintenance 0 Induction placing high frequency stimulation in Cell A also called tetanus induces LTP Maintenance Biological changes involved 0 growth of new dendrites o enlargements of dendritic spines 0 increase in the number of excitatory receptors What is the relationship between LTP and longterm memory LTP amp Lonaterm memorv enhancing LTP enhances long term memories blocking LTP will prevent the formation of new memories Who is HM and what did he contribute to science What is the role of the hippocampus in memory especially spatial memory What evidence supports this What are place cells HM Henrv Molaison showed how difficult it was to remember episodic memories with a disorder called Amnesia His hippocampus was missing and he lost his memory Declarative Memorv A type of long term memory that is the conscious memory for information and facts There are two forms Semantic and episodic memory Hippocampus develops and forms new memories Helps us learn by looking at cues to remember where something is 0 Evidence 0 Morris water maze proved that an animal eventually learned how to find a submerged platform over time with spatial memory ln cloud water with submerge platform rats used cues and landmark to find where it is and how to get it Hippocampus rat will not make a direct route they can t spatial map 0 London Taxi Drivers Are experts in London from Point A to Point B had to study for years and take the test called knowledge Are very well trained and very spatial map 49 5O 51 52 53 54 Place cells cells that produce high frequency of nerve impulses when an animal is situated in a particular place What is the splitbrain effect that is you see something in your left visual field where in the brain will it be processed aka contralateral projection What is the corpus callosum Splitbrain effect When the corpus collosum is severed and the one side of the working brain learns and acquires the functions of the unusable brain if procedure is done at a young age o Is usually done with patients suffering from seizures 0 When see something in right side won t see if it that part of the brain is unusable BEHAVIOR GENETICS What is a gene a phenotype a genotype dominant gene recessive gene What is heritability What are monzygotic MZ twins What are dizygotic DZ twins Monzygoticidentical comes from single egg Dizygotic not identical come two separate What are Family studies adoption studies twin studies What do these designs allow researchers to study Familv Studies study the family and the chance of illnesses due to being born into a family looking at family history Adontion Studies looking into adopted children and their chance of illness with regards to the adopted family Twin Studies looking at characteristics behavior personality etc between twins Lectures and readinqs on Sensation amp Perception SENSATION amp PERCEPTION What are our five senses What sensory systems are associated with each and where in the brain is the information processed What is sensation What is the process of transduction What is perception Five senses ALL PARTS GO INTO THE BRAIN 1 Vision eye photoreceptors in retina 2 Audition ear hair cells in organ of corti 3 Taste tongue taste cells in taste buds in tongue 4 Touch body mechanoreceptors in dermis 5 Olfactory nose olfactory receptors in olfactory mucosa Sensation receiving sensing physical signals Transduction receptors that convert physical energy to electrical signals energy forms gt neural signals Perception making senses the brain s interpretation of raw sensory inputs COLOR MOTION DEPTH 0 Orientation occurs in the receptive field Neurons only respond to preferred signs then firing when it is signaled 0 Location occurs 0 Color is represented by hue saturation and lightness Certain neurons respond to different colors 0 Motion is seen by a front end receptor seeing light and excited delays and then fires if both neurons are firing 55 What are bistable figures What is the Necker cube and how does it illustrate the difference 56 57 58 between sensation and perception Bistable fidures a figure that can produce multiple illusions Brain tries to figure out what the image is exactly Necker Cube cube with just a simple outline is an example of a bistable image as we can see different faces being the front of the cube Difference between sensation and perception What is synesthesia Synesthesia PSYCHOPHYSICS What is the absolute threshold Absolute threshold lowest level of a stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect a change 50 of the time What is a just noticeable difference JND What is Weber s Law Just noticeable difference JND the smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect ie when you can start hearing music on ipod JND k s l K is the Weber Fraction Weber s Law there is a constant proportional relationship between the JND and original stimulus 0 JND btwn two weights approx one has much lighter base weight other has heavier base weight 0 Will be more difficult to tell the added pebble on the heavier base weight than the lighter base weight 59 What is signal detection theory especially hits misses correct rejection and false alarms What pattern of response would produce many false alarms Many misses Siqnal Detection Theorv theory regarding how stimuli are detected under different condition 0 Sensitivity to signal 0 Encounter something some have loos criteria some have strong criteria others say unsure etc Respond yes Respond no Stimulus Present true positive false negative Stimulus Absent false positive true negative Stimulus yes no Signal hit miss No signal false alarm correct rejection When the signal is there and you said no its called a miss When there is no signal and you said yes its a false alarm 7 Sensitive to signal high hit rate low false alarm rate Liberal response bias high hit rate high false alarm rate Conservative response bias low hit rate low false alarm rate The EYEVISION 60 What are the cornea pupil lens retina fovea optic nerve What is the blind spot Cornea part of the eye containing transparent cells that bends light to go to the retina Pupil Lens circular hole through which light enters the eye Pupils dilate when we try to process complex info m Responsible for converting light into neural activity W Central portion of the retina and is responsible for acuity sharpness of vision Optic Nerve Nerve that travels from the retina to the brain Contains axons of ganglion cells Blind Spot Parts of the visual field we can t see because of the absence of rods and cones 61 What are rods and cones With which is each of the following associated visual acuity Color vision Daylight vision Movement Vision in dim light 62 63 64 65 66 Rods Photoreceptor cells in the retina allowing us to see low levels of light Long and narrow allowing us to see basic shapes and forms Located I receptor cells of retina Sensitive to movement and vision in dim light Cones Photoreceptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in color Less numerous than rods Used in daylight vision and not as sensitive to light Good for spatial vision What are photopigments Rhodopsin Photoniqments Rhodopsin What is dark adaptation What causes aftereffects What causes the illusion of color or motion afterimages Dark adaptation time in dark before rods regain max light sensitivity Could you generate the following if someone asked you about the path that visual information travels Information travels from the retina to 1 the visual thalamus and then to 2 the primary visual cortex V1 then along two visual pathways to the 3 secondary visual cortex V2 What kind of information is processed along the dorsal pathway leading to the parietal lobe What kind of information is processed on the ventral pathway to the temporal lobe Hint from Biological Psychology What Where Which lobe processes information about location Which pathway processes information about orientation color motion Path that visual information travels 1 Information travels from retina to visual thalamus 2 Visual thalamus to primary visual cortex 3 Along two visual pathways 4 To secondary visual cortex Dorsal Pathway getting closer and closer to the motive system related to action Ventral Pathway related to perception What are feature detectors Who are Hubel and Wiesel At what level of visual processing is more simple information processed More complex information Feature detectors Hubel and Wiesel signficant role in term feature detectors ATTENTIONPERCEPTION What is the role of attention What is inattentional blindness Selective attention Role of attention very important As we need flexible attention for survival lnattential blindness failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere Selective attention process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring others Biases and personalities contribute to false alarms or misses response bias or observer bias A liberal response bias would produce many false alarms Example the disc and squares trying to find a red disc when are both green and red shaped items 67 What is parallel processing Topdown processing Bottomup processing Parallel processinq the ability to attend to many senses at the same tend Toodown processinq conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectancies Starts with association cortex to visual cortex Bottomun processinq a whole is constructed by many parts Starts with primary visual cortex to association cortex 68 What is a perceptual set Perceptual Set sets formed when expectations influence perceptions 69 What is perceptual constancy size color shape Perceptual Constancv the process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions 0 Size 0 Color 0 cube with brown versus yellow it is crazy to say they are the same the difference is the light versus the dark but they really are the same when you cover up the background of both themes 0 checker board example a versus b shape PERCEIVING FORM COLOR AND DEPTH 70 How do we perceive faces Perceive faces 71 How do we perceive motion What is the phi effect 72 73 74 75 Perceive motion Phi effect the optical illusion of perceiving continuous motion between separate object viewed rapidly in succession produced by successive flashing images the circle of dots one disappears at a time but we see a green dot going around and around What features of light waves are associated with hue What is the trichromatic theory of color perception What is opponent color theory Liqht wave associated whue Trichromatic Theorv of Color Perception idea that color vision is based on our sensitivity to 3 primary colors 0 Coincides with theory regarding 3 kinds of cones each maximally sensitive to different wavelengths of light Opponent Color Theorv Theory that we perceive colors in terms of 3 pairs of opponent colors 0 Red and green 0 Blue and yellow 0 Black and white 0 After images arise from the visual corteX s processing of information from our rods and cones What are the monocular depth cues Binocular cues Monocular depth cues stimuli that enables us to judge depth using only one eye Binocular depth cues stimuli that enables us to judge depth using both eyes What are Gestalt principles Gestalt principles 0 Proximity 0 Similarity 0 Continuity Closure 0 Symmetry Figureground ILLUSIONSSUBLIMINAL PERCEPTION What produces the moon illusion The Ames room illusion The Ponzo illusion the MUllerLyer illusion The Ponzo illusion The EbbinghausTitchener illusion Moon Illusion when the moon looks like its closer to the Earth when it really is all in the current position in the moon 76 Ames Room Illusion Room is shaped oddly like picture Ponzo Illusion the lines and a character of depth making it seem one object is much larger than one up close but really it is just the background lines making it appear to be so The objects are really the same size MullerLver Illusion have two arrows one with ends pointing inward ones pointing outward the lines are both the same size but when asked people always say the arrow with ends pointing outward is longer EbbinqhausTitchener Illusion What is subliminal perception What is the current thinking about subliminal perception Subliminal persuasion Subliminal Perception the processing of sensory information that occurs below the level of conscious Subliminal Persuasion subthreshold influences over our votes product choices and lie decisions ie weight loss books Lecture on Consciousness This will no longer be on the test 1 What are the two types of questions that the science of Consciousness needs to answer How can these be studied 2 What is the capacity of the unconscious brain What is blindsight Which area of the brain seems to be able to operate without conscious awareness What is the evidence 3 What is the splitbrain effect Where are language centers in the brain you might want to review pages 110112 on which side of the brain do we use for what 4 An object seen in the left visual field is processed in which area of the brain How about the right visual field How can researchers measure the consciousness of individuals in a coma What does research on consciousness tell us about free will msn Chapter 5 Consciousness 1 Describe stages 14 of the sleep cycle including brain waves and the kind of dreams associated with each stage Stage 1 light stage of sleep that lasts 510 minutes Brain powers down to 50 producing theta waves People are usually confused in this stage INCLUDES REM May experience hypnagogic imagery scrambled bizarre dreamlike images that flit in and out of consciousness May experience myoconic jerks jerks of limbs as if startled or falling Stage 2 65 of sleep is spent in this stage Brain waves slow down heart rate and body temperature decrease Produces Sleep Spindles sudden intense bursts of electrical activity and Kcompexes harsh rising and falling Stage 3 amp 4 When delta waves occur deeper slower waves needed to fully rest 2 What are the features of REM sleep Stage 5 REM sleep 0 Dreams are more complex we dream more here o Is important for health 0 Rapid eye movements occur 0 Middle ear muscle activity MEMA increases 0 Body is paralyzed paradoxical sleep bc brain is active but body is paralyzed Cycle is continuous slide back to early stages then back into deeper sleep 5 or 6 times 3 What is lucid dreaming Describe the symptoms of insomnia narcolepsy sleep apnea night terrors and sleepwalking Lucid Dreaming dreaming consciously opens the possibility to control dreams Insomnia difficulty falling or staying asleep Occurs with naps caffeine use etc Apparent in medical conditions Narcolepsy Rapid and unexpected onset of sleep Caused by many instances Cataplexy is a complete loss in muscle tone 0 People dose off into REM sleep right away Sleep Apnea Blockage of airway during sleep STAGE 2 of sleep 0 Lack of oxygen causes person to wake up frequently throughout the night Attributes to lack of sleep Night Terrors screaming sweating confused state during sleep STAGE 4amp5 of sleep 0 Typically harmless Sleepwalkinq walking while fully asleep STAGE 4 of sleep 0 People deprived of sleep are more likely to get this 0 Most frequent in children 4 What is the effect of a stimulant on behavior and what drugs are considered stimulants What kinds of drugs are considered narcotics and what are the effects on behavior What is the effect of a psychedelic or hallucinogenic drug on behavior and what are some examples Stimulant drugs that increase activity in the central nervous system Nicotine amphetamines CAN Narcotics drug that relieves pain and induces sleep Heroin o Morphine Codeine Opiates ine Psvchedelic or hallucinoqenic druq drugs that cause dramatic alterations of perception mood and thoughts Marijuana LSD LSDM Last Saturday Dead Move 5 What are tolerance withdrawal physical and psychological dependence Tolerance dependence higher dose of drug required to produce the same effect experienced dunngin aluse Withdrawal dependence biochemical and structural adaptations take place in the brain with regular use of substance take away the substance and then there is withdrawal cravings etc thsical dependence occurs with regular drugs use results in withdrawal syndrome when drug use is stopped Psvcholoqical dependence
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