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USC / Sociology / SOCY 305 / What does the family and medical leave act 1993 cover?

What does the family and medical leave act 1993 cover?

What does the family and medical leave act 1993 cover?

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School: University of South Carolina
Department: Sociology
Course: Sociology of the Family
Professor: Jennifer augustine
Term: Summer 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: SOCY 305 Study Guide for Final
Description: This study guide covers every topic that will be on the final as well as detailed class notes for every class lecture we are responsible. Enjoy and study hard!!
Uploaded: 04/24/2016
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Killer notes! I'm stoked I can finally just pay attention in class!!!



Contemporary Topics: Working Women With Children - 3/15/16


What does the family and medical leave act 1993 cover?



∙ Second shift => tension and challenge women experience on home front (women have to come  home after work and take care of household). Balancing work and family on home front. ∙ Women's labor force participation increase especially among married women with children ∙ In today's workplace:

∙ Values:

∙ Facetime => being present at work

∙ Lengthy workweek

∙ Average workweek changed from 40 hours to 47 hours

International Perspective 

∙ Singapore and Korea have highest amount of workweek hours Don't forget about the age old question of Who included a measure of neuroticism?

∙ Germany is at the bottom (300 hours less per year)


Why did intermarriage rates increase?



Increase in amount of facetime --> showing up to work, putting in more hours

Problem for work and family balance uniquely for women => culture of women in workforce: Reading:  Newspaper Article

∙ Single women have to work (given a free pass)

∙ Married working women seen as they put work over family (believe women should be with their  children)

Warner (2013) Reading 

∙ People have a problem with "working motherhood"

Gendered Norms of Work and Parenting 

∙ Moms should take time off to take their kid to the doctor, attend parent-teacher conferences, leave  work early to take their kids to extracurricular activities => assume women are better caregivers ∙ If a man asks to take off time from work for previous examples, his masculinity is challenged and  he is stigmatized and almost punished


Why do children live with mothers more often than fathers?



Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four theories on divisions of labor based on gender?

Consequence for Women's Wages 

Motherhood wage penalty

Key Issues 

Modern work life:

∙ Culture of facetime

∙ Greater personality (increase in work week)

Gendered norms in work week

Maternity/Paternity Leave and Sick Leave 

∙ Paid leave is rare (only 12% have it) If you want to learn more check out How did james usher determine the date of creation?
Don't forget about the age old question of How does robert merton define society?

∙ FMLA => family medical leave act (1993)

∙ Allows up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave

∙ Covers pregnancy, adoption, personal or family illness We also discuss several other topics like What is sample survey?

∙ Only covers about 50% of US workforce

∙ Most countries offer at least 50% of paid leave unlike the U.S. which offers 0% of paid leave (the  U.S. has 12 weeks of unpaid leave) (U.K. offers 52 weeks of paid leave)

Paternity Leave 

∙ They don't really take leave

∙ Unusual for a man to take time off

∙ This is a problem for women because men will always be considered over women because they  aren't required to take leave

Lack of Flexibility in the Work Place 

∙ When women take an "alternative work schedule"

∙ They are often relegated to the "Mommy Track"

∙ Lack of affordable childcare

∙ Multigenerational ties Don't forget about the age old question of What is the accounting equation formula?

∙ On average, 22-26% of women's wages

The Social Meaning of Motherhood and Mothers' Roles in  Childrens' Lives 3/17/16

Tuesday's Reading by Anne-Marie Slaughter 

∙ She began as a lawyer then professor at Princeton's law school and became dean of school of  public privacy

∙ High powered, highest prestige

∙ Even among most exceptional position, women are still underrepresented

∙ Her messages => it continues to be more difficult for women to balance work-family life than  men

∙ Women foresee barriers through their occupation in the future

∙ "Leaky pipeline" - women pursue higher levels of education, but opt out of labor market

Parenthood --> Particularly Motherhood 

∙ Childlessness is on the rise

∙ People choose not to have kids

∙ It's become more acceptable and stigmatized

∙ "Sex and the City" => this show glamorized childlessness (path breaking show because it  provided a different outlook)

Childfree 

∙ Much of this reflects a deliberate desire not to have children

∙ In turn, many women have adopted the language of child free

∙ Implies more freedom and that you don't have kids by choice

∙ Childfree implies that having children is a burden

∙ Majority of Americans still have children and still want children

∙ Childlessness is on the rise

∙ Modern parenthood is expensive:

∙ Education

∙ Clothes

∙ Childcare

∙ Kids' education schedule not compatible with your work schedule (7:45am – 2:00pm) (spring  break, winter break, summer)

∙ Having kids is intensive

Intensive Parenting Reading (Hays)

∙ Cultural representations/beliefs we have around motherhood

∙ Motherhood is characterized by intensive mothering --> not meeting the kids' basic needs, but  characterized by intensive caregiving

∙ "A good mom":

∙ Not about being authoritative, but warm and interactive

∙ Spanking your kids isn't very normative

∙ Reasoning and explaining to your kids

∙ "Authoritarian" --> negotiation process, softer discipline, interacting

∙ LOVE => essential ingredient, require a degree of selflessness, sacrifice, kindness,  patience

∙ Childhood/children are sacred, innocent, pure and its our job to protect them  from hard cold reality

∙ Parenting should be child-centered

∙ Adjust to their needs and desires

∙ Raising a child is energy absorbing

∙ Investing time, energy, and effort you have to spare

∙ Mothers sacrifice more than fathers do and mothers do a better job at parenting than  males

∙ Cultural assumption that mothers should be nurturers and are the better nurturers ∙ In the reading, mothers described fathers as incompetent, lack of knowledge and interest ∙ Men aren't worse caregivers, women are just socialized better at it

∙ Parents are spending a lot more time with their kids

∙ Work week is getting longer

∙ Work family balance is becoming more salient

∙ Leads to:

∙ Lack of sleep and free/leisure time

∙ Working part-time is best because you can spend time with kids while also making  money

Reading: Simon (2008) 

∙ (Kids are fulfilling and so life without kids would make you feel empty/lack purpose and  meaning)

∙ Parents with kids report lower levels of happiness, but people without kids experience more  positive emotions, have less depression, and are happier

∙ Helps us understand "leaky pipeline" (Anne-Marie Slaughter), parenthood has consequences that  effect mobility and work

∙ Attachment parenting => always having your kids with you (breastfeeding, skin to skin contact,  "baby wearing" instead of using a stroller)

∙ Can we have it all?

∙ Parenting is becoming harder because the bar is being raised/higher expectations

∙ Cultural representations of different roles:

∙ Image (troupe of a professor => old, glasses, corduroy, socially awkward, brilliant) ∙ Supermom troupe: (image is not reality)

∙ Works (professional)

∙ Happy, well-behaved kid

∙ Carrying kid and groceries

∙ Going home to cook dinner

∙ Convincing women we can do it all

It Has Changed 

∙ Child raising is getting harder/change in meaning of childhood

∙ Rise in breadwinner model

Social Meaning of Childhood 

∙ Children used to work at age 4 (tiny adult)

∙ Economy changed

∙ Reconfigure what childhood means

∙ Changed their value from economic to sentimental

Breadwinner Model 

∙ Women legitimize men's attachment to work and detachment from home

∙ Take ownership of role when they can excel, but men can't

∙ "Having it all" --> being able to have a rewarding and successful work life as well as family life  being rewarding and successful

Having children is culturally imperative => called to duty by out culture

Assume that all women should have kids and want kids

Parenthood: Cultural Imperative: 

∙ Spinster --> single women without kids (negative)

∙ Single childless man --> (bachelor) no male equivalent to spinster (positive)

We still assume people without kids are unhappy, selfish, and that there is something wrong with them

∙ Contradictory messages between ideal worker and ideal mother

∙ Idealization of motherhood without change in structural conditions to support it

Fatherhood - 3/24/16

∙ Era of involved fathering

∙ Dove commercial --> men who care make them stronger

∙ Reflect cultural shift towards fatherhood and masculinity

∙ Small share of father only families (< 4%)

Why Do Children Live With Mothers More Often Than Fathers? 

∙ Legal/Structural

∙ Custody --> almost always assigned to man

∙ Social

∙ Absent or uninvolved fathers

∙ Men drift away from lives of their children

∙ Cultural

∙ Belief --> women should be primary caregivers of children when parents can't live  together

Nothing biological (no "mom" genes) --> it's socialization

Cultural presumption that women are better caregivers than men (occupies larger space in our lives  compared to men)

Fatherhood "Epochs" 

∙ Preindustrial Era (Williams Reading)

∙ Household --> unit of production

∙ Men and women worked in house

∙ No mass education (children worked, so educated at home by father)

∙ Men were primary educators

∙ Industrial Era

∙ Jobs --> outside of home

∙ Men became providers instead of caregivers it you work hard, you will be successful  fatherhood became more about providing for your children

∙ The Package Deal (Townsend) (4 facets of fatherhood):

∙ 1. Emotional closeness

∙ 2. Provision

∙ 3. Protection

∙ 4. Endowment

∙ Marriage --> facilitates employment --> facilitates home ownership --> facilitates  fatherhood

∙ Father => sex role model

=> if boy, how to be a man

=> if girl, how to act around men, what to expect

∙ Technological Era

∙ Ideal father – involved father (Williams)

∙ Provider and emotionally close

∙ Involved father

∙ Fathers did not "decide" what fatherhood path to follow

∙ Instead, society changed

∙ Men's choices, reaction to their circumstances

∙ Economic factors: women contribute financially and take over breadwinner role ∙ Cultural factors: women demanding more equality and that men take on more household  work in exchange for women participating more in workforce

∙ Multipartner fertility --> rise in share of people who have kids with more than one partner ∙ Changes in family life: marriage, divorce, multipartner fertility

Men with lower levels of education --> more likely to be stay at home dads

Increase in women's caregiving

Women working more and also parenting more

During industrial era, men believed providing money to children was the most important Nowadays, showing child love and protection is most important

What is Holding Back Progress? 

∙ Fathers still face a set of constraints:

∙ Lack social resources (women, however, have the social networks to schedule playdates  and socialize)

∙ Man not allowed to participate in "mommy and me"

∙ Paternity leave => men don't know it's available or they get reprimanded for it  (stigmatized in work place), people think he is less committed to job if he takes leave ∙ Men have long work hours

∙ Lack of flexible jobs

∙ "Mr. Mom" => degrading to masculinity, men socialized a different way to parenting ∙ Workplace Policy and Culture

∙ Fathers might see kids for 30 minutes each day

∙ Hard with a job that demands a lot of facetime

∙ Cultural Ideals of Masculinity

∙ What an idealized man with children is different from what view of a father is can't be a  good father without being good in labor market

∙ Behavioral Lag

∙ Behavioral change is behind attitudinal change

∙ Diaper commercial --> sending message to dad (superdad)

∙ Most establishments don't have diaper changing systems in the men's restroom ∙ Dad's don't know how to parent as well as moms do

What Problem Does This Create For Men? 

Non-residential fathers:

∙ On the rise

∙ Can still be involved even if you don't live with them

∙ 40% of nonresident fathers are absent and not involved

∙ Fathers with more education/resource/$ are more involved with their children ∙ Why? (particularly an issue for men with low economic standing) (involvement goes down) =>  the package deal

=> if men don't have "the package deal," they don't want to be involved and feel  they have nothing to contribute

∙ If man refuses to pay child support, women gatekeep their children (men can't see kids)

Father Absenteeism 

∙ Positive relationship

∙ Parenting style

∙ Providing child care/support

Fatherhood Crisis

Period on figuring out what involved parenting is

Childrearing Across Social Classes - 3/29/16

∙ Microlevel View:

∙ Children's lives are shaped broadly

∙ And at an interpersonal level

∙ Parenting (between parents and children)

∙ Earlier in semester:

∙ 1. Ethnic Family --> interpretative lens for identifying "ideal family"

∙ 2. Parenting demands among mothers (and fathers with young children)

∙ "Intensive parenting"

∙ Child care demands

∙ Today:

∙ Look closely at U.S. cultural logics of parenting that extend to childcare of all ages ∙ How they vary by social class

∙ Set kids on different paths of life

∙ Put this model of parenting into comparative perspective by looking at modes of  parenting in other countries

∙ Earlier research:

∙ Parents of different social class

∙ Spend time differently

∙ Use vocabulary differently

∙ Enroll their children in more extracurriculars

∙ Unequal Childhoods

∙ Social class also shapes philosophies and approaches to parenting

∙ Children of different social classes are being raised differently more so now than before ∙ Class differences in parenting are cultural logics (Lareau 2003)

∙ Discussion on Lareau (2003) Reading

∙ What is cultural logic?

∙ Crystallization of different parenting behaviors shaped by parents' backgrounds ∙ 2 kinds of cultural logic:

∙ 1. Concerted Cultivation (Alexander Williams)

∙ 2. Naturalistic Growth ( Wendy Driver)

∙ 1. Alexander Williams' parents' approach to parenting:

∙ Black, middle-class

∙ Parents --> professionals ($200,000 / year)

∙ Extracurricular activities => talents and skills developed (concerted cultivation) ∙ Used complex vocabulary  

∙ Language used as a teaching tool

∙ Reasoning, negotiation (opportunity for Alexander to explain himself)

∙ Assertive with adults

∙ Involvement and advocacy in child's school

∙ 2. Wendy Driver

∙ Working class family; white girl

∙ Single mother with a partner

∙ Money is tight, economic hardship

∙ Fewer extracurriculars --> providing a safe activity for her child

∙ Religious training

∙ Fun

∙ Language more direct (commands or directives)

∙ Less intellectual conversations (no reasoning)

∙ Around adults, she was taught to be more deferential (not assertive, no demands) ∙ Wendy's mother lacked on independent understanding of school and allowed school to  make decisions on her child's behalf (NOT interventionist)

∙ Middle class children reared in a way that values ambition

∙ Working class children reared --> value natural growth, unstructured time, and kin interactions ∙ Because working class parents know that life will get hard soon enough, so they want  their kids to enjoy their childhood while they can

∙ Often lack knowledge of professional jargon, have a different view of the link between  home and school, and are distrustful of authority figures

∙ Do middle class parents care more about their kids' future than working class parents? ∙ No, parents have same hopes for kids' futures; however, their expectations and  circumstances vary

∙ It has NOT always been this way

∙ More educated/advantaged parents since the 1980s

∙ Seeing downward mobility

∙ Popular culture terms:

∙ Helicopter parenting: hovering parents over their kids

∙ Alternative philosophy --> kids empowered when they learn to take risks on their own

Guest Lecture on Family and Family Change: Interracial  Families 3/31/16

∙ History

∙ Slavery era

∙ Post civil war – marriage between Blacks and Whites illegal

∙ Segregation (separate but equal)

∙ 1967 – Loving vs. Virginia case

∙ 11 year old and 17 year old have a baby and they get married => arrested (broke  the law) and sentenced to one year in jail or 25 years exile from Virginia

∙ Sharp increase in people who marry interracially

∙ Factors that deter/favor intermarriage:

∙ History racial relations

∙ Laws

∙ Geographic proximity

∙ Neighborhood/school/work segregation

∙ Education (more educated, more likely to intermarry)

∙ Age are first marriage

∙ First marriage or remarriage

∙ General public and family attitudes

∙ Perceived risk of marital dissolution/racism/hardships

∙ Higher risk of divorce

∙ Other factors --> religion; cultural distance

∙ Why did intermarriage rates increase?

∙ No laws prohibiting intermarriage

∙ Immigration --> population ethnically diverse

∙ Higher at first marriage, independent living, and higher education levels ∙ More diverse families of all types

∙ More accepting attitudes --> millennials

∙ Divorce --> 50%

∙ Why is it still a rare event?

∙ History or racial oppression

∙ Belief that races are different

∙ Intermarriage prohibited

∙ Covert and over racism still present

∙ Geographic segregation

∙ Homophily

∙ Black/White marriages => black respondents more accepting (80%) than whites (64%)

∙ Out-marriage to Caucasian Americans more acceptable/deniable than to Asians, hispanics, and  blacks

∙ Overall, attitudes more accepting today than in past

∙ Most intermarriage in the West

∙ Southeast --> least likely to see intermarriage between blacks and whites

∙ Gender based differences

∙ Asian women intermarry a lot MORE than Asian men

∙ Black women intermarry a lot LESS than Black men

∙ Males/females no difference between then gender when it comes to intermarriage among  whites and hispanics

∙ Higher risk of divorce when marrying outside your racial group

∙ White husband and Black wife have lower risk of divorce than Asian husband and Asian  wife

∙ Multiracial Children --> Concerns:

∙ Racial identity

∙ Invisibility vs. Being too visible

∙ Effects of divorce on children

∙ Discrimination and bullying

∙ Multiracial Children Research

∙ Choosing identities reflect social context:

∙ Blacks/whites/biracial/multiracial/mixed/human

∙ Racial identity change over time

∙ Little differences – multiracial

∙ Benefits of intermarriage

∙ Group/Community Level

∙ Opens up discussion on race and ethnicity

∙ Upward social mobility

∙ Erasing social dichotomy

∙ You can't group intermarriage into only black and white

∙ Bridges between racially distinct families

∙ Children

∙ Children more tolerant, objective, and nonjudgmental

∙ Multilingual children – higher school performance

∙ Future trends?

∙ We expect to see a reduction in intermarriage between Asians and other races/ethnicities

Immigrant Families - 4/5/16

∙ 1965: Turning Point

∙ Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965

∙ Hart-Celler Act

∙ Abolished earlier quota system based on national origin and established new  policy based on reuniting immigrant families

∙ During 1960s, flip in century of immigrants and changed to immigrants from Latin America and  Asia

∙ A lot of these immigrants are children

∙ Majority of these children are second generation (born in US, living with  

immigrant/undocumented parents)

∙ Incline of children with unauthorized, immigrant parents

∙ Undocumented immigrants going to smaller cities like Georgia and North Carolina ∙ Story of Immigrant Families

∙ Varies by region, ethnicity, national origin, family

∙ Socioeconomic circumstances, generation, and citizenship

∙ Immigrant Children

∙ 25% of all children are immigrants

∙ 21% are first generation

∙ 4% are second generation

∙ Poverty

∙ More likely to be poor than nonimmigrant children

∙ Children with immigrant parents

∙ Less likely to be enrolled in pre-k

∙ Less likely to graduate high school

∙ Why do immigrant children face such disadvantages?

∙ Changes in experience of immigrants

∙ Most assimilate into poor, urban communities

∙ Manufacturing jobs occupied by earlier generations of immigrants are far fewer ∙ Low levels of education or education devalued

Children of Undocumented Parents 

∙ Far greater hardships

∙ Parents lack access to many social safety net programs (Welfare, SNAP, Medicaid) ∙ And other rights (driver's license, education)

∙ Illegal immigrants NOT granted in-state tuition

∙ Little access to good paying jobs

Deportation 

∙ Increased from around 190,000 deportations in 2001 to close to 400,000 per year in 2011 ∙ In 2013, about 72,000 with U.S. born children were deported

Transnational Families 

∙ Families with members living in different nation states

∙ Aren't new, have been there since the Mayflower

∙ What has changed? Who migrates to/from which countries?

"Divided by Borders" (Reading) 

∙ Derby conducted 142 formal interviews with migrant parents, children, and caregivers ∙ Longitudinal interview with members of a group of 12 families over 4 years ∙ Ethnographic work in the mixteca of Mexico and central New Jersey

Leave their Children Behind... 

∙ Dangerous to cross the border

∙ Intended to make money and send it back home to children

∙ Life in the U.S. wasn't permanent

∙ Difficult to find jobs and ones they did find were dangerous, dirty, and unwanted, bad pay as well ∙ They worked long hours in order to make the investment worth their while

∙ Poor housing/low level

"Migrant Paradox" 

∙ Limited economic opportunities, but better than what was offered back home ∙ Stay longer

∙ Negative effects on families (family relations => sad, disillusionment)

∙ Intended expectations don't match reality

Contemporary Topic: Incarceration and Family Life - 4/7/16

Mass Incarceration --> incarcerating people in masses

Rise in Incarceration 

∙ 100/100,000 (in 1970) --------> 500/500,000 (today)

∙ Rates here today are seven times higher than other countries

∙ U.S. 25% of world's incarceration

∙ 11% of American men can expect to go to prison; 6.5% of men and women

∙ 2 million incarcerated right now in US

∙ 1 in 36 Americans either incarcerated, on probation, or parole

∙ Increased crime? Not necessarily

Causes of Mass Incarceration 

∙ Changes in Criminal Justice Policy

∙ War on drugs <----- became priority – DEA formation

∙ Mandatory sentencing clause

∙ Set sentences based on what your offense is

∙ Removed some power

∙ Persecutors = harsher = lot longer in prison

∙ Decrease in mental health help/resources

∙ Change in economy/urban life for less educated men

∙ Communities became devastated

∙ Decline in manufacturing jobs

∙ Increase in service jobs

Why relevant to family? 

∙ Many men/women are parents

∙ Puts further risk on children who are already disadvantaged

∙ 64% of white incarcerated men are fathers

∙ 81% of Hispanic incarcerated men are fathers

∙ 70% of black incarcerated men are fathers

∙ Many are also married

∙ Many children whose parents are affected are young (<10 years old)

Effects on Children 

∙ Intergenerational

∙ Children are more aggressive

∙ Children are more depressed

∙ Low levels of school performance

∙ Very shameful-strong feeling of stigma for children

Effects on Other Family Members 

∙ Family income

∙ Family costs (visits/calls/legal fees/accounts)

∙ Social isolation and depression

∙ Risk of divorce/separation

Problems that Persist After Men Are Released 

∙ Employment

∙ Housing

∙ Mental/physical health

∙ Child support arrears --> creates a void

∙ Access to social safety nets

Are these bad effects justified?

Who is incarcerated?

∙ Mostly blacks then Latinos, least amount in prison => whites

Is Crime Equally Distributed? 

∙ Blacks and whites use drugs at equal rates

∙ High educated => more likely to rape

∙ Unfair stop/search policy and policing in poor neighborhoods

Consequences of Policing 

∙ 1 million black children currently have parents in jail

∙ Children with parents in jail are disproportionally poor

∙ Life chances are negatively affected

∙ Structure/society problems need to be fixed

Same-Sex Families - 4/12/16

∙ Heteronormative = assume that men and women fall into natural gendered categories ∙ Prevalence of same-sex family (increasingly visible type)

∙ 3.8% Americans --> LGBTQ

∙ 1.8% men --> gay

∙ 1.5% women --> lesbian

∙ 1% --> all couples' households are same-sex

∙ Same-sex families with children

∙ Many have children

∙ Estimates range from 19% to 25%

∙ Trends:

∙ No data to show trends

∙ Only in 1990, did the U.S. Census add the category of unmarried partner to the household  roster

∙ Based on 2000 census, data on unmarried same-sex partner was published  

∙ Following the 2010 survey, the census published first data on married same-sex couples,  as same sex marriage was not legal in 2000 census

∙ For 2020, census is considering including more specific categories:

∙ Same-sex husband/wife/spouse

∙ Same-sex unmarried couple

∙ Same-sex relationships are more accepted people with homoerotic desired are less "closeted" ∙ Gay culture --> mainstream

∙ People stay away from "traditional" marriage/relationship

∙ Same sex now legal  

Background: Same-Sex Marriage 

∙ Early 1990s, effort in Hawaii to legalize same-sex marriage

∙ Congress passed Defense of Marriage Act in 1996

∙ Defined marriage between a man and a woman

∙ No state legally bound to recognize same-sex marriage in another state

∙ 2003, Massachusetts ruled that state constitution allowed gay marriage and marriage licenses  followed shortly after

∙ Many states created legislation that banned gay marriage

∙ 30 state voted to ban gay marriage

∙ 40 states prohibited gay marriage either through legal statute or constitutional  amendments

∙ Bans were challenged and overturned

∙ At this time last year, gay marriage was legal in 37 states

∙ DOMA was struck down in December 2015 by Supreme Court (14th amendment)

Other Arguments 

∙ Equal protection

∙ Equal rights

∙ Ethical and humane

∙ Disenfranchises a group of people

∙ Should be a separation of church and state

One Argument AGAINST 

∙ It is harmful children

Stacey and Biblarz (2001) 

∙ How are same sex families different

∙ Note: ASA Amicus Brief => summarized research on topic

∙ Took more critical eye

∙ Said research was polarized

∙ Found differences in children's gender/sexual preferences and behaviors

What does the public think?

∙ Rate of people who favor is increasing

∙ Rate of people who oppose it is decreasing

Do all gay and lesbian couples WANT to marry?

Do all want to have a traditional family (i.e. children)

No universal support for same sex marriages

∙ See marriage as problematic

∙ Reinforce ideology that marriage is proper site for sexual and intimate relations ∙ Renders other families as invisible

Reading ==>> Stacey (2006) 

∙ Do gay men want children?

∙ Refuseniks vs. Predestined Fathers vs. Situational Parents

∙ Situational Parents => would become parents if situation is right (we don't see as  predestined parents)

∙ Fewer men see them as predestined parents

∙ How do gay men become fathers? (Biological limitations)

∙ Up until now, majority have children through heterosexual relationships before realizing  their identity

∙ Future --> surrogacy and adoption

∙ May see gay men with kids ==>> DECLINE

Contemporary Topics: Family Policy - 4/14/16

Family Policy 

∙ A legislative and or programmatic approach to supporting or influencing families ∙ Ex). Head Start (pre-k for low income family)

What aspects of family can policies change?

∙ Family Composition: childbirth, marriage, divorce, adoption, foster care

∙ Economic Support: families' abilities to provide for their dependents' basic needs (food, shelter,  health care, clothing)

∙ Development of Children: parent's ability to nurture, rear, educate children

∙ Family Care: families' abilities to care for members and relatives who are ill, frail, disabled

∙ Partnered Relationships: Families' ability to foster and maintain committed, stable partner  relationships

Around the world... 

∙ Problems of low fertility in some countries

∙ High fertility in others...

∙ Children's' welfare and rights

What are engines of family policy in U.S.

∙ Single parenthood

∙ Changes in men and women's work => wages

Child Poverty 

∙ Our social safety nets are much lower

∙ Do we need to make our tax system at top end of distribution? Tax wealthy more?

Contemporary Family Policies 

∙ 1993 FMLA (Family Medical Leave Act)

∙ More recent policies are rolling out on a local level

∙ Ex). San Francisco recently legislated 6 weeks of paid leave for all parents ∙ 1960s Head Start (pre-k for low-income families)

∙ Should we make "universal pre-k"

∙ We do not have child care subsidies

∙ We have dependent care tax deduction

∙ Has to be offered by employer

∙ 1996 PRWORA: The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act ∙ "Welfare reform"

∙ Foundation => Mother's Aid, 1931

∙ 1930s:

∙ Women aren't working

∙ Widowed women (WWII)

∙ Husbands disabled, imprisoned, dead

∙ Women didn't have much support

∙ 1935 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (ADFC)

∙ Entitlement program

∙ Created by Social Security Act

∙ Cash payments to impoverished families

∙ Began in 1935, ended in 1996

∙ Only help single mothers (you can't be married)

Welfare Reform 

∙ Welfare benefits expanded

∙ Great society (LBJ administration) mid-1960s: social welfare movement and war on poverty ∙ Head Start 1965

∙ Food stamps (now SNAP --> Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program) ∙ Medicaid/Medicare

What Precipitated Legislation? 

1. Shift in extent of women receiving benefits were deserving of it

2. "Welfare Queen" --> minority woman, getting fat off welfare system, have kids just to get  benefits

3. 2 ways out of poverty:

4. 1. Work

5. 2. Marriage

Conservative Perspective 

∙ AFDC encouraged dependency (no time limit, payments too high)

∙ Encourage recipients --> have more kids

Liberal 

∙ AFDC causes poor people --> unstable to become self-sufficient

Major Changes in Welfare 

∙ End of welfare as an entitlement

∙ Replaced AFDC with TANF (Temporary Aid to Needy Family)

∙ Block grants to states

∙ Penalties for not moving people to work

∙ Bonuses for reducing nonmarital births and abortions

∙ Mandatory work requirements (in order to receive welfare, you must designate father of your  child and get paternity test)

Marriage Promotion 

∙ Promoted under George W. Bush

∙ Diverted funds to marriage promotion programs

∙ Ex). Counseling programs that encouraged unwed parents to marry

∙ Publicize "pro-marriage" message targeted to low income communities

∙ Provide marriage education programs in schools with at risk youth

∙ Highly Controversial

∙ Marriage is not an option/ideal outcome for all relationships

∙ Marriage comes with economic and structural barriers

∙ Not feasible policy approaches to addressing poverty

∙ Died under Obama administration

Reading => Marshall and Sawhill 

∙ Policy prescriptions for the future:

∙ 1. Balance work and family

∙ After school programs

∙ Paid leave

∙ Increase/expand pre-school and quality of it

∙ Federal day care

∙ Part-time work with benefits

∙ 2a. Early Unwed Pregnancy

∙ Abstinence and same sex programs

∙ Access to safe abortions and adoptions

∙ Access to contraception

∙ Embed messages in media

∙ 2b. Reform Divorce Law

∙ Make no fault divorce consensual

∙ Create legal presumption of joint custody

∙ 3. Reform tax system

∙ Address EITC phase out

∙ Address inequality in Child and Dependent Care Credit

∙ 4. Demand Responsible Fatherhood

∙ Advocate integrating men into Welfare System

∙ Focus on prison population

∙ Create system to help fathers reduce child support arrearages

∙ 5. Welfare Reform – Child Care Support

∙ Expectation of work

∙ 6. Make Work Pay

∙ Increase EITC income limits

∙ Increase minimum wage

∙ Expand access to child care

The Future of Family - 4/19/16

Reading: "The World Revolution and Family Patterns" (1963) by William Goode

∙ Highly influential and ambitious  

∙ Cross cultural-historical analysis  

∙ Convergence theory  

∙ Wherever economic systems expand through industrialization, family change follows  ∙ In ways that converged on a family form ideally suited to the conditions of  industrialization  

∙ Families will converge on a universal type  

∙ Changes:  

∙ 1. Extended kinship ties weaken  

∙ 2. Lineage patterns dissolve  

∙ Preservation of family lineage through pre-determined marriage  

∙ 3. Conjugal system appear  

∙ Family in which parameters surround husband, wife, child unit  

Conjugal Family 

∙ Family moved from farms to cities (more mobility and smaller)  

∙ Market economy based on merit, not family ties (emphasized personal achievement)  ∙ Parents' do not choose mates for children (greater autonomy for children)  

∙ Family no longer an economic unit (ideology of family based on companionship)  

1950s Breadwinner Model 

∙ Characterization:  

∙ Lower fertility  

∙ Early age at marriage

∙ Role strain among husbands and wives  

∙ Lack of equality  

Predictions (1950s) 

∙ Few women would work because they needed to care for children  ∙ "Illegitimacy" in age at first marriage  

∙ No change in fertility rates (3 child average)  

∙ No anticipation of cohabitation  

∙ Divorce rates would remain stable  

∙ 1950s model of family was the end point for the family  

What Really Happened? 

∙ Individualistic marriage  

∙ Post modern family form about personal fulfillment  

∙ Second demographic transition  

∙ Separation of marriage from childbearing and sexual behavior  ∙ Fertility rates dropped  

∙ Divorce rates increased  

∙ Non marital fertility rates increased  

∙ Age at first marriage increased  

∙ Cohabitation increased  

Diversification of the Family 

∙ Breadwinner-homemaker  

∙ Single parent family  

∙ Family with two working parents  

∙ Cohabiting family:  

∙ Same-sex couples  

∙ Living apart together  

∙ Transnational family forms  

Conclude on Convergence Theory?

∙ Fit between conjugal family and industrialization was not optional  

∙ Not due to unraveling of family values  

What Signs Did Goode Miss? 

∙ Need for less kids  

∙ Women beginning to work  

∙ Birth control (gave women power to control their fertility)  

∙ Diverging destinies  

∙ Reproductive technologies (people can have kids at older age)  

∙ New patterns of immigration  

∙ Interethnic and interracial families  

∙ Globalization (transitioned out of industrialized economy)  

∙ Economic change  

∙ Women's agency (1970s second wave of feminism) (women were discontent in this breadwinner  model) (women got more power in relationships)  

Cherlin's Predictions: 

∙ Continuation of education related patterns  

∙ Uptick in family with three children by most advanced group in society  

∙ Signal that you have the resources and ability to take on and "one-up" everyone else by  having a third child  

∙ Stretch boundary of family toward "personal committees"  

∙ End of patriarchy and rise of women:  

∙ Women outpace men  

∙ Our economy/society has changed that is better suited towards success of women  ∙ Rise in childlessness  

∙ Are way at the cusp of children sky rocketing  

∙ Low fertility rates (in Japan, Italy)  

Can we predict the future of family? 

∙ Problems of predicting arise when we use today as an endpoint of change

∙ Future of family is uncertain  

Study of Contemporary Family

∙ Uses 1950s as a reference point  

∙ Engaged in understanding why families change and what the consequences of that change are for  individual's lives  

∙ Told from the perspective of race, class, gender, age, nativity, ethnicity  

∙ And in context of other larger forces:  

∙ Culture  

∙ Systems of norms  

∙ Economy and labor market  

Review Day in Class - 4/21/16

Women's Work 

∙ More married women with young children working  

∙ Changes in culture of work

o Increase in importance of facetime

o Changes in hour of work week

o Work world has not adapted to fact that women are a larger share of workforce o Tension between women's family responsibilities and their desire in the work  force

o Slow signs of progress

▪ US --> only place without paid leave

∙ Why women still can't have it all

o Reading => spotted most talented/educated women with leaky pipeline (women  opting out because it's hard to balance family life with work life)

∙ Cultural meanings of motherhood

o Expectations of women:

▪ Caregivers

▪ Intensive mothers (Sharon Hayes reading)

∙ Goes beyond meeting kids' basic needs, child centered

∙ Implies that women who put work before their children are bad

Men's Lives 

∙ Priority is at work => provide for family

∙ These men => breadwinners

∙ Work limits men

o Less time with children because work takes up so much time

o Video: stay at home dads had a negative view

o Reading (Townshend) => "package deal"

Class Differences and Child Rearing 

∙ Described as a black box => we know the parameters, but not what's inside ∙ Children raised differently based on their backgrounds

Interracial and Interethnic Couples 

∙ More common, but not nearly as common as we would expect (US is very diverse) ∙ Random coupling

∙ Not as many people mating with interracial and interethnic couples

Transnational 

∙ Large part of family landscape

∙ More disadvantaged

∙ Problems their children face

∙ Immigrant experience is very different today than it was for my grandparents ∙ Transnational families => families that separate all over (go to US to make money)

Incarceration 

∙ Era of mass incarceration

∙ Families affected by this:

o Lower economic families

∙ Families of lower socioeconomic background are facing a bigger disadvantage

LGBTQ Couples with Kids 

∙ Recently entering into era of legalization of gay marriage

∙ Pro/cons of same sex marriage

∙ First reading:

o Studies on effects of children:

▪ No effects on kids' academic performance, behavioral outcomes, mental  health

∙ Second reading:

o Deliberate approach and effort gay parents take to get a child

o Another group of gay dads become parents through adoption => provide homes  through foster care systems

o Diversity of same sex families

Family Policy 

∙ Welfare policy

o Still debated whether it was successful

∙ Problem: no more changes for women with kids that provide adequate wages (they have little education/experience)

∙ Limitations toward family policy

∙ Reading (Sawhill and Melone)

o Middle of the road policy marker types some policies too liberal or too  conservative

Future of Family 

∙ Reading:

o Ways people forecasted future of US would be (1960s gilded era)

o Experienced rapid change

∙ Reflect on our own predictions for them (**Definite question on exam**)

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