Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide SOC101
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Akea Kahikina on Saturday February 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC101 at University of Miami taught by Katelyn Rozenbroek in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/28/15
Akea Kahikina SOC 101 Rozenbroek Spring 2015 0209 0220 Socialization The process by which people learn the culture of their society Nature vs Nurture Nature biology genes given circumstances ability to talk Nurture social environment ability to use language Symbolic Interaction Feral Child Genie 13yr old raised in isolation Cooley Looking Glass Self we see ourselves as society sees us Primary Groups very small groups characterized by commitment intense emotional ties intimacy ex Family signi cant others Secondary Groups large and impersonal groups characterized by eeting relationships ex Classmates Reference Groups groups that provide standards for judging our attitudes and behaviors ex Celebrities Mead father of Symbolic Interaction quotYou can only develop a sense of self through interaction with societyquot I social impulse self to act through f OEDers Stages 1 Preparatory stage you are the center of the universerespond to surroundings 2 Play stage take the attitude and roles of those around you 3 Game stage learn to take role of multiple others aware of societal positions 4 Adult stage where you understand abstract complex concepts love hate success failure Social Interaction Taken for granted rules that enable people to work and live together Goffman coined the term dramaturgy theatrical theory and practice of dramatic composition Front Stage performance what you do in front of people Back Stage private life what you do by yourself Impression Management how we want people to see us Agents of SocializationsSocial Institutions established set of norms and subsystems that serve a purpose Ex Education Religion Entertainment Media Peers Sports Law Family Total Institution institution that isolates individuals from society to achieve control attempts to resocialize ex Military Rehab Prison Boarding School Asylum Class amp Inequality Social Strati cation systematic ranking of different groups of people and hierarchy of people social class inequality disparity in income wealth power prestige and other resources Ascribed status social position linked to characteristics that are socially signi cant but cannot be altered Achieved status social position based off of credentials Caste society different classes of people with set occupations not changeable Class society different classes based on credentials Mobility ability to move class SES socioeconomic status based on income money you make wealth money you have education occupation prestige associated with job political voice ability to make change multidimensional concept Job Ranking Based on Prestige High CEOs MDs Lawyers ed Congress Police Teachers toward Custodial engineers high Low McDonalds workers Nursing middle Sanitation Stayhome parents engineers toward low Sex workers Strati ed systems 1 Rankings apply to social categories of people 2 Life experiences and opportunities are in uenced by this ranking 3 The hierarchical system changes a littler over time 4 5 Life Chances opportunities and experiences based on class 6 Ex See columns below Thomas White Coral Gables Straight Marchetti Black Liberty City Gay differences in characteristics such as race location and sexuality affect potential opportunities differently 7 0223 0227 8 Poverty 9 10 Of cial poverty 11 Of cial for a Household of 1 lt 11770 per year 12 Of cial for a Household of 4 lt 24250 per year 13 14 19605 cost of food was calculated as such 15 13 food 13 housing 13 etc 16 2013 145 living in of cial poverty 45 million 17 18 Absolute poverty 19 A condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs including food safe drinking water sanitation facilities health shelter education and information 20 21 Relative poverty 22 The condition in which people lack the minimum amount of income needed in order to maintain the average standard of living in the society in which they live 23 ex UM parking lot 24 25 Situational poverty 26 A personfamily can experience Situational Poverty when their income and support is decreased due to a speci c change job loss divorce death etc 27 28 Food Desert 29 An urban area in which it is dif cult to buy affordable or goodquality fresh food 30 31 32 Race and Ethnicity 33 34 Social Construction Berger amp Luck 1960 s 35 groups create concepts of each other over time Concepts gt roles gt institutionalized gt embedded into society 36 37 race is not a scienti c idea Human Genome Project gt 01 of genes are racial 38 physical traits are not biological to race 39 gtassigning it to race is a social construct 40 41 race a group sharing apparent physical traits deemed by society to be socially signi cant 42 43 44 45 country of origin race language culture ethnicity 46 47 48 49 50 1 one drop rule a successful attempt to de ne blackness in America as one drop or at least 132 of Black ancestry for the economic social and political purposes of distinguishing a Black person from a White person 10 Points about Is Race for Realquot Race is a modern idea a Ancient societies did not divide people according to physical differences but according to religion status class language Race has no genetic basis a Not one characteristic trait or gene distinguishes all members of one socalled race from all members of another socalled race Slavery predates race a Throughout history societies have enslaved others often as a result of conquest or war but not because of physical characteristics or a belief in natural inferiority Race and freedom were born together a When the US was founded equality was a radical new idea But our early economy was based largely on slavery The concept of race helped explain why some people could be denied the rights and freedoms that others took for granted Race justi ed social inequalities as natural 52 As the race concept evolved it justi ed extermination of Native Americans exclusion of Asian immigrants and taking Mexican lands Racial practices were institutionalized within government laws and society Human subspecies don t exist a Unlike many animals modern humans have not been around long enough nor have populations been isolated enough to evolve into separate subspecies or races Despite surface differences we are among the most similar of all species Skin color is only skin deep 5 Most traits are inherited independently of one another The genes for skin color have nothing to do with genes for hair texture eye shape blood type musical talent or athletic ability Most variation is Within not between races a Of the small amount of total human genetic variation 85 exists within any local population be they Italians Kurds Koreans or Cherokees Two random Koreans are likely to be genetically different as a Korean and an Italian Race is not biological but racism is still real 51 10 a Race is still a powerful social idea that people different access to opportunities and resources Our government and society have created advantages to being white This affects everyone whether we are aware of it or not Colorbindness Will not end racism a Pretending race doesn t exist is not the same as creating equality Race is more than stereotypes and individual prejudice To combat racism we need to identify and remedy social policies that advantage some groups at the expense of others
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