APY 201 midterm study guide
APY 201 midterm study guide 201
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eden Mekonnen on Saturday February 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 201 at a university taught by William Pestle in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 203 views.
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Date Created: 02/28/15
OOOOOO OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO APY 201 Midterm Study Guide Book chapters to study Chapter 1 The searchers The history of archaeology Chapter 2 What is left The variety of evidence Chapter 3 Where Survey and excavation of sites and features Chapter 4 When Dating methods and chronology Chapter 5 how were societies organized Social archaeology Chapter 6 what was the environment and what did they eat Environment substance and diet Key wordsconcepts Chap 16 Stratigraphy Absolute dating Relative dating Site Artifacts Neolithic revolution Radiocarbon dating Typology Ecofacts Taphonomy Experimental archaeology Electrolysis Excavation Cultural Resource Management CRM Context Archeological cultures Three Age systems Classification Streptrenching Paleolithic Seriation Assemblages Features Dendrochronology Radioactive decay Halflife Calibration Date range Method Potassium argon dating Australopithecus Uranium series dating Fission track dating Thermoluminescence dating Hominins Oldowan industry Huntergatherer Prehistory Earliest stone tools Acheulian handaxes Homo sapiens Chiefdoms State Cultural anthropology Paleolithic hunter gatherer Social inequality Ethnicity and con ict Band Ethnoarchaeology Tribes Segmentary societies Lineages Redistribution Settlement Analysis Burial analysis Obsidian Stelae Ethnography Material culture DNA Religion Ice cores Analysis of plant residues on artifacts Domestication of Wild Plant species Subsistence and diet Deep sea cores Palynology Diatom analysis Flotation techniques Microfauna Microbotanical remains pollen phytoliths diatoms Macrobotanical remains seeds and fruits plant residue wood Paleoentomology Archaeozoology Paleoethnobotany Microwear analysis Coprolites Isotopic analysis OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 12615 Ambiguity engenders intriguing debate 0 09 O 09 Multiple competing interpretations of any given pattern of material culture Questions of objectivity Archaeology Today 0 09 Diverse in practitioner and motivation Academic CRM Tribal Modern Archaeology 0 09 Inherently interdisciplinary From Astronomy to Zoology The archeological record 0 09 Artifacts Made or manipulated by man Piece of stone manipulated and changed into arrow is a good example Artifacts are usually found in broken pieces It can tell us a lot about the society who made them Eco facts Natural materials used more or less inunaltered state by humans Examples are animal bones and corncobs Wood to build shelter is another example Feature Like an artifact feature is manmade Unlike an artifact it is not portable Obelisk is an example Sites A distinct spatial clustering of artifacts Eco facts and features re ecting past human activity Context There are 3 different types of contextual data There is matrix provenance and association Environmental Data Temperature Rainfall Flora Fauna Our job in archaeology is to account for change and accurately reenact behaviors of humans in the past 12815 From Systematic Context to Archaeological Context Taphonomy 2 parts of taphonomy Differential survival On a long enough timeline the survival rate for everyone drops to zero Tyler Durden It is never remarkable that material hasn t survived its remarkable when the material has survived Formation process Survival Intrinsic nature Physical stability v Extrinsic factors 339 Chemical stability Agents of decay 339 Water 339 Oxygen 339 Soil pH 339 Salts 339 Temperature 339 Overburden 339 Organisms Conditions of preservation v Absence of light oxygen water 339 Presence of a lot of water and a lot of salt 339 Absence of environmental uctuations 339 Pseudomorphic replacement Formation Processes v Ctransforms Cultural transforms everything humans can do An example is deposition Another is Reuse Recycling Impact of reuse and recycling on one of the most basic archaeological tasks typology Reclamation another example is a process where something is brought back from archaeological context into systemic context Looting is an example of reclamation Artifacts are taken out of sites and sold Disturbance is ruining an area that was previously untouched gt Emic vs etic I Primary vs Secondary Refuse Useful in reconstructing past activities v Ntransforms Nature transforms what nature does I Earthquakes storms volcanism Eolian processes Hydrological processes colluvium Alluvium vegetation and fauna Burying the dead is culturally determined 13015 Middle Range Theory bridging statements Oldowan tool technology where techniques like aking are used to produce a cutting edge on the stone Artifacts date from 1526 mya Took place primarily in East Africa Hominins made these tools Habilis is the first member of our genus H Erectus probably made these tools too 2215 APY 201 Notes Chapter 3 Middle Range Theory based on observation experiment and analogy It is grounded in Uniformitarian principles Uniformitarianism means the processes that happen in the past are similar to those of the present 39rrrrquot0 Flint Knapping is an example of experimenting with material culture Archaeological Research Methods Where you dig what you dig for how you dig all depends on the questions you want answered 2 big questions Change over time diachronic Activity at one moment synchronic Regional Research Questions Locating Sites Historical archival research Aerial satellite imaging Vertical oblique Takes advantage of shadow marks Crop marks Soil marks Frost marks LIDAR Light Based distance and Ranging Typical LIDAR technology implementation includes scanning ranging aircraft position and altitude Modeling Ask a local Local information may or may not be helpful in finding sites Pedestrian walkover survey Regional subsurface survey Sitescale Research Questions Why don t we do full exposure excavation It is due to time cost and ethics It would be ethically irresponsible for archaeologists to dig up an entire site Taking samples is more ethical But how can we make sure that these samples are representative 2615 0 l 0 CRM Archaeology CRM vs Academia Time Constraints of the developer Cost If the site is near a fresh water source it can be particularly sensitive So a contract to CRM companies has to be created and signed and this causes competitive bidding Ethics I Ethics is governed by time How fast can you get data and how much quality does the work have When given a certain period of time it can put a lot of pressure on an archaeologist Archaeology as a business Business Mankind was my businessquot Iacob Marley CRM companies may charge 50 dollars per hour to send an archaeologist to a site Archaeologist may get paid 12 dollars an hour Ancient sites have been removed to make room for hotels grocery stores and other buildings For instance a Whole Foods store was built after bulldozing a Native American gravesite 2915 Principles of Archaeological Dating pt 1 If you can t date it it didn t happen Archaeologists put a lot of effort into finding the dates Terminology you should know 0 Relative vs absolute dating Relative Compares date of event to date of other event Something is earlier later same age asanother event Absolute dating gives you a number 0 Accuracy Accuracy of a dating technique refers to how close that estimate comes to the actual dating 0 Precision The reproducibility of a series of estimates for dating 0 Resolution Refers to a smallest increment of time that a dating technique can distinguish 0 Target event vs dated event In archaeology they are almost never the same Context is crucial Documenting the context is important for dating 0 Relative Dating Techniques 0 Stratigraphy I Stratigraphic laws Law of superposition in a series of layers the upper units of stratification are younger and the lower units are older I Terminus post quem Sometime after a given date I Terminus ante quem Sometime before a given date I Association If you find two things in a stratum they are associated with that stratum I Seriation Seriations are more like categories Lighting technology in US is a good example Over time there is a pattern on material culture and how materials can become more or less popular If an archaeologist dug up these lighting artifacts he she can guess if many people used this at a certain time period I Index or marker fossils Uptake FUN Dating Can explain materials that have been put together It can show if one side of let s say a skull is older than another side Absolute Dating Techniques Dendrochronology Tree ring dating developed by AE Douglass an astronomer 21115 Principles of Archaeological Dating pt 2 Another absolute dating technique Thermoluminescence Minerals are heated creating a light signal An example would be associated with pottery baking Thermoluminescence is used a lot in museums to identify artifacts and detect forgery It does this by distinguishing artifacts made earlier in human history and those made recently TL can predict when the vessel was fired and when it was used One of the problems of Thermoluminescence is the con ict between the target event and the dated event Finding a pot that dates 900 Ad may not accurately describe how old the house it was found in was Archaeomagnetism Has to do with Earth s magnetic field Magnets are fixed in the major magnetic field at one point It can be used to find out the age of archaeological materials You may wonder when were the products heated up past the Curie point Radiocarbon C quot14 Dating Principles of Radiocarbon dating were established by Willard Libby The principle of radiocarbon dating requires the understanding of isotopes One isotope of carbon varies from others Relative abundance of carbon isotopes 12C99 13C1 Archaeologists studied the carbon in mummies and from this they established decay curve for Carbon 14 Present is always 1950 Child s mandible was dated 167636bp This would make it 274 AD You get this by subtracting 1950 from 1676 Natural disasters nuclear bombs and other factors can alter the amount of carbon in the environment Marine reservoir effect Sea creatures can be dated back to 400 years because they are exposed to carbon decay for many years 21615 Social Organization Age Gender Kin Clan Craft specialization Class With the entire social political and economic dimensions thereof The Neolithic Revolution People started out as food foragers and then switched to food producing Food production was a necessary condition Was the switch from food foragers to food producing progress the worst mistake in history of human race or an inevitable step in the evolution of human society There are very few food foragers existing today most are food producing Daily intake is derived from domesticated sources even if every individual does not grow his her own food Food foragers primarily depend on hunting fishing and gathering Food producing societies depend most heavily on horticulture agriculture or pastoralism Food foragers can have small groups large birth spacing interval Food producing societies have very large groups short birth spacing Food foragers are typically nomadic but not always Food producers are sedentary Primary vector of social organization in food forager society is kinship and foodproducing societies are more based on class Food foragers limited little surplus property Division of labor is based on gender and proficiency Food producers Pervasive surplus of property Division of labor is based on class and specialization Means of exchange Food foragers practiced reciprocity and food producers had redistribution or market economy Political organization Food foragers equalitarianism Food producers hierarchy Equalitarianism Not the same as equality Positions of power exist but ephemeral Intra societal hierarchies present 21815 Chimps have dominance hierarchies Humans have entrenched hierarchy to a higher degree than any of the nonhuman ancestors Why have some societies evolved while others have not Unilineal evolution 19th century social theory about evolution of societies and cultures Some did not believe in this Instead some suggested instead to practice historical particularism This suggests that each society is a collective representation of its unique historical past The NeoEvolutionists Leslie White I Iulian Steward I Elman Service I Milton Fried 22015 Chiefdom Service 1962 I 500020000 I Kinship based ranking I Large scale monument construction I Redistribution I Craft specialization Stratified Friend 1967 I Bona fide social classes 0 Ruling class segregated from working class Separated in activity I Kin bonds subsumed by class structure I Market economy I Authority with power I Access to both critical and prestige resources State I 20000 with high population density I Class based hierarchy I Leader constitutes and maintains laws and army I Centralized bureaucracy oversees economy An artifact of centralized control was giving one bowl of rice to workers I Stratified settlement hierarchy I Public buildings Problems with typologies I Overgeneralize disguise variability I Falsely equate ancient and modern societies of the same type For instance the Kung of South Africa do not represent the same way ancient societies lived They are in uenced by the modern political and social world I Create unrealistic list of archaeological criteria 0 If you find one criteria assume all the rest I Still harbor implicit notions of progress I Typologies don t answer why There is so much left unexplained how things changed The problematic appeal of monocausal explanations I There is no simple cause explaining a phenomenon For instance the reason behind agriculture cannot be monocausal it occurred at different times and under different conditions So did chiefdoms 00000 00039 Push vs Pull explanations Human societies were pushed towards agriculture and social hierarchy due to external factors of the human condition or human societies were pulled by something in the human condition within human control Push me People were pushed into agriculture and or nominating a leader because of Population pressure Climate pressure Resource scarcity circumscription Warfare Public projects irrigation Pull me a greed based model Someone wants to be powerful and makes it so Aggrandizers they aspire to greatness Opportunistic religious figures Gift givers An unhappy middle ground A series of small initially positive steps Towards farming towards inequality or both which brought with them unforeseen consequences Some of the steps probably provided positive feedback to the phenomena they were intended to remedy To this situation we add the aggrandizing aspects of human nature 22315 Environmental conditions cause certain physical characteristics like darker or lighter skin and it can also impact culture The idea that environment impacts us culturally is Environmental Determinism Paleo environment Geography Climate Temperature rainfall Human modification of environment Anthropogenic Humans impact the environment wherever they go Humans have affected the earth much more than ever before Flora Fauna Differences in temperature affect evaporation It can result in differences in the ratio of oxygen 18 and oxygen 16 Anthropogenic environmental change 22415 Questions related to ora and fauna What plants animals were present at a given moment I O O I 39O39O Change in animal plants over time Change in climatic regime Human introductions How were humans using these plants animals Classes of botanical evidence Macro botanicals Nuts seeds charcoal pits Micro botanicals Pollen phytoliths starch grains Flotation is a technique that is used to preserve plant materials in soil Palynology is the study of pollen Under certain preservation conditions pollen can be preserved very well for long periods of time Looking at shifts in the amount and type of pollen can actually show human activity For instance tree pollen decreased due to deforestation and the domesticated crop pollen increases This could be evidence of overfarming and since humans are responsible for agriculture they would be the reason So in this way it is an indication of human activity Looking at remains of human teeth can reveal what plant that person ate Fauna Zoo archaeology Studies show that many of the gazelles and deer were hunted and killed Looking at the demographics of the species of animals that are killed and eaten it seems more and more animals of later period are found with unerupted third molars So people were beginning to harvest more juveniles Different ways of Counting NISP Number of identified specimens present MNI Minimum Number of individuals Paleo Diet Food garbage nutritional deficiencies Paleopathology nutritional deficiencies Vessel analysis Certain types of pots are good for preparation for different types of food Stable Isotope Analysis Because plants have different chemical makeup we they have different isotopes We can study the bones of people and figure out what that person ate by studying the chemical make up of that bone We extract biomolecules in that bone Collagen Primary protein in bone Hydroxyapatite Principal mineral in bone The carbon in this is made up of carbon coming from dietary protein but also weighted average of all the food you re eating Natural ampquot15 N Variation 22715 N15 Trophy effect Isotopic data allows us to examine what people that lived either on coast or in the desert consumed It would be probable for those near the coast to eat a lot of marine food Inland people ate a lot of terrestrial food Some people in another area were eating both An example is the Ancachi a site found with an almost equal amount of marine and terrestrial life When comparing males and females in Villa Chuqui males ate 50 marine and 50 terrestrial while females ate mostly terrestrial Perhaps the males traveled to new areas which would explain the variation in diet Foods that you eat can be a consequence of ethnicity and also socioeconomic status It can also be a consequence of gender age scarcity politics religion and your social context Archaeologists pay attention to these aspects and want to identify the individuals based on this they re not simply interested in what ancient people ate Seeing if the meat they are eating is wild or domesticated can differentiate types of people Presence of pork can also do this Consumption of beaver can also be an indication of where people lived Cuts of the meat can differentiate houses based on socio economic status Diversity of food can also be an indicator
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