Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide PSY 3100 002
Popular in Topics: Brain, Behavior and Cognition: Psychology of Creativity
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Week 8 Study Guide Gestalt View - Insight in Problem Solving: 2 ways to solve problems: o Analysis “Reproductive Thinking”- based on the old o Insight Aha! Experience Productive thinking – moves beyond what you know to something new Leaps of insight Current question in Gestalt psychology: are there different mechanisms in solving a problem through insight vs. analysis? o Components of Insightful Solutions 3 criteria: Impasse restructuring of problem Aha! Moment + Subjective feeling of certainty Distant and unprecedented connections (remote analogies) Unconscious processes “Relaxation” of the brain (don’t occur when actively trying to solve problem) o Methods for fostering random connections i.e. ping pong tables in writing room Attempt to induce Aha! moments Feeling of Certainty: “Your brain knows more than you do” o Insight: wisdom; to reach understanding Perception-based concepts applied to problem solving and creative thinking Restructuring in problem solving is analogous to restructuring in perception Examples o Archimedes King wanted to know if crown is all gold Need to figure out density of crown o Need to know volume Irregularly shaped Gave to Archimedes (King’s scientists) o Realizes water rises when step in tub Eureka! You can find volume of crown by seeing how much water rises when put it in o Newton Apple fell on his head Aha! Gravity o Poincare Reported many creative ideas coming to him through insight o Wag Dodge and the Mann Gulch Fire o Site of forest fire in Montana o R. Wagner Doge = foreman of smoke jumper crew Concluded that team was doomed THEN! Lights match, sets grass on fire Wets handkerchief and lays on burnt out path Fire surrounds him, lifts him off ground, passes him Innovation: Setting an escape fire o “it just seemed like the logical thing to do” Didn’t come from nowhere Antecedent: Smoke Jumpers’ Training: o 1. Build backfire Fire too big, moving too fast o 2.Move to top of any nearby ridge Couldn’t outrun fire o If 1 and 2 are impossible 3. Step into the fire (find burnt out area; gaps in fire) Fire too large/intense o Dodge’s Invention: Variation on and Combination of 1 and 3 Most impressive aspect is ability to think at all in that situation Plains Indians had discovered it; BIT smoke jumpers didn’t learn from them The Questions of Trial and Error vs. Insight Thorndike’s Puzzle Boxes o Tested whether or not insight present in animals Research: Created apparatuses (puzzle boxes); placed hungry cat in cage; Food placed in sight but out of reach Finding: cat’s use trial and error to escape Conclusion: Cat gradually learned through trial and error to escape from cage; no insight into how to escape No experience to fall back on Had to piece together bits and pieces of solution from random responses Kohler: Response to Thorndike: Intelligence and Insight in Chimpanzees o Criticism of Thorndike: Layout of the whole situation must be available to restructure situation and exhibit insight Construction of Thorndike’s puzzle boxes didn’t allow animals to see/understand how they worked from the inside Had to rely on trial and error o Research: series of investigations of insight in chimps Rake problem o Finding: Banana out of reach, stick present, used stick to rake banana over o Conclusion: animal reached impasse (couldn’t reach banana); suddenly saw stick as a solution; no specific info/knowledge needed Stick had to be in view between animal and banana Based on perception-like processes, not dependent on experience Wertheimer: Insight in Children – Parallelogram Problem o 1. Thinker can find what is needed: Approach problem on own terms. o 2. “Fine” processes; drill interferes with this Relying too much on past experience interferes with productive thinking impasse As long as the parallelograms are regular figures, a standard procedure can be applied (making lines perpendicular from the corners of the base). However, if a parallelogram with a novel shape or orientation is provided, the standard procedure will not work and children are forced to solve the problem by understanding the true structure of a parallelogram o 3. Distinguishes between Reproductive and productive thought Daughter uses productive thought (never cut parallelogram apart to make rectangle; created that solution to deal with situation o 4. Past experience can interfere with productive thinking. Gestalt Theory: Analogy between Restructuring in Perception and in Thinking o Spontaneous Restructuring Hit wall – Impasse Puts brain in unstable state o Brain changes perception Cube o Out of your control Why are some problems difficult? Factors that can interfere with restructuring: o Difficulty from fixation Fixated on past experience: Person’s attempt to apply knowledge to a problem for which it does not apply Reminiscent of tension view I.e. Nine-Dot Problem One of most difficult and well known in psychology Shape of dots perceived as a box; people assume you must draw lines within the square Fixation from perceptual factors and experience with connect-the dots puzzles Must go outside shape of the box Break fixation on shape i.e. Antique Coin Our perspective looks back in time; must take perspective of coin maker Studies of Functional Fixedness Maier’s Analysis of the 2-String Problem Mental restructuring New representation Need to tie 2 strings together Additional tools lying around Problem: Strings too far, if hold one, can’t reach other Solution: use one of tools, tie to string, swing Challenge: functional fixedness (don’t consider tool as weight; need to change representation of it) Elaboration: examine other objects and note that the pliers are heavy contemplate uses for heavy things possible use of pliers as weight for a pendulum (logical reasoning) Duncker’s Study of Functional Fixedness Research: problems with seemingly simple solutions required familiar object be used in novel way Candle Problem Finding: if box first presented in its usual function (container for tacks) it interfered with its being used in a new way; when presented empty first, solution usually proposed rather quickly Conclusions: o Functional fixedness: interference brought about o Container properties: presenting box full of tacks highlighted what it usually used for Made it harder to picture using box as platform or shelf o Component of initial structure of problem had to be changed for solution to be produced Metcalfe’s Analysis of Metacognition and Insight Insight: positive jolt 2 modes of thinking: insight vs. analysis Research: Insight and Algebra Problems Contrasted o Asked to predict how easily they would solve it (metacognitive judgement) – before o Asked to tell her how warm they felt (how close to the solution) - as they worked Findings: o Strong Feelings of knowing Algebra problem – can predict (Strong feelings of knowing Based on things you know (you know how well you know/remember them) Insight problems – can’t predict Not just retrieving info from memory Insight in Humans: Evidence for the Occurrence of Aha! Experiences in the Laboratory Definitional use of warmth ratings Metcalfe and Wiebe studied Aha! Moments in humans under controlled lab conditions o Research: several times a minute; continuous record of participants’ beliefs concerning how close they were to solution of problem by reporting if they were cold, warm, or hot o Findings/Conclusions: Distinction between problem types Insight problems: little increase in warmth until just before solution (flash/rush) Analytical problems: gradual increase in warmth Used by others to examine subjective experiences during problem solving Only supports one component of insight o Aha! Experience/problem solved suddenly Evidence for Nonanalytic Processes in Insight o Other Aspects of Insight o Verbal Overshadowing of Insight: verbal protocol results in poorer memory of a picture Schooler and colleagues Research: Collected verbal protocols while people worked on insight and analytic problems Findings: Verbal Protocols Interfered with solution of insight problems but not analytic problems Conclusions o Verbal overshadowing indicates that insight and analytic problems are solved using different methods o methods underlying solution of insight problems may be nonverbal (perceptual or nonanalytic) Maybe because use unconscious processes??? Because you have to put info in verbal form Not the form in your unconscious thought processes o Conscious working memory o Working Memory and Planning in Insight versus Analysis Lavric and Colleagues Research: Had people work on either insight problems or a logic problem while simultaneously keeping track of number of tones presented by a computer (use unconscious WM) Finding: Counting the tones didn’t interfere with performance on insight problems Conclusions: people don’t use planning when solving insight problems; no working memory involved; process underlying insight problems are different from analysis Limitations o Are perceptual processes reliable/true explanations for problem solving (Weisberg & Alba) o Notions of perception can only be applied to problem solving through analogy, analogy may not be reliable explanation o Lack of precision in applying perceptual concepts to problem solving Challenges to the Gestalt View Insight and Experience: Knowledge and Insight in Kohler’s Chimps There is no way to determine the animal’s experiences before captivity o Birch indicated that experiences in the wild were critical in “insightful” performances Research 1: investigation of problem solving similar to Kohler i.e. Rake Problem; except his animals were raised from birth in captivity Findings: animals with no experience with sticks were not able to solve simple stick-use problems even when organized in optimal way; animal with experience successful; naïve animal who figured it out did so by accident Research 2: left sticks in compound for animals to get acquainted with Findings: after several days of free play, animals able to solve Rake problem Conclusion: experience is necessary before insight Learning Sets and Insight: Positive Effects of Experience on Insight o Harlow Research: Monkeys presented with several hundred discrimination problems Changes symbols (infinitely) o Has to relearn every time (symbol on cover is cue) o Problem 1 Problem 400 Problem 1 – trial and error By Problem 400 If the animal finds food under moon cover, he will always pick that one; if not, he will pick the other – Insight Findings: Beginning of experiment = “Thorndike animal” (blind trial and error); end of experiment = showed insight Conclusion: large amount of experience needed before insight develops Questions about Functional Fixedness: Restructuring and Insight Based on Analysis Analytic Processes in Restructuring in Duncker’s Research on the Candle Problem (Fleck and Weisberg) o First step people take is to search their knowledge about attaching things to walls o Question doesn’t ask for solutions that involve the box (rational not to think to use it) Restructuring occurs through analytic Processes: inadequacies in a solution and information from them stimulates further analysis of the problem different way of looking at the problem Candle too heavy for glue what can hold the candle but isn’t too heavy for the glue a shelf what could be used as a shelf? The box! o Functional-fixedness If the box is presented as a container in both conditions (long or short tacks) then functional fixedness should occur equally in both According to cognitive-analytic view: o If tacks in box are short, people realize more often that they won’t be useful therefore leading them to look for alternative solution Restructuring Based on Analysis in the Trees Problem (Fleck and Weisberg) o Finding: Small minority solved; all through analysis Logical reasoning and trial and error Those who didn’t solve used same processes, simply hit upon the wrong shape o Conclusions: Weak analytic methods can result in the restructuring of a problem The lack of an Aha! Experience doesn’t mean that restructuring has not occurred Solving an insight problem through restructuring doesn’t mean solution has come about through nonanalytic processes The Role of Analysis and Experience in Failure to Solve the Nine-Dot Problem Weisberg and Alba o Research 1: Gave 1 group college students 9 dot problem with a hint (had to draw beyond boundaries of square); 1 group control; 1 group had hint + first 2 lines Findings: Control group didn’t solve – 10 attempts Hint and lines, everyone gets in -- 1-2 attempts Hint – 20% solve – 5 tries Most people drew lines beyond boundaries = broke fixation on square; many still didn’t solve o Research 2: Memory for Solution o Research 3: Positive and Negative Transfer o Gave college students connect-the-dots problems to practice drawing lines outside the shape before being presented with 9 dot problem Finding: 46% able to solve 9 dot problem o Study 4 - Lung and Dominowski strategy instructions o Research 3: Gave participants 6 practice problems before 9 dot problem + strategy instructions (provided info about logic of constructing a solution) Findings: 60% solved 9 dot problem; took 8+ attempts to do so Only practice 22% solved in 13.4 trials Only strategy 34% solved in 18.9 trials No practice/no strategy 9% solved in 19.7 trials Overall Conclusion: for most people, solving 9 dot problem requires a large amount of relevant info (even then, not all solve); we do not see a sudden Aha! Experience where solution reached as integrated whole; fixation is not simply blocking the solution from occurring MacGregor, Ormerod, and Chronicle o Analyzed 9 dot problem from cognitive perspective, looked at heuristic methods that might be applied and planning capacities needed to carry out such methods o Research 4: designed new versions of 9 dot problem, structured so participant did not have to imagine as many lines in advance Findings: solution much more frequent Conclusions: most people don’t have a large enough working- memory capacity to go beyond the maximum- coverage strategy (not able to imagine in advance the consequences of carrying out their chosen strategy) fixation isn’t what makes the problem difficult Lavric and Colleagues wrong, planning is important in solution of insight problems o Correlational study by Murray and Byrne found people who performed best on set of insight problems also performed well on working-memory capacity test Limitations: no actual measure of the visual working memory capacities of participants (training working memory capacity may increase performance on problem; only indirect support of this) Neo-Gestalt view Ohlsson’s theory of Insight and “Deep Learning” Insight sequence: world in constant state of flux cannot rely on knowledge Impasse Change representation of the world (similar to idea that definition of creativity changes in revolutions) o Wilkin’s Development of Radar o Edison’s Light Bulb (Platinum Impasse Carbon) o DNA o Impressionism in Painting o Telephone etc… Perkins “Breakthrough Thinking” o Research: Presented Antique Coin problem; when solved, asked to provide immediate retrospective protocol (immediate + simply reporting + practice in making reports = minimal error in self-reports) Findings: 2 Reports: o Abbott - participant reported leap of insight/Aha! o Binet - used analysis in a series of steps (weak method of reasoning through the information and what it implied) Logical/rational two thought processes very similar o focused on date Neither reached impasse or restructured the problem Conclusions: One can have an Aha! Experience during problem solving as the result of analysis of the problem sometimes we use reasoning to work out consequences of state of affairs and other times we can realize the consequences directly Insight and Analysis aren’t’ different thought processes POSSIBLE Limitations: Schooler and Colleagues Verbal overshadowing of insight: producing verbal protocols interferes with solution of insight problems and not analytic problems BUT! Difficult to replicate Suggests insight and analysis are different thought processes o Research 2: Conclusions: Analytic Problems (Reasonable) – can be solved through reasoning and other analytic methods Insight problems (Unreasonable) – cannot be solved using conventional reasoning o Need to use “breakthrough” thought processes that can deal with unique structure of insight problems Sequence of Steps: o Long search (many unsuccessful attempts) Little progress Precipitating event Cognitive “snap” Transformation of the world o Examples: Leonardo’s Aerial Screw - Linkage between screws and flight o Newton’s Laws o Beethoven’s compositions o Computer he wrote book on and chair he was sitting in o Calls word an “unreasonable” place – need to use breakthrough thinking (What neo gestalt theorists believe) o Ohlsson’s Analysis of Restructuring o Several forms: Elaboration o Try to find different way to describe object(s) in problem which may open new path to solution Re-encoding o Decide some previously ignored object should be included in the problem which can lead to new solution methods Relaxing goal constraints o Change the way he/she thinks about the goal of the problem or methods used to reach the goal o Analyzed behavior in several insight problems Two-String Problem o Elaboration: examine other objects and note that the pliers are heavy contemplate uses for heavy things possible use of pliers as weight for a pendulum (logical reasoning) Candle Problem o Elaboration: examine features of box box is flat and sturdy idea of using it as shelf (logical reasoning) o Re-encoding: reveal the presence of the box after an impasse new solution possibilities Wilkins’s Development of Radar Edison’s Light Bulb (Platinum Impasse Carbon) DNA Impressionism in Painting The Wright Brothers Mendeleyev’s period table of elements Telephone Questions about Neo-Gestalt Analysis of Insight Wilkins and Radar o Report came out not long before about radio waves He knew that aircraft interfered with radios Not so much a leap Inference Hypothesis/Inference Outcome/Conclusion Leonardo o Was doing research on air and water Found air is compressible like wood Knew you could do with air what you can do with wood Analogy o A screw can be pulled through wood a screw can be pulled through air aerial screw Questions about the Insight Sequence o Fleck & Weisberg (2013): Solutions to “Insight” problems o Insight sequence: 7% o Solution without impasse or restructuring: 58% o Solution with restructuring but without Impasse: 26% The Brain and Insight: Jung- Beeman, et al. o Used Compound Remote associates Problems (CRA) Blank, whites, lines Word that relates to all three: Paper o Not obvious associate o Insight determined post-hoc: participant reports Looked at difference of brain activity: incremental solution vs. Aha! solution Used Subtraction method Take activity involved in insight – activity involved in non- insight = “locus of insight in the brain” o Must isolate 3 variable (locus of insight in the brain) that may cause any differences between activity in insight and activity in non-insight Greeks’ Take on the Source of Creativity Plato describes poet as “out of his mind” because outside source providing ideas Early Greeks call it “madness” & Aristotle called it a “frenzy” Suggests process is not normal Recently has led to idea that “insanity” might facilitate creative thinking Difference between Primary and Secondary Process Thinking o Secondary Process Thinking Rational, logical, orderly deals realistically with world and problems 2nd type of thinking that develops Freud Proposes- Supersedes primary-process as ego develops in childhood Allows child to become socialized o Primary Process Thinking More basic Primitive/inborn; need-based thinking Tied to ID needs and associated drives and emotional states Operates according to pleasure principle: immediate reduction of tension and satisfaction of needs Ignores logic, deals with fantasy Seen in times of weakness o i.e. dreams are product of primary-process thinking o sleep, fever, reverie (daydreams) o stressed; emotionally aroused o intoxicated o Mentally ill (schizophrenic) secondary thought processes/logical are weakened so primary processes can emerge children, primitive people, creative artists Pulls together ideas that have nothing to do with the world Uses nonverbal imagery as its medium Especially useful in works of art Particular looseness or flexibility that facilitates searching among associations to come up with new ideas Access to unusual connections Special mechanisms to establish connections among ideas Punning o 2 sorts Verbal pun: two strings of thought linked by acoustic overlap Pun based on the sound of a word rather than the meaning (2 ndprocess) “Jack the Dripper” the artist’s nickname like Jack the Ripper Optical pun: common visual form links two streams of thought Specific visual form in a situation makes you think in a different direction because the new direction contains a similar form Picasso gave woman’s head and neck a phallic outline – represent sexual feelings toward woman Concretization o Abstract and general ideas represented by particular images o Image of uncle Sam = America Condensation o Several ideas linked together in one symbol Impersonation/Double identity o An image represents itself and something else at the same time Reversal of causal sequences o One reasons backward, from the effect to the cause Anything can be connected to anything else o Content Primary-process contains libidinal (sexual) or aggressive material Blatant: Dream about man stabbing a woman Symbolic: Dream about woman looking for man but not finding him o Form Primary process seen if response deviates from logical thinking or involves deviant language Infant is hungry, fantasizes about breast Seeking reduction of tension from unfulfilled need No object available to satisfy need, imagine one o NOW Viewed as opposite ends of continuum; not separate Some days imagine crazy things Some days make logical decisions Freudian View Proposes – an event in adulthood can arouse an unfulfilled need stemming from childhood; may result in creative product by artist o Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci Smile on her face = emotionally just out of reach = Leonardo’s feelings towards women Woman he painted reminded him of his mother who he was constantly searching for but was forever out of reach (died when he was young) The Sylvia Plath effect Phenomenon that poets are more susceptible to mental illness than other creative writers o Coined in 2001 by James C. Kaufman. Supported by Andreasen, 1987; Jamison, 1989; Ludwig, 1995 Madness Plays a role in the creative process: testing the hypothesis 1. Objective measures 2. Measure creativity o Objective measure if test valid/reliable 3. Measure psychopathology o Objective if diagnostic test valid/reliable 4. How do you test this? 5. Case study o Quasi experiment (find people that are already psychopathological) o Causality longitudinal Psychopathology facilitates Creative Thinking o Measure variables o Demonstrating causation Genius and Madness: Bipolarity and Creativity Research done to compare grouping thought processes of creative individuals and those with psychopathology o Creative individuals more likely to make larger groups that allow them to make remote associations/analogies Findings: creative individuals’ processes were more similar to people with manic depression (bipolarity) than those with schizophrenia The Bipolar Spectrum Critical component: prevalence of changes in mood or affect (emotional state) o Bipolar Disorder 1 (Classic manic depression) – affected person alternates between periods of great elation (mania) and depression Manic person feels ideas flow very easily (may facilitate creative thinking) Creative thinking was listed as diagnostic criterion for mania in DSM Strong genetic component o Bipolar Disorder 2 (Hypomania + Depression) – cycles through positive and negative moods but positive state is hypomania (not as severe as mania) o Cyclothymia – individuals cycling through hypomania and dysthymia (less severe depression) o Personality disorders Euthymic Personality: overall positive feeling tone Dysthymic personality: negative feeling tone Cyclothymic personality: changing moods Kraepelin: Manic depression and creativity o Thought processes might be made quicker and broader during mania Andreasan Research Gave structured diagnostic interviews to 30 creative writers working at University of Iowa and 30 control participants Also examined frequency of mental illness and prevalence of creative achievement in first-degree relatives Findings Writers showed more affective disorder and bipolar disorder Writers’ relatives showed more affective disorder & also more creative accomplishment Conclusion Tendency toward mood disorder and creativity are traits that run in families; genetically mediated Genes for psychopathology may be advantage for society (increase creative accomplishment) Jamison concluded many world famous creative individuals suffered from bipolar disorder – used biographical studies (studies biographies and conducts interviews) as basis for diagnoses o Poet Lord Byron o Research 1 – Mania Interviewed 7 British writers and artists Findings: 38% + had been treated for affective illness 30% reported severe mood swings lasting for extended periods of time Reported intense productive and creative episodes involving increases in enthusiasm, energy, speed & fluency of thoughts, elevated mood & sense of well-being (sounds like mania) o Almost all stated that these feelings very important to development of work Conclusion: speed, fluency, flexibility of thinking from mania are critical components to creativity; emotional fluctuations provide material for work o Seasonal aspects of mood = More in touch with the world Questions: o Are similar changes during hypomania and creative production related below the surface or simply on the surface? o Maybe artists just more sensitive to mood changes than others o Research 2 – Depression Findings Creative individuals, especially poets, suffer from depression to a higher degree than gen pop th 5/8 poets born in 20 century listed in The Oxford Book of American Verse committed suicide (Sylvia Plath effect) Conclusion depression may provide material for work Does Mania Increase Creativity? Slater and Meyer (Research 1) o Research: retrospective psychiatric diagnosis of Schumann’s mental condition based on doctors’ records and other historical documents i.e. letters from loved ones (biographical studies) o Conclusion: he suffered from BPD; it affected his work (5x more productive during manic years) o Limitations: don’t say if works were better/more creative/innovative Weisberg (Research 2) o Research: Examined whether Schumann’s changing mood states affected compositional process by measuring quality of compositions (manic years vs. depressive years) Used measure used by Hayes: number of recordings available for musical composition based on opinions of critics, public, musicians etc. o Findings: Schumann’s compositions from manic years not recorded more frequently than those from depressive years o Conclusion: motivation to compose may have increased but not more creative Mania may not have positive effect on creative thought May convince bipolar artists to take medication o Lithium may decrease productivity but won’t interfere with creativity Limitations: o Other factors in life may be involved o Could be multiple mood states in a year i.e. stress Ramey and Weisberg (Research 3) o Research: analysis of career of poet Emily Dickinson o Does psychopathology affect quality of work? Quality of poem determined by how often published o Finding: higher output in manic years + higher quality in manic years Creativity as a Cause of Mania Depue and Iacono propose inherited tendency of BPD as result of overly sensitive behavioral activation system o Responds in hyperactive manner to life events mania o Can be triggered by events such as goal striving and attainment Genius and madness o Possible explanations: Increased psychopathology in creative individuals Dependent on diagnosis (Not very objective) o Interviewer usually person doing study Bias o Not very objective o Differential diagnosis Maybe more likely to show/report symptoms? Maybe more likely to seek help Based on biographies; only interesting lives get written about Questions of directionality Could creativity cause bipolarity? o BAS (activity)/BIS (Inhibition) – hyperactive BAS in mania o Goal achievement activates BAS put in manic state rd 3 variable? No correlation? Correlation but no causation? Causal link but not much evidence Lithium and creativity Affect and Creativity Letter by Mozart, in good mood = ideas just come to him Helmholtz = “happy ideas” don’t come when frustrated Isen: Lab Studies o Affect broadens your attention o Increases likelihood of solving problems The Schizophrenia Spectrum Eccentricity Personality disorders (Schizoid affect) Schizotypal (affect and thought) Psychosis o Characterized by cutting off of individual from reality (withdrawn from world) o Flat affect (Anhedonia): lack of emotional responsiveness or inappropriate emotional responsiveness to external events o Hallucinations and delusions o Disorder based on problems in thinking 2 Kinds of thought disorder o Content Ideas that are false, delusional, deviant and bizarre Some people with BP can also experience delusions o Form/Structure How thoughts flow (how they occur in sequence, are linked to one another, are communicated linguistically) Illogical patterns in thinking and loose associations o Occurs in BD too; believe there is different type of thought disorder o In Schizophrenia, thinking is unique to each individual Schizophrenia and Creativity Full blown schizophrenia incompatible/contrasts creative thinking Kinney and Colleagues o Research: used Lifetime Creativity Scales to examine creative accomplishment in set of non-schizophrenic individuals with one schizophrenic parent who was raised by non-schizophrenic individuals o Findings: individuals with schizophrenic parent displayed higher creative accomplishment (in hobbies); more schizophrenic traits = higher creative accomplishment Displayed magical thinking, odd thinking and recurring illusions In control group, individuals who showed mild schizophrenic traits more creative (in professional life) than those who showed none o Conclusion: Personality characteristics of adoptees i.e. Social anxiety, interfered with professional careers in areas requiring creative thinking Concerned about receiving negative evaluation from others (don’t have to worry about this with hobbies) Sass Proposes Postmodernist Philosophy of aesthetics: certain characteristics of postmodern and post-postmodern movements in the arts that might increase likelihood of individuals displaying schizo symptoms to participate in them o Movements have “coolness;” ionic posture, artist maintains attitude of removed from world to comment on it as an outsider i.e. Andy Warhol o Conclusion: Personality characteristics play role in determining whether individual comfortable in such a career Psychopathology works indirectly with creative achievement Jamison’s analysis of bipolar artists of Romantic movement; people with characteristics of bipolar spectrum may have been attracted to that era Evidence that individuals with schizo characteristics are NOT incapable of intellectual achievement Modern and postmodern artistic movements vs. Romanticism: Schizotypal vs. Bipolarity Ludwig o Research: studied biographies in broad range of creative fields to determine if had some form of mental disorder o Conclusion: The more profession relies on emotion, subjectivity, and personal expression the great chance that individuals in field will display psychopathology (psychopathology draws them to professions) If one differentiates fields into “logical, objective, and formal” vs. “intuitive, subjective, and emotion,” there is clear differences in frequencies of psychopathology Scientists less likely to suffer psychopathology than artists o “harder (more objective)” vs. “softer” sciences (social sciences) o Harder sciences less likely to suffer psychopathology Painting o More emotional styles vs. more formal styles Again, questions about biographies o Only interesting people get biographies Different fields appeal to people with different characteristics Question of causality: Can creative success induce schizophrenia? Social Factors and Genius and Madness (Regression view) Kris (regression in service of ego) and Eyesneck (requires weakening of “higher” centers to regress to primitive functioning) view Notion of higher-order control (regression in the service of art) is what separates creative artist from individual who simply regresses Jamison’s view: bipolar mood swings attached to seasons = individual is closer to the fundamental pulse of life; explains Romantic view linking inspiration to the creative imagination o Romantics Theory of Creativity: due to spontaneous outflow of feelings (artist constantly fighting society; children are the most creative (inherently) o As we become socialized, we lose it Sass suggests this view isn’t universal (questions causal links) Psychopathology and Creativity: Cultural Relativism Sass proposes Western concept of creative process much more rational before and after Romantic Movement o Modernist and Postmodernist views looked negatively on Romanticism (emotional irrationality at core of creativity) o Believe that some people need high degrees of emotionality to create; however, that doesn’t mean that people who lack such emotionality cannot create o Bipolarity(Romantic) Schizotypal (Modernist & Postmodernist i.e. Warhol) o “Creative personality” doesn’t have constant definition Kuhnian revolutions and Psychopathology Schuldberg and Sass discuss Kuhn’s view o Progress in science comes about in 2 ways Normal Science: mainstream of investigation in discipline carried out within a paradigm Scientists work within paradigm carrying out puzzle- solving activities Revolution in science (change in science occurs like in politics): basic assumptions of paradigm brought into question and new paradigm brought forth to replace it Copernicus & Cognitivism are revolutions o Schuldberg notes individuals with schizo characteristics (antisocial aspects & occasional eccentricities) play large role in revolutionary creative developments o Sass discusses individuals who suffer from BP disorders tend toward conformity and are concerned about social norms o BOTH raise possibility that psychopathological tendencies and creativity related only in indirect ways (personality influences behavior) Different types of people attracted to different disciplines at different times Historical Analysis of Links Between Genius and Madness (Becker): Becker o Research: Examined historical development of relationship between psychopathology and creativity in Western society o Conclusion: Proposed link between psychopathology and creativity during specific epoch depends on specific sociocultural factors acting at the time Greeks assumed individuals “out of their minds” – didn’t mean psychopathology Italian Renaissance, term Genio: outstanding creative ability – work imitative, creative genius didn’t break away from the past The Enlightenment, term Genius: one who possessed innate creative or imaginative power, as manifested in works of great novelty – in order to be effective, had to be subject to rational control (uncontrolled imagination led to production of tasteless novelty) Wittkower notes that 17 century masters of art (Rubens, Bernini, Rembrandt, Velasqquez) not described as mad Romantic movement brought another change in conception of genius Change related to status of creative thinkers at the time o At time after Napoleon’s defeat, creative individuals not respected/free Admiration of those capable of unbridled expression of imagination and emotion o Belief that sense of insanity might be component of individual (poet Schiller supports that reason may hinder creativity) Many romantic thinkers expressed fear of insanity (i.e. Coleridge and Byron) o Becker raised Issue of self-reports Self-serving: if viewed as insane – considered a genius Romantic poet’s description of psychological state from long ago = terms may have different uses today Being that madness = creative genius; artists may have welcomed behaviors that may be linked to insanity Artists may be more willing to report insanity than “normal” individuals Jamison believed they were valid o Presents view of Jaspers Conclusion: in order to call someone a genius, must be at least a bit eccentric or abnormal Romantic notion of genius changed the way the term was and how it’s applied to people Correspondence between Romantic view and reality Unconscious Associations and Unconscious Processing 2 components of idea that unconscious plays role in creative thinking o Associative Unconscious Stems from Freud Ideas linked for reasons we are not aware of The unconscious can link ideas that never would be brought together in conscious thinking o Unconscious Processing We can be working on more than one project at once – use parallel processing Can carry out activity of which we are conscious while, on an unconscious level, processing may be occurring on a different task o Difference between the two Processes: unconscious vs. conscious Material: associative connections 2 Dimensions of the unconscious o Processing mode: one stream (no unconscious processing) Conscious One train of thought: links are consciously worked out and understood Unconscious One train of thought: some links are not understood; thinker can’t explain how they came about o Processing mode: Multiple streams (unconscious processing) Conscious Multiple trains of thought: sudden solution is surprising because person doesn’t know that they were thinking about something outside of consciousness Can understand where it came from, after the fact Unconscious (2 component view, 2 sources of surprise) Multiple trains of thought: sudden solution is surprising because person didn’t know they were thinking about something outside of consciousness Some links not understood; don’t understand where they came from Poincare’s Theory of Unconscious Creative Processes Modern psychological study of creative thinking began with Poincare Phenomenology: Impasse Abandon work Illumination or flash of insight Poincare’s Self-Reports Goal of Research: attempt to prove mathematical function could not exist (attempt to find contradiction that proves it must exist) Research: o 15 days no success – worked 2 hours in morning, 2 in evening o One night, drank black coffee, could not sleep extraordinary experience Fuchsian functions rose in crowds, collide until pairs interlocked, making stable combination Conclusion: o Felt he was an observer of the work of his own unconscious, not active participant in thought process o Unconscious works by attempting to build combinations of ideas o Felt certainty Poincare’s Theory of Unconscious Processes in Creative Thinking Similar processes at work in all creative thinking Definition of creativity in mathematics o Discovering valuable combinations of ideas o Most fruitful are those that form remote analogies between facts (never before considered to be related) Mechanisms of Combination of Ideas o Invention = discernment (choice) o 2 ways in which valuable combinations produced Thinker may only produce potentially valuable ideas Thinker produce large numbers of combinations and then chose to further contemplate the valuable ones o Poincare asserts unconscious processing produces many ideas, but only useful ones become conscious Problem: there would be too many ideas; logically, must be limitations o Poincare believed previous conscious work restricts combinatorial process to ideas that have some potential, even remote ones (all combos produced in unconscious are possible in conscious thinking) Consciously trying to solve problem, consciously looking at certain factors Those certain factors used for high speed unconscious combination with inactive ideas numerous possibilities of potential combinations Criteria for a Combination’s Becoming Conscious o Aesthetic sense determines which ideas reach consciousness Must become subject to thinker’s sensibility An idea becomes conscious when it strikes the unconscious of the thinker as being “beautiful” or “harmonious” Why we’re not aware of insignificant ideas o Afterwards, attended geological conference near Caen – during conversation on plane?, realized that recent discovery identical to the transformations of non-Euclidean geometry (Most cited) Conclusion: Sudden illumination must have been result of him thinking about concepts whole time on unconscious level Feeling of certainty o After returning home, took vacation, had epiphany on the beach while thinking of something else Made connection between transformations of indeterminate ternary quadratic forms and non-Euclidean geometry o Overall Conclusion: sudden illumination: manifest sign of long,
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