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Exam 2 Review

by: caity carney

Exam 2 Review R-100

Marketplace > Indiana University > Art > R-100 > Exam 2 Review
caity carney
GPA 3.86
Introduction to Apparel Merchandising
Dr. Deb and Professor Shaffer

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Introduction to Apparel Merchandising
Dr. Deb and Professor Shaffer
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by caity carney on Sunday March 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to R-100 at Indiana University taught by Dr. Deb and Professor Shaffer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Apparel Merchandising in Art at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 03/01/15
The Study of Folklore 3315 353 PM Study of Folklore Part of the broader study of people and their works Similar to humanities and social science Today there is much more interest than previously in the present functions and meanings of folk traditions Humanists and social scientists share an interest in finding out how why and which traditional cultural mentifacts sociofacts and artifacts develop vary and are passed on Oral traditions o Historians believe although seldom factually accurate furnish insights into grassroots attitudes toward historical events Probably every field of study involving people in their works can be related back to folklore Most folklore research may be still thought of as an attempt to answer certain fundamental questions 0 What folklore is o What the genres of folklore are 0 Who the folk are 0 Who composed folklore o How folklore is carried ho fast and how far 0 How folklore changes and for what reasons 0 What the underlying form of folklore is and the relation of form to content 0 What folklore means to its carriers and hot it serves them 0 What the performer intends to convey and the intended effect what folklore may symbolize or otherwise represent in a metaphorical way 0 What should be done with folklore and in what other areas of study it is useful Studies seldom considered more than one or two of these matters at a time Assumption that underlies all folklore research 0 Nothing in culture is meaningless or random folkloreas a part of culture inevitably has some function or meaning for those who create it and transmit it Three typical stages of folklore research Collection 0 Raw materials of oral folklore research Texts n Must be collected verbatim from oral sources Record data about the informants themselves gather background on families etc Capturing pictures Note setting of performance time place situation Context may be natural or induced by collector The more the collector blends in the more comfortable the performer will be Metafolklore folklore about folklore Questionnaires Allows researchers to cover a wider area Limits inquiry to a specific subject Sometimes from handwritten sources notebooks printed matter Unorthodox collecting methods Sometimes yield good results Violating superstitious taboo in order to elicit a response about bad luck Signing a song or telling a tale in garbled form so that intended informants will correct them Ethical dimension of fieldwork Responsibilities and liabilities of folklorist Always inform informants of what you re doing Classification 0 O 0 Ethnic or native categories for folk material vary from culture to culture or even person to person Categories have been established in the voluminous reference works for Motifs Tales BaHads Superstitions Riddles Proverbs Other forms Arranged by genre and subgenre within a regional framework The specific manner of classifying a folklore collection depends mainly on the interests and needs of the researcher Analysis 0 Analyzing Comparative Study Believed that after the folklore had been collected classified and made generally available to scholars analysis can take place Oldest and most common technique of analysis is comparison Historicgeographic method the most elaborated form of research in regards to comparison Another form is to bring the viewpoint to bear on other closely related scholarly fields a Ex such material traditions in the US as homemade cabins houses and barns have been investigated for some time by American folklorists and cultural geographers the former concerned with survival and variation traditional patterns the latter with regional distribution and an explanation for it 0 Analyzing Some Major Schools Literary or esthetic approach typical of humanists takes the form either of analyzing the poetics of oral style or of charting the influence of folk traditions Hemispheric approach broader relation of American folklore to American studies and cultural history Functional or anthropological approach typical of scholars with a background in the social sciences examines the roles of folklore in culture in order to determine meanings of functions Anthropological approaches folklore exists not just as a fixed set of abstract genres but as traditional patterns of communication between people a Contextual n Behavioral n Rhetorical a Performance oriented Psychological approach habits of mind underlying folk belief or the symbolic and metaphorical patterns a Freudian or Jungian Mass cultural school develop out of the work of several American folklorists studying interrelations of oral and customary traditions with the mass media and advertising Folkcultural approach material culture Applied folklore the viewpoint that folklore study can make specific contributions to knowledge and progress in other fields evolved into a Public folklore often focusing on the presentation of folk performances to a wider audience Feminist Folkloristic a special approach both to aspects of women s folklore and the production of countering the male biases The Materials of Fashion Textiles A Importance of Fabric a Cost of garment 6070 b Quality of garment c Aesthetics of garment i How the fabric hangs B Types of fibers a Natural fibers i In uenced by environment ii Located all over the world small in size iii Not as predictable as synthetics iv Wool cotton silk b Manufactured fibers i Two types 1 Regenerated cellulosic chemical process using fibrous substance in plants rayon acetate etc 2 Synthetic chemical derivatives of petroleum coal natural gas nylon polyester etc ii Mix polyester with cotton 1 Doesn t wrinkle 2 Holds shape better doesn t shrink C Changes in Industry with Mfg Fibers Giant chemical companies financial and research Improve quality and exibilityvariety of characteristics New fibersfit needs Huge into marketing and educating Emphasis of brand names i Not just polyester but the brand that makes the polyester Need of natural fibers to compete g Establishment of Natural Fiber Trade Association to promote cotton inc D Transformation of Fibers a Yarns many variations can change fabrics b Dyes colors c Weavesknits d Finishes washes E Importance a Transformation of fibers into warns and then into finished fabrics b Iobs all over the world c Marketing styling and design centered in NY city F Different Types of Producers Spinning mills buy fibers and spin into yarn Fabric mills purchase yarn and weave or knit into cloth Finishing plants dye print or treat fabrics Vertically integrated firmcompany engaging in all processes of production gangs h 9962 e Convertersspecialized to style greige goods and arrange to have them finished G Research a Fashion starts with color b Color services project colors sometimes 2 years out c Fabric libraries d Textile trade shows Product Development Planner does a lot of analytical history and they hold the check book They work with vendor but not as much as buyer Buyer meets more with vendor and advertising Both jobs need to have an analytical mind with numbers A Planning a line a Market research i Consumer research ii Product research iii Market analysis iv Target customer profile b Fashion research i Fashion trend research ii Color research iii Fabric and trim research B Creating Design and Developing Design inspiration trend board Plan the line Sketch design and select fabrics and trims Design team reviews the line Write garment spec sheet i Spec sheet contract for garment being made C Planning productionsourcing a Sourcing fabrics trims factory b Balance cost political stability time quality quota availability tariffs social responsibility sustainability D Planning Production Communicate specs Make first pattern Cut and sew prototype Approve drop change Estimate initial cost Present and review line Select style for final line Determine final cost E Preproduction a Order fabrics trims 99962 FOP 999699 9996 f Finalize production pattern and written documents Grade production pattern sizing Production marker Inspect fabric Production spreading cutting bundling and dye lot control F Production Mfg a b c Mfg order Parts may be done in various locations Finish inspect press tag and bag G Marketing the line distribution a b Sales rep show the line Retail buyers place orders Terms of engagement compliance regulations Manufacturing A Growth of Global Trade a b c d e B Trade a Import penetration varies greatly from one product to another Laborintensive more likely imported Trade barriers mean high prices for consumers Barriers cause political illwill Domestic companies want trade barriers i They want to cut themselves off and make everything US made ii Not feasible Deficit more imports than exports i Importing more sending away money ii We want more equal importexport iii Protectionism US producers UNITE 1 People with interest in products made in US iv Free Trade goods ow freely retailersconsumersimporters 1 Good for consumers because not as many extra prices v Complex trade policies to manage trade vi Very important to every nation s economy C World Trade Organization a b P rump g Forum for negotiating agreements aimed at reducing obstacles to international trade Goal to have trade ow freely Administers multilateral trade agreements dispute settlement systems Only global organization 159 countries as of 2013 China added in 2001 Vietnam in 2007 very controversial b c of Vietnam War D Barrier to TradeQuota a Quota bilateral pacts controlling quantity of merchandise sent out of a country b US customs tracks c Quota ended in 2005 except for quotsafeguardsquot i Basically so china couldn t produce so much that other countries struggled d Much of this has disappeared quotquot E BarriersTarrigsDuty a Import tax established and regulated by US government paid by the importer and collected by US customs b Amount varies for categories of merchandise c Purpose to increase cost to protect F BarriersAntiDumping a Foreign producers sells a product below producers price in home market i A company selling something so cheap it kills competition b Department of commerce can propose a duty if that happens G Barriers countervailing a Subsidizing foreign government provides financial assistance to benefit the production manufacture or exportation of a good Preferential Programs A NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement a Canada US Mexico b Trade without quota and duty B 807 a Tariff only on value addedquot b Cut garments to low wage countries for sewing C 807A a Caribbean apparel given more liberal quota system if fabrics are both made and cut in the US D CAFTA Central American Free Trade Agreement a Congress passed in 2005 b US Costa Rica Dominican Republic El Salvador Guatemala Honduras and Nicaragua c Has eliminated tariffs in 80 of US manufactured goods with remainder phasing out d Paves way for greater economic and political E Trade Development Act of 200 TDA a CBTPA Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act after NAFTA provided more equal advantages but still not as same as free trade like NAFTA i 19 countries with dutyfree access to the US market for most goods b AGOA Africa Growth and Opportunity Act gives preference trade advantages to 48 subSaharan countries F USKorea Free Trade Agreement a New opportunities for US exporters b Helps South Korea with jobs G Potential TPP Transpacific Partnership a Cold reshape apparel sourcing because it would give 2 ranked Vietnam more market access to US through duty free treatment b Yarn forward rule requires apparel be made of fabric and yarns supplied by US or other TPP countries to qualify as duty free H Selling Products in Other Countries a Licensing i Easier less costly b Direct exporting i Selling products in other markets from home base most common less complicated may be limited by other countries c Ioint ventures i Partnership between domestic and overseas companylocal expertise outside capital d Direct ownership i 100 investment in foreign operation requires much coordination and knowledge Articles Younger Clients Drive Growth of Couturequot 88 0 Huge growth outside US I Asia I S America I Western Europe 0 Couture clients used to not be seen outside of private events whereas today s thirty something devotee is likely to wear this to many public events 0 More mothers and daughters Colin s Column Geoffrey Beene Cultured Visionaryquot 90 0 One year of designing his own label won first of eight Coty Fashion Critic Awards American designer Greatest design from US from 20th century Designed Lydon B Iohnsons daughters bridal dress banned from WWD for not showing design 0 Thought creativity was finding new ways to say old things Regional Markets Reaching Outquot 96 People differentiation themselves from other companies 0 Focus more on social media and buyer outreach 0 Markets expanding because selling more temporary exhibit space 0 0 Market expanding I Selling more contemporary line I Being more accommodating to customer 0 LA Dallas Atlanta ChicagoRegional Markets Fiber Price Sheetquot no numbers just what it covers and terms 0 Cotton 0 W001 o Polyester staple more texture o Polyester filament more sheen 0 May synthetic PPI 0 Published on the last Tuesday of every month Cotton Program gets Green Thumbquot 0 China biggest cotton producer 0 Cotton Leads program a key global supply chain committed to responsibly produced cotton Australia and US a combined 17 of global output of the plant Brooks Brothers committed to sustainable sourcing high quality and responsibly produced fibers Organic Trade Associationquot 0 Organic cotton I Low impact on the environment I Maintain soil fertility I Reduce use of toxic and persistent pesticides and fertilizers I Cannot use genetically modified seeds Who Is Top of the Organic Chartsquot 0 C amp A o H amp M 0 Nike 0 Puma I Walmart used to be 1 Sustainability Grows in Scope and Purposequot 0 Smarter practices and procedures can make them more efficient and profitable while reducing their risks in legal financial and public relations realms Fiber Innovations Answering the Callquot 0 Companies are working towards producing a silverbased antimicrobial with slightly different properties and applications that would protect against bacteria in fabrics I Provides longlasting freshness Execs Declare Made in USA Real Dealquot 0 China has a 415 US apparel import share 0 The Chinese government has mandated a 13 annual increase in minimum wage that will begin to minimize production in China 0 Bangladesh currently thirdlargest supplier to the US apparel market behind Vietnam and China WalMat Gaining Steam with MadeinUS Pushquot 0 Sam Waltman founder of Walmart I Orginally made Walmart US but couldn t keep up 0 Hopes to stimulate US economy by purchasing from US made vendors Li amp Fung Defends Middleman Modelquot 0 Good at squeezing cost out of supply chain 0 Worlds largest sourcing services 0 middleman modelquot not sustainable Bodymetrics Deploys Digital matchmakerquot Sustainable Apparel Coalition Createdquot 0 Trying to keep track of omissions and water they use and reduce the energy in they use Tackling Product Safety Prioritiesquot 0 Help sell the notion that compliance is necessary and needed to protect the public 0 Making sure products are safe Bangladesh Alliance Progress Challengesquot 0 Two fires in factories o Workings towards safety regulations in factory countries China s Woes Cause Strategy Shiftsquot Prime Source Details new Industry Dynamicquot Trade Issues Weigh on Sourcing Decisionsquot CAFTA Countries Fear Vietnam s Prowessquot Weighing TPP Risks and Rewardsquot Africa Emerging as Next Frontierquot Industry Reacts to Obama s Proposalsquot US China Talk Currency Exchange Ratesquot Retail s Hot Countriesquot Business of Fashion article from Lectra posted on Oncourse Resources section Part 11 Production Review for Test 2 Fall 2014 Textile Lecture Manufacturing Lecture Global Issues Lectures Discussion over Design Textiles Manufacturing Global Articles see below Review production terms in supplement relate to Kohl s Video and also discussion after of terms no actual questions on the Video itself so don t worry if you didn t see WGSNcom what it is


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