Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PSY-P 304
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Helen Shymanski on Sunday March 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-P 304 at Indiana University taught by Rydell in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 150 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 03/01/15
Study Guide Exam 2 Chapter 5 Summary 1 Origins of Self a Studies show that great apes such as chimps and orangutans pass the mirror selfrecognition test whereas lesser apes do not b Humans develop this ability in early years around 1824 months c Four components of adulthood i Selfknowledge beliefs about who we are and the way we formulate and organize information ii SelfControl the way in which we make plans and execute decisions iii Impression Management how we present ourselves to other people iv SelfEsteem the way we feel about ourselves 2 SelfKnowledge a Cultural differences western cultures have independent views while eastern cultures have interdependent view b Gender differences women have interdependent relations usually while men have collective interdependence meaning that focus on their membership in context to the larger group c Introspection leads to discovery why we feel the way we do causal theories which are acquired through culture assumptions and verbalization of reasons for change d Observation i SelfPerception Theory argues that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous we infer these states by observing our own behavior and the situation in which it occurs ii Overjusti cation Effect focus on the extrinsic reasons for their behaviors and underestimate their intrinsic reasons iii TwoFactor Theory of Emotion emotional experience is the result of a twostep selfperception process in which people rst experience arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it e Comparison selfconcepts are shaped by those around us i Social Comparison Theory we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people 3 SelfControl Executive Function a Requires energy level of glucose in the bloodstream is the mental quotfuelquot we spend on selfcontrol 4 Impression Management People want others to see them as they see themselves a Ingratiation using attery to make yourself likable b Selfhandicapping create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that they can avoid blame for doing poorly 5 SelfEsteem Most people have high selfesteem a Terror Management Theory protecting us from thoughts about our own mortality b Narcissism extreme high selfregard combined with a lack of empathy toward others Questions LWhich of the following statements is least true according to research on self knowledge aThe best way to quotknow thyselfquot is to look inward introspecting about ourselves LSometimes the best way to know ourselves is to see what we do cWe often try to gure out ourselves by comparing ourselves to others LOne way we know ourselves is by using theories we learn from our culture LThe way in which we know ourselves is often similar to the way in which we come to know other people LYour friend jane is interning at a law rm When you ask her how it39s going she says quotFine I m doing much better than the intern who started a month after mequot What kind of social comparison is jane making aUpward social comparison LDownward social comparison clmpression Comparison LSelf Knowledge Comparison LSuppose you meetJessica a student in your psychology class who is very friendly and you like her immediately She tells you about her recent trip to France and how much she loved it Later on at a studyabroad session you nd yourself drawn to a program in Paris This would be an example of aReasonsgenerated attitude change LSelf perception theory cSocial tuning LMisattribution of arousal e Upward social comparison LElise wants to increase her ability at selfcontrol such as spending more time studying Which of the following is least likely to work aWhen she is studying she should try hard to suppress thoughts about the party she could have gone to b She should eat a small sugary snack before studying clf she had just exerted selfcontrol in one setting and now needs to exert selfcontrol in another setting she should take a break and relax for a few minutes LShe should form speci c implementation intentions detailing when and where she will study in the upcoming days LYour little sister enjoys taking time out of her day to make bead necklaces A birthday party is coming up and you decide you want to give a necklace to each person at the party She offers to make a necklace for each of your friends but for added motivation you give her a dollar for each one she makes Which of the following is most likely to happen a After the party your sister will enjoy making beads more than she did before because you gave her a reward 6 7 8 L LAfter the party your sister will enjoy making beads less than she did before because you rewarded her for something she already liked to do cBecause your sister already enjoys making beds paying her for making them will have no effect on how much she enjoys the activity LPaying your sister for making the beads will increase her self awareness According to research on sex differences in how people de ne themselves aWomen have higher collective interdependence in a family setting LMen are low in relational interdependence only in situations that do not call for emotional sensitivity cWomen have lower relational independence LMen have more collective interdependence than women On Halloween you decide to do an experiment When the trickortreaters arrive at your house you have them stand in a line on your front porch You stay outside with the group and let each child enter your house individually You tell them they can take one piece of candy from the bowl that is sitting on the table Half of the time you put the candy bowl in front of big mirror Half of the time there is no mirror present All of the children may be tempted to take more than one piece of candy Which children will be more likely to give in to temptation aThose in the mirror condition LThose who are between 7 and 9 years old cThose in the nomirror condition LThose who experience downward social comparison Catherine did very well on her math test Which of the following sentences should her mother tell her to increase the chances that Catherine will not give up on math if it later becomes more dif cult for her a quotYou really worked hard for this test and your hard work paid offquot LquotYou are such a smart kid you excel at everything you doquot cquotYou are so good in math you obviously have a gift for thisquot L39Tm so glad to see you are doing better than your classmatesquot L39Being good at math is in our family genesquot ich of the following is true about selfesteem and narcissism aThe best way to be happy is to focus on ourselves and our own needs LNarcissists are disliked by others but do better academically and in business than other people cPeople who are optimistic persevere more in the face of failure and set higher goals that do other people d Narcissism has been decreasing among college students in the US over the past 30 years Wh 1OAccording to selfperception theory which of the following audience members would enjoy the taping of the The Daily Show Withon Stewart the most aDavid who sat right in front of the ashing applause sign and notice that he clapped every time the sign said to LStephen who noticed that he was laughing more than other people c Zita whose friends nudged her to get her to clap Ljimmy who laughed a lot in order to make his friend Eleanor happy Chapter 6 Summary 1 Theory of Cognitive Dissonance a Most people need to see themselves as intelligent sensible and d cent 2 Maintaining Image a Cognitive Dissonance theory experience discomfort when their behavior is inconsistent with their vision of themselves In order to reduce dissonance discomfort they will i Change their behavior to bring it into line with their cognitions about themselves ii Justify their behavior by changing one of their cognitions iii Attempt to justify their behavior by inventing new cognitions b Selfaf rmation focusing on positive quality to offset feelings of having acted foolishly c Impact Bias overestimating how bad they will feel 3 Rationalizing Behavior a Process information in a bias way b Avoid dissonance at the expense of rational behavior 4 PostDecision Dissonance a Decisions arouse dissonance because they require choosing one thing and not the other It threatens selfimage 5 Hardwired a Dissonance is hardwired into the brain different parts of the brain are activated when people are in a state of mental con ict or have made a choice 6 Selfjusti cation a Increase liking if they have worked hard to attain even if they do not like it otherwise b Intense loyalties after hazing c If the reward was not big enough to justify the action there was not enough external justi cation Thus activating internal justi cation which processes selfjusti cation with a more powerful effect on long term values and behaviors d Counter attitudinal Advocacy they will feel dissonance used to change people39s attitudes in many ways 7 Punishment a Administering severe punishment will not make people change b Insufficient or mild punishment is better c The less severe the threat or the smaller the reward the less external justi cation for compliance d Selfpersuasion becomes internalized and lasts longer 8 Hypocrisy Paradigm a Hypocrisy making people face the difference between what they say and do 9 Ben Franklin Trick a Ask a favor from someone you do not like they will be more likely to help you and be kind in the future because of the internal justi cation Questions 1 Based on the quotBen Franklin effectquot you are most likely to increase your liking for Tony when a Tony lends you 10 b You lend Tony 10 c Tony returns the 10 you loaned him d Tony nds 10 After spending two years xing up an old house themselves which involved many hours of tedious work Abby and Brian are even more convinced that they made the right choice of house According to the dissonance theory this is an example of a Counterattitudinal advocacy b Insuf cient punishment c The Ben Franklin effect d Justifying their effort Your friend Amy asks you what you think of the shoes she just bought Privately you think they are the ugliest shoes u have ever seen but you tell her you love them In the past Amy has always valued your honest opinion and doesn39t care that much about the shoes which were inexpensive Because the external justi cation for your b was you will probably a High decide you like the shoes b High maintain your view that the shoes are ugly c Low decide you like the shoes d Low maintain your view that the shoes are ugly Meghan has been accepted to two top graduate schools According to cognitive dissonance theory under which of the following conditions will she experience the most dissonance a When she is thinking about the pros and cons of both programs before making up her mind b When she is pretty sure which program she wants to attend but has not yet noti ed the school of her decision c Right after she decides what program to attend and noti es the school of her decision d Meghan will experience an equal amount of dissonance in each of the above three circumstances You are required to sell 30 souvenir books for a club fundraiser How could you use the technique of lowballing to improve your sales a Start off by offering books at 70 each and pretend to bargain with customers making 30 your nal offer b Start by selling the books at 25 but once the customer has retrieved his or her checkbook tell him or her you made a mistake and the books are actually 5 more expensive than you thought c Offer the customers additional incentives to buy the book such as free cookies with every purchase d Start by selling the books at 40 but tell the customer he or she will get 10 back in the mail in three weeks 6 Suppose you are babysitting for two boys brothers who are ages six and three The older child often beats up his younger brother What would be the most effective way to make him stop a Threaten the older child with mild punishment like sitting in timeout for ve minutes and hope that he obeys b Threaten the older child with mild punishment like sitting in timeout for ve minutes and don39t worry about whether he obeys c Threaten the older child with harsh punishment like spanking him d Talk to the younger child about ways he can defend himself 7 Which of the following techniques relating to postdecision dissonance could a clothing store use to increase customer satisfaction a Cut all prices in half b Ask customers to make a radio ad saying how great the store is c Charge a membership fee to shop at the store d Make all sales nal 8 A school principal who wants to reduce vandalism has several students who are notorious for graf ti give a speech to the entire school about the negative aspects of damaging school property Which of the following should the principal do to make it most likely that these students will stop vandalizing the school according to research using the hypocrisy paradigm a He should have every student deliver a speech not just those who have already committed vandalism b He should have them deliver speeches about the positive aspects of vandalism as well as the negative aspects c After they make the speech he should ask them to remember times they have committed vandalism d Righter after students deliver the speech he should ask them to volunteer to help clean up the school parking lot 9 Imagine that before a test the professor told Jake that if he is caught cheating he will be expelled Imagine that the professor told Amanda that if caught cheating her only punishment would be to write a short paper about why cheating is wrong If both students don39t cheat what would dissonance theory predict a Amanda will feel more honest than Jake will b Jake will feel more honest than Amanda will c Amanda and Jake will feel equally honest d NeitherJake nor Amanda will feel honest because they were both threatened 10Bess undergoes treatment for drug addiction According to cognitive dissonance after she leaves the clinic Bess is most likely to stay off drugs if the treatment at the clinic was a Involuntary and dif cult b Involuntary and easy c Voluntary and easy d Voluntary and dif cult Chapter 7 Summary 1 Nature and Origin of Attitude a Attitude is a person39s enduring evaluation of people objects and ideas b Cognitively based attitudes are focused on our beliefs c Affectiver based attitudes are focused on emotions and values i Classicaloperant conditioning create affective based emotions d Behaviorally based attitudes focus on people39s actions e Implicit attitudes involuntary uncontrollable and sometimes unconscious f Explicit attitudes consciously endorse 2 Change a When people engage in counterattitudinal advocacy for low external justi cation b Persuasive communication i Yale Attitude Change Approach the effectiveness of a persuasive communication depends on aspects of the communicator or source of the message aspects of the message and aspects of the audience c Elaboration Likelihood Model speci es when people are persuaded more by the strength of the arguments in the communication and when they are persuaded more by surface characteristics d Central Route to Persuasion pay close attention to the strength of the arguments e Peripheral Route to Persuasion swayed by surface characteristics such as the attractiveness of the speaker 3 Emotion a Fear arousing communications cause lasting attitude change if a moderate amount of fear is aroused and people believe they will be reassured by the content of the message b Use heuristics to gauge attitude 4 Con dence a People s con dence can be affected by such things as whether they are nodding or shaking their head while listening to a persuasive message 5 Resistance a Attitude Inoculation expose people to small doses of arguments against their position making it easier to defend their positions b Product Placement forewarning people of attempts to persuade their attitudes c Peer Pressure teaching kids how to resist peer pressure d Boomerang Reactance theory people experience an unpleasant state called reactance when their freedom of choice is threatened Attempts to manage people39s attitudes can back re if they make people feel that their choices are limited 6 Predicting Behavior a Attitude accessibility refers to the strength of the association between an object and an evaluation of it b Theory of planned behavior deliberative behaviors are a function of people39s attitude toward the speci c act in question subjective norms and how much people believe they can control the behavior 7 Subliminal Messages a Power of Advertising targets affectiver based attitudes with emotions by targeting affectiver based attitudes with facts and by making the product seem personally relevant b There is no evidence that subliminal messages in advertisements have any effect on people39s behavior c Advertisements transmit cuIturaI stereotypes Questions 1 All of the following are true about attitudes except one a Attitudes are evaluations of people objects and ideas b Attitudes are related to our temperament and personality c Attitudes rarely change over time d Attitudes can be changed with persuasive communications e Under the right conditions attitudes predict people39s behaviors 2 Paige wants to buy a puppy She does some research and decides to buy an English springer spaniel rather than a Great Dane because they are smaller more active and good with children Which type of attitude in uenced her decision a Affectiver based attitude b Behaviorally based attitude c Explicitly based attitude d Cognitively based attitude 3 People will be most likely to change their attitudes about smoking if an antismoking advertisement a Uses extremely graphic pictures of how smoke can harm the body and warns of the risks of smoking b Gives people subliminal messages about the risks of smoking as well as recommendations of how to quit c Uses graphic pictures of the damages of smoking on the body and then provides speci c recommendations on how to quit smoking d Uses success stories of how people quit smoking 4 Emilia would be most likely to pay attention to facts about the danger of AIDS during a school assembly and remember the facts for a long time if a The speaker emphasized statistical information about AIDS throughout the world b The speaker emphasized how the disease has spread in her community and there isn39t anything distracting Emilia from listening c The speaker emphasized how the disease has spread in her community and at the same time Emilia39s best friends is whispering to her about a big party that weekend d The speaker is nationally known expert on AIDS 5 According to reactance theory what of the following public service messages would be least likely to get people to wear seatbeIts a quotPlease wear your seatbelt every time your drivequot b c d quotWear your seatbelt to save livesquot quotIt39s the lawyou must wear your seatbeltquot quotBuckle up your childrenyou might save their livesquot 6 You are trying to sell a new electronic toothbrush at the airport to busy distracted travelers Which of the following strategies is least likely to be successful at getting people to buy a toothbrush a b C d Under Make up a ier that gives convincing reasons why the toothbrush is good Make a large sign that says quot9 out 10 dentists recommend this toothbrushquot Put up a large banner featuring a picture of your friend who looks like Brad Pitt posing with the toothbrush Stop people and say quotDo you know that this is the toothbrush that is used the most by Hollywood starsquot which of the following conditions would people be most likely to vote for a political candidate They a b c d a b c d Onas Like the candidate39s policies but have negative feelings toward him or her Know little about the candidate s policies but have positive feelings toward him or her See subliminal ads supporting the candidate on national television See television ads supporting the candidate while they are distracted by their children All of the following are examples of ways to resist persuasion except Making people immune to change by opinions by initially exposing them to small doses of arguments against their positon Warning people about advertising techniques such as product placement Forbidding people to buy a product Roleplaying using milder versions of reallife social pressures urvey Milo reports that he agrees with wearing a seatbelt According to the theory of planned behavior what else will predict whether Milo will wear a seatbelt on a given day a b c d He generally agrees that safe driving is important His best friend Trevor was in the car and he also wore a seatbelt His attitude toward seatbelts was not very accessible Milo believes that it is hard to remember to wear his seatbelt 10Suppose that while you are watching a lm at a move theater the words quotDrink Cokequot are ashed on the screen at speeds too quick for you to see consciously According to research on subliminal perception which of the followi apem ng is most true You will get up and buy a Coke but only if you are thirsty You will get up and buy a Coke but only if you prefer Coke to Pepsi You will be less likely to get up and buy a Coke You will be no more likely to buy a Coke than if the subliminal messages were not ashed Chapter 8 Summary 1 Conformity occurs when people change their behavior due to the real or imagined in uences of others 2 We look at the behaviors of others as an important and needed source of information on what is appropriate in a given situation 3 In situations where accuracy is highly valued the tendency to conform to others through informational social in uence increases 4 Using other people as a source of information can back re when they do not know what is going on 5 Contagion is when emotions and behaviors spread throughout a group Mass Psychogenic Illness People are more likely to conform in a social situation when it is ambiguous Normative Social In uence a Occurs when we change our behavior to match that of others because we want to remain in the group and in good standing b We conform to social norms which usually results in public compliance but not necessarily private acceptance 8 Resisting normative social in uence can lead to ridicule ostracism and rejection 9 We are more likely to conform when the group is one we care about when the group members are unanimous in their thoughts and behaviors when the group has three or more members and when we are members of collectivist cultures 10Past conformity leads to idiosyncrasy credit a Allowing them to deviate from the group without serious consequences 11Minority a Under certain conditions an individual can in uence the majority b Consistency and presentation is essential 12Injunctive Norms are powerful in creating change compared to descriptive norms 130bedience a Milgram study is important for understanding the role of obedience b Normative pressures make it dif cult for people to stop obeying authority gures c Ambiguity leads to following blindly d Participants conformed to the wrong norm They continued to follow the obey authority when it was no longer appropriate It was dif cult for them to abandon this norm for three reasons the fastpaced nature of the study the fact that the shock level increased in small increments and their loss of feelings personally responsible Questions 1 All of the following are examples of informational social in uence except a You are running a race but because you are unsure of the route you wait to check which of two roads the other runners follow b You39ve just started work at a new job and a re alarm goes off you watch your coworkers to see what to do c When you get to college you change the way you dree so that you t in better that is so that people like you more 101 d You ask your advisor which classes you should take next semester e Mass psychogenic illness Which of the following is true according to social impact a People conform more to others who are physically close than to others who are physically distant People conform more if the others are important to them People conform more to three or more people than to one or two people d All of the above are true e Only a and b are true ln Asch39s line studies participants who were alone when asked to report the length of the lines gave the correct answer 98 of the time When they were with the confederates however 76 of participants gave the wrong answer at least once This suggests that Asch s studies are an illustration of a Public compliance with private acceptance b The fundamental attribution error c Public compliance without private acceptance d Informational in uence e Private compliance Which of the following situations demonstrates mass psychogenic illness a You share the happiness a close friend experiences when she learns that she39s won the state lottery b During the past week complaints of dizziness and fainting spells spread throughout the dorm though no physical cause can be identi ed c After looking through a medical dictionary you fear that you have three separate illnesses d Panic spreads throughout a crowd when someone yells quotKiller beesquot Whereas may be mechanism by which women learn what kind of body type is considered attractive explains their attempts to obtain such a shape through dieting and other means a Contagion in uence minority in uence b Minority in uence contagion in uence c Informational social in uence normative social in uence d Normative social in uence informational social in uence Which of the following is most true about informational social in uence a When deciding whether to conform people should ask themselves whether the other people know more about what is going on than they do b People should always try to resist it c People are most likely to conform when other people have the same level of expertise as they do d Often people publicly conform but do not privately accept this kind of in uence Brandon knows that society considers underage drinking to be wrong he also knows however that on a Saturday night at this university many of his friends will engage in this behavior His belief that most of the public would disapprove of underage drinking is while his perception that many teenagers drink under certain circumstances is a An injunctive norm a descriptive norm DOquot b c d A descriptive norm an injunctive norm A descriptive norm conformity An injunctive norm conformity 8 Tom is a new student at this university During the rst week of classes he notices a fellow student from one of his classes getting on a bus Tom decides to follow the student and discovers that this bus takes him right to the building where his class meets This best illustrates what kind of conformity a b c Obedience to authority Informational social in uence Public compliance d Normative social behavior e Mindless conformity 9 Which of the following best describes an example of normative social in uence a Sarah is studying with a group of friends When comparing answers on the practice test she discovers that they all answered the question differently than she had Instead of speaking up and telling them she thinks the answer is something else she agrees with their answer because she gures they must be right b Sarah is supposed to bring a bottle of wine to a dinner party she is attending She doesn39t drink wine herself but gures she can just ask the store clerk for advice on what kind to buy c Sarah is out to lunch with her boss and coworkers Her boss tells a joke that makes fun of a certain ethnic group and everyone else laughs Sarah doesn39t think the joke is funny but laughs anyways d Sarah is ying on an airplane for the rst time She is worried when she hears the engines make a strange noise but feels better after she looks at the ight attendants and sees that they are not alarmed 10Which of the following had the least in uence on participants39 willingness to keep giving shocks in the Milgram studies Duncp Normative social in uence Activation of the quotobey authorityquot norm Selfjusti cation Informational social in uence Participants39 aggression Answer Key Chapter 5 ABCABDCACB 1234567891 Chapter 6 k are CDCBCABCBD t 0 W 1234567891 h C BDCCBADCAD 1234567891 Chapter 8 CDCB 11434H 10 CAAB 5678
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