Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide ANTH 1002
Popular in Social Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by firstname.lastname@example.org Notetaker on Sunday March 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1002 at George Washington University taught by Sarah Wagner in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 670 views. For similar materials see Social Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
Reviews for Midterm Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/01/15
MidTerm Study Guide Part 1 Glossary Terms Ethnocentrism o The tendency to view one s culture as superior and to apply one s own cultural value in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raised in other cultures Cultural relativism o The viewpoint that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture We should understand why it exists as it does Social Darwinism o A school of thought that states that biology is directly linked to racial differences and the explanation for the difference in classes It justifies segregation and discrimination biologically Developed by Herbert Spencer Cultural Relativism o Cultures cannot be compared because they have very backgrounds and customsquot Franz Boas US 0 Cultures have to be analysed individually and taken their symbolism and context within the culture of study Salvage ethnography 0 To study and record culture diversity threatened by encroaching westernization Participant observation 0 Participation in everyday life but still keeps its appearances The idea that you a considered a temporary guest to their culture for the moment Emic approach 0 Investigates how local people think the native viewpoint Etic approach 0 Investigates the point of view of anthropologies and people outside that culture Symbol o something that has a deeper meaning and cultural associations Allows for deeper understanding Thick Description 0 The aim is to draw large conclusions but very densely textured facts to support broad assertions about the role of culture in the construction of collective life by engaging them exactly with complex specificsquot p28 0 analysis of symbols and behaviors inside social contexts Symbolic or interpretive anthropology o I take culture to be those webs and the analysis of it to be therefore not an experimental science in search of law but an interpretive one in search of meaningquot p5 Semiotic 0 Of signs or symbols semiotic in the study of sings or symbols and their use or interpretation Ethnography o The research method and genre of representation as in the written form book or visualquot Medical anthropology o The study of diseases health problems health care systems and theories about illness in different cultural and ethnic groups Positionality o Writer or theorists sets out his her own position in relation to the study signaling how his position may in uence aspects of the study such as the information collected or the war in which it is interpreted o Shapes how research is conducted Re exivity o The awareness and assessment of the anthropologists own contribution and in uence on research and the consequent findings Melancholy o The idea that the pain of addiction never ends Es que lo tengo no terminaquot This constant states is interminable and holds over the life of Alma and the others Descanso o the need to forget through the character of Alma through death The understanding that death essential relationship to life Querencia o A maternal genealogy of addiction Inheritance Kinship 0 relationship based on or modeled on the culturally recognized connection between parents and children and extended to siblings and through parents to more distant relatives Kinship structures many areas of social life Social Fact 0 Two parts I Exteriority It is a collective representation collective conscious add up the part to make a whole its about the overlap the share and consensus that creates this collective representation I Coercive Social fact cannot be separated from society They work together Reciprocity o The exchange of goods and services of approximately equal value between two parties Philosophy 0 The nature of knowledge reality existence pursuit of knowledge Psychology 0 The way the mind works cognition primarily and individual mind words and its relationship with behavior Part 1 Short Terms serves to study to the essay as well Nacirema written by Horance Miner and ethnocentrism 0 He ironically writes about the American culture as if they were primitive refrains from using modern terms and associations 0 He describes Americans as egocentrics individuals with barbarous acts 0 Examples glorifying doctors and magical pills medicine talks about going to the dentist take out cavaties and etc Theory of Structuralism o Developed by Claude L viStrauss 0 Our cognitive ability is universal and a primitive society is not inferior to a modern one o Dualism the basic meaning comes from opposites I Symbolism develops meaning therefore develops society Edward Burnett Tylor 0 Was an armchair anthropologist who relied in secondhand sources 0 Defined culture as an object of study 0 Believed that all humans have cognitive behavior and that all have the capacity to build great things but that there was a responsibility for the most civilized people to lift up society and the uncivilized Herbert Spencer 0 Misinterpreted Charles Darwin theory of evolution by justifying the raking of races Thus he said that we all evolved from the same species but some humans are more developed than others since evolution can go in different directions 0 3 sociologies I society is an aggregation of individuals social atoms whose character individual nature determines the sum of the whole I evolution went from homogeneous to heterogeneous where all people evolved from the same race but some people evolved quicker than others I the implicit relation of the social forms and national character Bornislaw Malinowski O Developed the theory that anthropology is aligned with time because it is the meaning of the objects that counts not the specific object Imponderabilia of everyday life the little things people do without thinking but that are also part of their culture Clifford Geertz 0 00000 Outlines an interpretive symbolic meaning for anthropology Wrote the interpretation of cultures 1973 Inspired by literature and philosophy Wants to expose meaning and is not imperialistic Understand cultures by who they are not by comparison Balinese Cock fight I Symbols of dominance hierarchy honor and masculinity Goes beyond the act of the fight it is a social statement a social symbol Dorinne Kondo EyeIquot O O O 0 Very rich descriptions of sounds and sights to create a relationship with the reader and space as well Says that our experience is a primary disorientation Fragmentation of self idea that she looked Iapanese physically but culturally had acquired many American values and could not relate to many of the values laid out to her in working in the factory She was culturally misallocated into a culture she thought she previously belonged She seeks to find balance between these two personalities and try to incorporate the American value of independence and living by herself into the Japanese culture Her experiences shaped her own culture thus her own self but it doesn t necessarily mean that she isn t Iapanese it just means she have her own understanding of her ideas and values Setting trope a literary device used by Kondo to appeals to the reader Her source of connectivity through her description of setting Emile Durkheim O O O Considered the founding father of sociology wanted to understand society and its fundamental field Wanted to understand society as its fundamental field Published the Rules of Sociological Methodquot in 1895 I First he says its important to define the object of study and set the field of research and observations to provide quantitative data I Purpose of the book is to introduce sociology create a social science from scratch He is a positivist which means that he is associated with the enlightenment and the scientific knowledge and methods He uses empirical ways to measure physical and human processes says that the social sciences are also scientific and measurable o Belongs to the school of thought of functionalism o It is very objective in comparison to Geerzt does not look for meaning as he does 0 States that socialization also shapes the individual it correlates with individualization The Pastoral Clinic Major Themes 0 Geography of addiction I The setting of the book is in Espa ola Valley New Mexico which have the highest rates of heroin addicts in the region I Idea that the sel essness and lost sense of the community leads to a loss in themselves as a community and they fall into addiction I The environment is not inviting anymore and the meaning of life is lost in the need to get high of drugs I Abandonment leads to loss of the meaning of life I Garcia identifies herself as part of their culture due to her Hispanic background She is considered one of them and that s part of the reason they allowed her to perform the research in first place I Their addiction is tied to the land 0 Dispossession I Of Government who occupied the communal area and destroyed the sense of family once embedded I Metaphorical sense dispossession of meaning of life loss of community and purpose Giving to the life of drugs I Implies ideas that the clinic does not have an inviting atmosphere neither physical nor in its mood Everybody is in disbelief of recovery and this contributes to their return to the clinic and the loss sense of belonging I Inequality los amos they are white those who are drawn in to support the social sector worked 50 years before and haven t been inserted in society The land itself has been taken away from the community to become this federal space Changing where people can live and ear a living The shape of the land change with the treaty they then became American citizens the families that surrounded could draw upon for hunting it no longer belongs to her family it disappeared o Patientprisoner dilemma I The patient s sense of personal failure contributes to a collective sense of hopelessness and in turn the regional heroin problem itselfquot I idea that the patient is treated as inferior as hopeless people due to the high tendency of their return I the disbelief of the workers in clinic in the patient s recovery I The loss of hope from both the patient and the worker leads to a cyclical return to the clinic they become prisoner s of the situationquot 0 Michel Foucault I Subjectivity is also the actions of discourses that produces the individual I Subjectivity is socially constructed the effect of power I Garcia uses Foucault to understand why the addicts are acting and behaving subjectivity by a constitution of factors laws and family relations 0 Melancholy as Subjectivity I Relapse vs Return Relapse suggests that there was a path deviation from a moral conduct but a return is simply the return to the neverending melancholy It was socially expected even to Alma her return There is no sense of getting out of it of fully recovering o Cyclical nation of addiction I Addiction explored throughout the family structure especially in the mother and daughter relationships I Idea of mourning versus melancholia idea that melancholia has no ending while mourning is a state of mind goes away I Melancholia has a sense of entrapment endless suffering o Maternal Genealogy of heroin addiction I They are linked and not interchangeable I Their continuous use of heroin means that they understand each other and live as a family genetic bond Bonds of shame 0 When you don t make it get clean you know you re not just hurting yourself you re hurting your kid tooquot 0 but when the daughter started using the nature of shame shifted because it encompassed a mutual understanding of each other they were linked by blood 0 Suicide as a form of life I Idea that suicide is not an event it is a way of life I Three different perspectives Person who attempts suicide Doctor Relative I All perspectives lead to the end of life but not necessarily the event of it rather than the end of something that already existed The Gift Reciprocity as a social fact do we feel obligated to reciprocate when we receive a gift Author Marcel Mauss o Believed in the power of generalized reciprocity example of parent to children gift where the parent doesn t expect anything in return Total service idea behind reciprocity o It is not individuals but collectivities that impose obligation of exchange and contract upon each other 0 What is exchanged is not simply materials such exchange are acts of politeness Example of North American potlatch o Potlatches were social occasion given by a host to establish or uphold his status position in society They were often held to mark a significant event in his family such as the birth of a child or a son s marriage Guests shared food and received gift or payment Potlatches were also the venue in which ownership to economic and ceremonial privileges was asserted displays and formally transferred to heirs o The significance and nature of gifting in Northwest coast in potlatches has varied through time and across cultures It is commonly portrayed as extremely competitive with hosts bankrupting themselves to outdo their rivals and aggressively destroying property I You loose faith and prestige They want to assert power and maintain the structure of this power they were gifted o The potlatch is about rivalry it is essentially agonistic aggressive combative
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'