Midterm Study Guide Sociocultural Anthropology
Midterm Study Guide Sociocultural Anthropology ANTH 1002
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Midterm Study Guide Sociocultural Anthropology Suggested Study Process Use glossary words at end of each section to identity main ideas 0 Find an author and a major lesson from each word 0 Glossary words are bolded within the sections Try answering the questions posed by sections 0 Underlined or italicized Discuss each sections with peers 0 Try to reiterate and digest the information 0 Connect authors from different sections This is a guide 0 You should add your own analysis and thoughts on class readings for full preparation Exam Preparation I Budget your time pay attention to instructions I Read the prompt carefully identifying key words and the main question you need to address I Write an outline for the essay set out your argument and points of discussion support Think about logical ow of ideas and how they relate to your argument I Write following your outline Be specific include details and concrete examples I If there s time proofread what you ve written Format 0 Midterm same time as lecture I Section one Part One Definitions 0 3 or 4 terms define in 1 to 2 sentences I Write complete sentences I Define context and thinker Part Two Shortanswer Questions 23 answers 0 Use the questions to help orient answer 0 3 to 4 sentences Answer questions clearly 9 Context details define example key words Part Three Essay Question 0 Example 9Dorionne Kondo EyeIquot from Crafting Selves Drawing on the example of this book chapter explain how ethnography is both a research methods and a form of writing How does Kondo convey to her reader the idea of fragmented identity Incorporate into your essay a discussion of what Kondo calls the quotsetting tropequot as well as the terms of positionality and re exivitility 0 Objective 9 show what you have learned Introducing Sociocultural Anthropology 1 What is anthropology a Holistic discipline meaning it studies the whole of human condition past present future biology culture language b The most scientific of the humanities and the most human of the sciences Eric Wolf Subfields biological linguistic sociocultural archeology 2 Definitions of ethnology and ethnography a Sociocultural anthropology traditionally included ethnological study i Ethnos people or nation 1 Example Bosnia and herze Ethnos in a bad way Political discourse that allowed war to disrupt peoples life Ethnology examines interprets analyzes and compares the results of ethnographythe date gathered in di erent societies 1 Sociocultural anthropology is not very fond of ethnology It no longer wants to compare societies not to decide who is better ot to make universal claims but if focuses comparison on particulars C ii b Ethnography i Account of a particular community society or culture Zola Neale Hurston Example of ethnography i Ethnography C 1 Account of a particular community society or culture ii What do ethnographers do 1 Franz Boas a Considered founder of american cultural anthropology b Professor to Zora Neale Huston c Believed in participant observation i Take part in rituals in order to understand ii What do you need to participate 1 Language 2 Relationships building 3 Empathy 4 Humility 5 Contextualize iii It takes time It is more indepth than just a survey 2 Ethnographer sociocultural anthropologist who spends time in the field conducting research living and working in a community write up a detailed description and analysis of the customary behavior or thougth social system organization practice 3 General anthropology a Four subfield i Biological ii Linguistic iii Sociocultural iv Archeology b Epistemology i The study and theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge especially with reference to its limits and validity From the Greek word episteme knowledge ii Philosophical study of knowledge and how people gain knowledge iii How do we know what we know c Two key apsects i Authority 1 What constitutes legitimate knowledge What is truth ii Process 1 How do people gain knowledge a Scientific Method 4 Shakespeare in the Bush Laura Bohannan a What happens i Left Oxford for Tiv of West Africa 9 Discusses Hamlet with then the elders of the community 1 She finds that what she held as a universal tale was not so universal 2 b Epistemological differences i What is happening 1 Water rising a People are stick at home and she gets to observe ii Africa iii 5 Glossary a Ethnology b Ethnography c Epistemology The Anthropological Gaze Examples from Claude LeviStrauss and Horace Miner A Claude LeviStrauss 0 Setting out I hate travelling and explorers Yet here I am proposing to tell the story of my expeditions i Frustrated about those who travel to show off their adventures ii Instead it asks the traveler to put aside egocentricity and really emerge in the cultures being explored b Argued against the idea primitive societies being inferior in mental capacity i The Savage Mind 1962 1 Major intervention of thinking of the time 2 Brought about the complexities of symbolic meaning and organization 3 Deep mental structure B Structuralism a Edmund Leach i We All Human Kind 1 Universal human cognitive ability a The socalled savages all follow the same cognitive activities as the European b Savage Mind Argues the sophistication of every mind ii We perceive in order 1 Time 2 Organization 3 Our brains take stimuli of what is around us and orders it iii We give meaning 1 Stimuli 9 Apprehend 9 Order it 9 Make sense of it 2 Make sense of it part is our culture iv Examples 1 The rainbow a Human being takes continuum of colors and separates them into different colors b Then we assign meaning 9 traffic light i Red stop ii Green go iii Yellow middle way in the spectrum of light between green and red b LeviStrauss developed his theory of structuralism around the idea of dualism i Dualism basis meanings come from oppositions 1 Ex a Light Dark b Good Evil c Right Left d What about the inbetween ii Thesis antithesis and the inbetween 1 Levistrauss 9 to understand culture we must understand the human mind 2 Symbolic packages c Pushing back on ethnocentrism i Ethnocentrism the tendency to view one s own culture as superior and to apply one s own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raised in other culture 1 How to notice it Notice the prism of your own culture in analyzing other cultures ii On the other side is cultural relativism Understand the meaning in and internal logic of other cultures iii Cultural relativism the viewpoint that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture 1 NOT to be confused with moral relativism 2 Understand and then make judgments 3 Knowledge and take off your cultural garment C Horace Miner a Nacirema America i Taken American culture and described it from an outsiders perspectives b Re ection Culture is not static D Possible Short answer How does Horace Miner s essay help explain ethnocentrism Define term and provide example a Ethnocentrism is the tendency to view one s own culture as superior and to apply one s own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raised in other cultures b In his satire Miner highlights the i Example of viewing his culture as superior ii Example of Victorian Anthropology and Civilizations Compared A The Emergence of Anthropology the enlightenment and 19th century rationalism a Portrayal of indigenous man i He was the quotexotic otherquot as the subject of study 1 Exotic otherquot 9 Savage and primitive a Definition closely linked with race and politics b Anthropology has dubious origins c How did it come about 9The enlightenment the age of reason i Mid 17th century through 18th century ii A set of values more than ideas that gives priority to knowledge 1 Not just new ideas based in science but values that place importance in those iii Descartes Newton Harvey Voltaire Locke Smith 1 Age of empiricism knowledge derived from experience and what you can physically test 2 A whole new way of pursuing knowledge iv Scientific revolution and scientific methods 1 Not limited to physics Philosophy Economics and social theory greatly in uenced and pushed 2 Age of reason 9Humans are rational actors a Capitalism and economics are products of enlightenment B Darwin and The Origin of Species 1 Charles Darwin i 18091882 ii Darwin had lots of caution in publishing his work not because he wasn t sure of his finding but because of the revolutionary nature of his ideas 1 He faced incredible criticism 0 Man Is But a Worm Almanac 1882 b The Origin of Species 185 9 i Provided a way of thinking for biology but also for the contemplation of the diversity in social ii Touches outside of the natural sciences and into the social sciences 9 Anthropology C Romanticism a Push back against rationalism We are more than minds we also have hearts Its not all about the intellect there is soul and spirit b From here derived the idea of the quotnoble savagequot that drove anthropology i Rousseau 1 Straw man to get at political corruption He creates the noble savage for the argument against the industrial age and rationalism The untouched man is best a Archaic form of man he is a less evolved version of us 2 Develops of ideas of kind of social contract a Hobbes Life is short nasty and brutish War is the natural state of the international system i Social contract where you gave up freedom to a sovereign D Victorian anthropologist questions and methods a Victorian i Geographic locus England 1 Queen Victoria 18991901 Height of the empire 9 25 of the world population owed allegiance to the queen 1 Imperial times and conquests came with questions 9 Who are these people Are they like us Are we of the same species iii Monogenism 90ne origin 9 we are all from the same original human Adam and Eve iv Pologenism 9Different species V Need to underwrite imperialistic endeavors 9 anthropology 1 Write a hierocracy that would allow the British to take control b Victorian Anthropologist i Armchair anthropologist 1 Not people who were traveling 2 Relied on secondhand resources a Colonial Administrators b Missionaries c Gentleman traveler d Naturalists ii Trying to make sense of the exotic other 9 providing a foundation for dominance over other cultures E EB Tyler and cultural evolution a definition of culture and outline of the M a Edward Burnett Tyler 18321917 Ladders and grades i First anthropologist to set out on a de nition for culture 1 Reread first paragraph of primitive culture a He writes that culture and civilization are the p u p u same b Complex whole not one thing but a mixture of interaction c Culture is social You get culture from social interactions ii Tylor published Primitive Culture 1871 defining culture as an object of study 1 He is a cultural evolutionist a Teleology iii Uni ormi 1 Human beings are uniform a Uniform action of uniform cause F 11 i Even if we are separated by time and space 1 This at least provides the case that civilizations can develop 2 Civilizations can evolve b Psychic unity of mind we have all the same mental capacity Glossary a Armchair anthropology Relied on secondhand sources for knowledge b psychic unity of manquotuniformitarianism EB Tyler c Cultural evolution Ideas that cultures evolve They can become more civilized or lose their civilization Possible Exam Question a 0n Pg 8 what does he mean by this Why does he use the term species i He is placing himself in conversation with the naturalist He is placing anthropology as a legitimate science Emulating the knowledge of empiricism and the naturalist Social Darwinism and Difference on Display Kipling s White Man s Burdenquot a 1899 Magazines Subtitle The United States and the Philippines 1 Command to empires about the obligation of empires to colonize He is writing in defense of the British Empire and the United States ii Addressing the debate about the role of US in the western hemisphere as it takes on a new stature as world power iii Kipling 9 empires are charged with the duty of colonizing Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism a Herbert Spencer 18201903 i English philosopher 1 Foundation of social Darwinism ii Survival of the ttest 9 spencer coined the phrase reading Darwin s Origin of Species iii Social Darwinism 1 Spencer founding figure in the school of thought advanced the notion that competition among individuals groups of people nations and ideas derives social evolution in human society 2 quotIntellectual evolution as it goes on in the human race goes along with social evolution of which it is once a cause and a consequence quoted in Baker p 30 3 Biologically deterministic attitude Linking biology with the social 4 Used to support explicit segregation and racism in an explicit institutional context iv In his writing he sets 3 basic tenets about societies and their development three sociologiesquot 1 Society is an aggregation of individual social atoms whose character individual natures determined the sum of the whole 2 Metaphor of the social organism looked to biology to explain society evolution from homogenous to heterogeneous a Simple egalitarian same position homogenous b Complex specialization of society heterogeneous c Look to biology for this analogy 3 Implicit relation of social forms and national character a Nation refers also to racial group and their place in a ladder v Lee Baker From Savage to Negro 9Pg 30 a He used science to make the argument for racial cultural superiority b Association of black with evil and lighter with superior 2 Different to cultural evolution developmentladderTyler vi How does Social Darwinism in uence American anthropology 1 Reading 9Pg 27 a Every field emerges and its in uence by the context of the time b They needed to explain and understand industrialization and the calamities of American imperialisms c The creation knowledge in relation to this context creates social Darwinism 111 American Anthropology and racist science on displayquot the World Fair in St Louis 1904 a Chicago Fair 9 i Context Paris created Eiffel Tower was created at the previous world s fair They wanted to follow up and displayed the Ferris wheel and ii Incredibly provocative with display that showed the movement from dark to light 1 From savage to evolved Finishing with Ferris Wheel as show of civilized b Louisiana Purchase Exposition i Baker Pg 64 c The Philippine Exposition i Should the constitution follow the ag Take over a land and should these people then be American citizens ii The exhibit was arguing political point of Teddy Roosevelt d The Pygmy Exhibit St Louis World Fair 1904 i Bronx Zoological Gardens 1 Literally caged with orangutans as a display e NPR piece for EXAM IV Film The Couple in the Cage a How much have we actually changed V Glossary Social Darwinism The Ethnographic Enterprise and Participant Observation 1 Bronislaw Malinowski and Salvage Ethnography a Bronislaw Malinowski i 18841942 Born in Poland Studied in London School of Economics 1 Young scholar a Tools are good to gobut the object of study is disappearing 9 b Concerned about the contact between the new world and the old world The untouched new world is tainted by the west i The pristine bounded culturequot romanticism ii Salvage ethnography 1 To study and record cultural diversity threatened by encroaching westernization 2 Capture cultural diversity before is no longer diverse iii Argonauts of the Western Pacific 1 Malinowski conducted from 19141918 on the Triobrand Islands in Papua New Guinea 2 Participant Observation a Involved in everyday life and attempting to become part of it b He is a white man and he will use his privilege and status to understand iv Father of ethnographic study 1 Extended sustained presence amongst peoples 2 He revolutionized how anthropological study was done a Arm chair anthropologist i Ethnology 9Comparative analysis of different cultures b He said no thanksquot It is necessary for the anthropologist to go into the eld i Other advocated for sustain analysis but they will do so as inquirers rather than participants 2 Malinowski s guideline for research a What should we do i Outline the organization of the tribe of a tribe and the anatomy of its culture The Skeleton 1 Using concrete statistical documentation a Empirical approach 2 Organization a Count the people geographic b Genealogical diagram c Power structure 3 Anatomy a Who is who How did they get there ii Fill in the impoderabilia of actual life and type of behavior The esh and blood 1 Collected througth minute and detailed observation direct contact with informants 2 Imponderabilia that which you do not ponder do without thinking a You do it without asking questions 3 Class Exercise 9 a write down everything you did today until this moment b Using this list discuss with two people 9 urban campus culturequot 4 Re ection The little things get us places iii Collect ethnographic statements characteristics narratives typical utterance folkore and magical formulae as documents of native The esh and blood 1 Ask the people living in the culture how they think 2 Suppose that you a Speak the language b Have access c Participate iv All three combine to create the body of a culture 1 Possible SHORT ANSWER QUESTION v Emic vs Etic 1 Emic a Investigate how local people think b Native point of view c How do they perceive the world and categorize it How do they imagine rules for behavior What has meaning for them 2 Etic a Shifts the focus from the local observation categories observations categories explanations to those of the anthropologist b it is the scientistorientedquot approach where the ethnographer brings to bear an objective and comprehensive viewpoint to studying the culture vi Malinowski 1 He lingers in the two a He is the scientist and scholar But he tries to become part of the community and understanding their thinking 3 Edward Evan EE EvansPritchard s Witchard Magic and Oracles among the Azande 1937 Appendix Number Four Some reminiscences and Re ections on Fieldworkquot a Re ecting on ethnographic research and study i Pearls of Wisdom ii Pg 243 9 Don t have the audacity to assume that as a participant you can become one of them 1 You are temporary guest 2 Recognize that you are different and be aware of that fact a Go back to reading Perhaps it would be better to sayPg 243quot 4 Glossary a Salvage Ethnography b Participant Observation c Imponderalabilia of actual life d Emic vs Etic i Approached to studying human cultures Reading Culture Like a Text Symbolic Interpretive Anthropology 1 Clifford Geertz and interpretive symbolic anthropology a Theory of Culture i Geertz does not take inspiration from science instead he takes his inspiration from literature philosophy and humanities ii He is not the empiricist not looking for universal laws Instead He is reading culture as it is a text b Clifford Geertz 19262006 i Symbolic or interpretative anthropology 1 The interpretation of Cultures 1973 2 Got his PhD at Harvard In Princeton he was a scholar rather than a teacher ii In the post WWII era 9 questions emerged about the study of anthropology and its colonial past Can the study of anthropology be objective Can it survive without emperialistic 1 How to struggle with the issues of the past 9 He created idea of symbolic anthropology that derived meaning 2 Pluralist a Common humanity 9 but we are all very different 9Cultural diversity b Geertz 91 am interested in the Balinese not trying to establish human laws by studying them or use them as re ection of American culture Interested in them and how they see the world That s it 3 Culture defined by Geertz a Pg 5 Also definition of symbolic and anthropology i Search of meaning specific to that culture 1 semiotic of signs or symbols semiotics is the study of signs or symbols and their use of interpretation ii Approach culture like a text and you are going to do a reading of that text In this process you can understand that culture 4 Symbols a Cultures include complex systems of symbols and symbolic actions i In language art religion politics economics b A symbol stands in for something else It signals the presence of an important domain of experience i Symbols change in meaning over time and from culture to culture 9American Flag 1 What does this symbolize a According to the analysis of the different components blood purity and colonies b To Americans may be freedom liberty justice c In the past it means unity of different states and now union of different ideas d To others it can be imperialism and oppression 2 As shown the symbols changed from time and culture 2 Thick description a He gives us an example of the wink i Thin description the eye closed and then closed 1 No attend to understand the social context what it meant and the message it sent ii Thick description 1 Communicating in a precise and specific way a Deliberately b to someone in particular c to impart a particular message d according to a socially established code and e without cognizance of the rest of the company iii Use of the wink the thick description pays attention to the meaning social interactions and ideas b Thick description i Reading Pg 28 The aim is to specificsquot 9Draw large conclusions from small densely textured facts 1 Ex a cockfight is more than just a cockfight a Highly symbolic ii On anthropological writing 1 In short anthropological writings are themselves experimentsquot Pg 15 a An interpretation from the anthropologist that he got from the interpretation of those in the culture b Something made fictio i Not false but something constructed 3 Interpreting Balinese cockfights and deep playquot a Bali Pg 417 Pg 418 i Double meaning of the word quotcockquot as in English ii Multiple meaning of the act 9 to culture and politics of the society iii To be continued next lecture 4 Glossary a Symbol b Thickdescription c Symbolicinterpretative anthropology d Utilitarianism Symbolic Anthropology redux Entering the field and setting the scene 1 Wrap up of Geertz s Notes on a Balinese on Cockfightquot a Balinese Cockfight9 Not merely gambling but symbolic social constructions and structures i Reading Balinese culture as text constructing a reading of the culture ii Balinese they behave according to the social and culture rules that are embedded in the cockfight 1 More than money9it is prestige status and dignity iii Pg 436 The cocks may be in which its devotees livequot 1 Animal mirrors symbolic 2 Made social constructs 3 Simulation Simulation of social matrix a People bet in the cockfight and do so in relationship with and to their kinship religion and labor b Symbolic reading 9 interpretative tool 11 Gabriel Garcia Marquez No one Writes to the colonel and Magical Realismquot a Gabriel Garcia Marquez My hero Nobel Prize in Literature i 100 A os de Soledad pairs magic with reality b No one Writes to the colonel i Setting in the civil war normality of Latin American States ii Particularities of the stories reveal grander themes common in Latin American society poverty political structure etc iii Magical realism is a sample of thick description 111 Dorinne Kondo EyeIquot a EyeI Introductory chapter i Question What sticks in your mind about the stetting of the first chapter 1 Evocative writer 9 places the reader in the Tokyo Involves a number of sensory experiences a Sense of density within the city b Sounds were an important characteristic 9 factory sounds bicycle bell c The appearance shop owners chip in to decorate collective space ii She is setting the scene the entrance into field 1 Soak it all in9 take in and write all down 2 Not only the anthropologist but the anthropologist that is being observed iii Question what do you think Kondo is trying to achieve through these rich description 1 She is trying to get the reader familiar iv Page 7 9 important in the readings 1 a jumble of unfamiliar buildingtake us exactly nowherequot 2 Cultural sensibilities do her nowhere 3 Setting the narrativeof doing researchquot Pg 7 V Personhood and identity 1 Epiphany 9 the uidity and fragmentation of identity 2 JapaneseAmerican a She looks Iapanese so she is supposed to occupy a cultural space but as American she lacks the skills to be a Japanese 3 She tries very hard to get Japanese in her 9 she goes to far 9 epiphany a She is catch her re ection and she is shocked b You craft your identity 9 you perform according to the people around you the student the daughter the young housewife Pastoral Clinic Addiction and dispossession along the Rio Grande Part I 1 Introducing the text medical anthropology a Ethnography 9 both 1 the research and 2 the intellectual product b Medical anthropology study of disease health problems health care systems and theories about illness in different cultural and ethnic groups i It cuts across other subfields of anthropology such as biological sociocultural ii In gained a lot of traction9 1 Paul Farmer medical anthropologist and cofounder of Partner in Health a quotThe idea that some lives matter less is the root of all that s wrong with the worldquot 2 in Kim 9 Head of World Bank and medical anthropologist c Angela Garcia9 part of the school that studied historical system of care with structures and institutions Garcia focuses II The ethnographer s position a How does Angela Garcia bring the reading into the setting tropequot i Setting trope how the reader is introduced into the field ii Garcia 9 she locates the place where her research takes and sets the stage for the addiction 1 The walk around the river by three people sets the stage to think about the structure history and sociopolitical re ection that will follow b Basic i Where Espa ola Valley New Mexico ii Who Addicts iii What Dispossession c She is welcomed because of her familiarity i Two questions 1 Positionality writer or theorist sets out his her own position in relation to the study signaling how this position may in uence aspects of the study such as the information collected or the at in which it is interpreted a You can t remove your own culture You have the tight chemise b Acknowledgement that your hold a position in the culture you are entering 2 Re exivity the awareness and assessment of the anthropologist s own contribution and in uence on research and the consequences findings ii Angela Garcia 1 Acknowledges her positionality and re exivity in a salient but subtle manner 2 She explains that she cannot represent what it means to overdose because she has never experienced it She is not partaking in the use 3 She speaks Spanish and that grants her access 111 Northern New Mexico Northern Mexico a geography of addiction and pastoral care a Geography of addiction i John The river is deadquot ii Pg5 9 she describes the landscape with symbols 9Had the river ever been alive 1 Addiction poverty rural life 9 addiction happens outside of city and that needs to be understood too iii Our landscape is everywhere spotted with ruinsquot his book starts from the idea timequot Pg 7 1 Addiction and abuse are part of the society and the peoples lives b Pastoral care i The landscape of the effect the lived realities societies of the heroinridden Hispanos in this rural landscape embedded in tropes of nature and abandonment 1 The physical landscape has an emotion intertwined with addiction of the people ii A form of care that is salvation oriented and that invites the addict to suffer ad to handle the realities associated the tragic structures of existencequot 1 The addict has to save him herself Part of that salvation is founded in suffering and struggling with existence 2 She cannot know the limits because she will never know what it means to be the addict iii Pastoral clinic 9 is a place of suffering IV Patientprisoner politics a Subjectivity the way in which an individual subject perceives the world and his her place it b For critical theorist like Michel Foucault subjectivity is also the actions or discourses that produce individuals or I the I is the subject i Actions systems institutions 9 create individuals c Patien t prisoner i By attending to the politics of what I call the patientprisoner I explore how the local not only through hardship and loss but also through the logic routines and practices of medical and juridical regimes quot Pg 8 ii That is subjectivity V Iohnson Car Crash While Hitchhikingquot a To be continuednext lecture VI Glossary a Medical anthropology b positionality c re exivity d subjectivity Pastoral Clinic Addiction and dispossession along the Rio Grande Part II 1 Dennis Iohnson Car Crash While Hitchhiking and Emergency a Dennis Iohnson Iesus is sonquot 9 takes name from song heroin i Explore heroin addicts Fictional companion to Garcia b Car Crash While Hitchhikingquot and Emergency i The man hanging out of the wrecked car was still alive as I passed and I stopped grown a little more used to the idea now of how really badly broken he was and made sure the was nothing I could doquot ii His Blood bubbled out of his mouth with every breath He wouldn t take be taking anymorewhat was realquotPg 8 1 The narrative of addiction II Melancholy subjectivity Relapse return a condition sin fin a Geography of addiction and Pastoral care are continued and extended across time b Relapse and returnquot a condition quotsin fin i At her latest overdose Alma goes to her first mandatory counseling session she remarks 9 I have been here before haven t 1quot ii For her this recognition state of being back where she been before wasn t a relapse as it was return iii Why does Garcia highlight return and relapse 1 Relapse 9 a Individual responsibility b Pathology treated as a disease 9 prison has failed to care for herself c On a moral path 2 Return 9 a Part of larger social system b A naturally occurring thing c She is part of a cycle that keeps looping back d It is in Her and it is larger than her iv Melancholy subjectivity 1 Alma quotes que lo que tengo no termina 9 its just that what I have has no endquot 2 Unfinished relentless unending grief thi is condition quotsin fin constitutes a local ethos of melancholia 3 Its interminable hold over the lives of the community for Alma and other the eradicable truth of heroin addiction and Hispano life v Subjectivity is part of history as it unfolds 1 Subjectivity 9 not individual but collective social and sociopolitical a They way subjects are formed has a history It is not her mere 20 years of the addict but the history of her community b Temporal texture to addiction Being part of something that has no end 9Cyclical nature of addiction 2 Sigmund Freud 18561939 a Mourning vs melancholia i Mourning 1 Allows the person to get through grief 2 There is an end ii Melancholia 1 Behaves like an open wound 2 It s a cycle b Garcia on Melancholia9 i a kind of mourning without endquot gt Like Alma s sin finquot description pg 75 ii And of accumulate loss which weighs heavy on her heartquot 9 it has physical weight c Addiction across generations i Motherdaughter pairs Gender and cross generational cycle of addiction 111 History of dispossessionquot land and its loss among Hispano community a Tierra Amarilla Alma s hometown emblematic of the Hispano history of dispossession and longing for land and times pastquot Pg 81 b Los Alamos site of national lavatory the relationship between Hispanos new Mexico and los Alamos is one of dependency and distrustquot Pg 97 c What happened in each of these places Why do Hispanics feel a sense of betrayal and embitterment about lost land related to these two places i Dichotomy9 socioeconomic divisions 1 It has transformed the landscape and the labor force 2 Eminent domain 9 became federal that brings some employment but created social inequalities ii Tierra Amarilla 1 Land grants Shape of the land grants changed with a treaty a Communal lands used for the community 9 the government essentially took the land to create a national forces iii Radical change on the landscape 9 narrative of dispossession 1 Not merely nostalgia but modern resistance d Alma s descanso Pg 94 i History long term ii Chronicity cyclical nature IV Querencia a maternal genealogy of addiction a Feminine experiences in the local idiom the nation of inheritancequot Pg114 b Bernadette Marti It s my querenciaquotquotI was born an addictquot it is in my bloodquot i Embodied addiction and generation ii Helplessness and lack of agency in trajectory V Glossary a Melancholy b Descanso c Querencia d Kinship Pastoral Clinic Addiction and dispossession along the Rio Grande Part III 1 Recap of querencia a materal geneaology of addiction a Maternal geneology of addiction i quotIts my querencia quotI was born an addict Its in my blood Bernadette Martinez b Pg 114 i quotBy focusing on quotfeminine experiences of heroin addiction and by presenting in tergenerational addiction as part of the biological social and e ective mix that is kinship I show how heroin works through and provides endurance for ties of blood and property ofinheritance ii quotIn the local idiom the notion of inheritance querencia is both material and physic It is a value a practice and a structure of feeling whose etymological roots blend notions of heritage land and love iii Querencia 9 material and physic 1 Heroin works to make social bonds that are handed down by generation c Kinship relationship based on or modeled on the culturally recognized connection between parents and children and extended siblings and through parents to more distant relatives Kinship structures many areas of social life i In Anthropology 1 Focus on where is the emphasis Maternal paternal 2 Symbols in genealogy charts a Triangle male b Circle female ii Traditionally in anthropology kinship has been an essential feature of its importance to the people studied often non industrial societies d Chapter 39 mother daughter pairs i Eugenia amp Bernadette Lisa amp Michelle 1 Pg 128 The dependencies produced through heroin become parts of the relational myth and the circulation of heroin becomes the substance through which care was performed and through which effective ties between Eugenia and Bernadette were reaffirmed a In this kind ties 9 Heroin and blood become linked if not interchangeable b To care 9 use heroin together 2 What does it mean top care Introduce heroin ii Bonds of shame verguenza 1 Lisa on the shame of a heroinaddicted mother a quotWhen you don t make ityou are notjust hurting yoursel you re hurting your kids too i But when Michelle her daughter started using too Gracias explains the nature of her shame shifted ii Liza felt guilt for her role but also a sense of release and understanding b quotI didn tfeel as bad about my body or my need to get high and I think shefelt the same Pg 146 i Both feel shame together and it forms a bond 11 Suicide 3 scenes a Suicide as a form of life 9 i Suicide is a part of the culture to deal with the reality of life ii Form of life 9 happens frequently and it s a part of the culture 1 Physical domestic institutional 2 Suicide is not an event or a description but it is a phenomenon a If it s a concern to the community about what and for whom iii 3 narratives 1 Attempt by heroin addiction Sara 9 MS 2 Clinical setting of a nurse Doctor explaining physiological process and induces a Beatrice nurse i Futility and inevitability Pg 171 ii Person who lies lifeless If they survive what to do If the live they will come iii Here is the institution 9 evoking idea of cycle 3 Scene of survival relatives a Michele 9 overdose body being picked up i La ultima vez Lisa re ecting on the last time she saw her daughter 1 Garcia is confined to Lisa s interpretation of Michelle s reasoning 90ne cannot speak for Michelle the voice that survives is Lisa iv On the narratives of suicide Pg 155 1 In attending to the details of the three narratives I attempt to articulate their fullest implications for understanding suicide as a form of life that intensifies rather than negates the intimacies and dependencies that exist in a social world a Michele s death is not ending the cycle is only intensifying 9 Reaffirming the bonds of shame III Care limits and possibilities familial care a The clinic closes 9 health organization says that the clinic lacks credibility i Move toward private management company 9 looking at clinics and saying it lacks credibility 9 it exposes the lack of qualified staff 1 Some programs started up overdose prevention needle exchange education b On quotdevolutionquot and quotprivatizationquot i Pg 193 With these processed of devolution and privatization have shifted from public to the more intimate domains of family and community which are expected to perform even larger roles with regard to the provision of care Overdose prevention training and needle exchange exemplify this shift As practices harm reduction They represent practical strategies that seek to reduce the negative consequences of heroin use namely overdose and dirty needles But these strategiesquot c Familial care Bernadette and Eugenia i I can t get ride of itjust like I can t get rid of her She is my motherquot Pg 201 ii Plan of Care This is precisely what families try to do for one another every day They conceive of ways to care for another in a context where their very relations and the very struggle to maintain the everyday are at stake Of course they often fail and tragically so But they keep trying to the very endquot 203 d Positionality Parallel with Zora Neal Hurston 9 Doing ethnography at home IV Summary of ethnography a What were the key themes of this book i Themes Isolation Connections Pastoral nature abounded Care Sin fin cyclical nature Melancholia sin fin Genealogy Geography of addiction 7 Subjectivity patient prisoner b How was it f amed theoretically i Flows with the themes c How is it an example of medical anthropology i Using anthropology to explain medical condition ii Human experience in heroin addiction iii Attentive to addiction not merely as pathology but as human V Glossary a Querencia 991990Ntquot b Kinship c Vergiienza Part III of the course Social Facts and Social ties Moving from culture to society What is social Emile Durkheim and the study of society I Founding discipline of sociology a Emile Durkheim 9 18581917 i ii Born in Loraine to a strong Jewish family with a long line of rabbis He moves away from this tradition and moves into the intellectual family Coming from a religious background religion remains a question for him Incredibly in uential not only as the founder of sociology but in sociocultural anthropology b Established sociology 9 No existing discipline that focus on the society and the social i ii iii iv Two fields on edge of sociology 9 1 Philosophy the pursuit of nature of knowledge reality existence 2 Psychology study the way the mind works These two were not addressing the social they talk about existence and the minds 9 Big gap is the social Durkheim want to fill the gap 9 created sociology 1 To establish a new field of study need to consider the Subject amp Method of study epistemological questions The pursuit of the social has to become institutionalized and there has to a professional exchange of ideas 9 1 Published the rules of sociological methods in 1895 and founded the first French social scientific journal Lanne Socilogique in 1898 2 Continued by his nephew c Part of French positivist tradition which follows the French enlightenment i ii He is a positivist The scientific approach to the social 1 The scientific method is the best method to measure social 2 Durkheim despised Herbert Spencer 9 similar epistemologies but they come to di erent conclusion 3 Positivist traditional social sciences were the extension of natural sciences Setting out to establish new field he requires that the method of study would include rationality empirical evidence and causality II The questions of modernity a Writing in late 19th early 20th century what is happening at this time i Industrialization ii Urbanization mass mobility of people iii Capitalism modes of production iv Imperialism the British V Nationalism ideas of national identity vi Wane of the in uence of the catholic church b Question of modernity 9 Tackling the questions of modernity and fragmentation 9 transition to modernity characterized by a fragmentation c Two traditions of thinkers responding to modernity i French 1 Emile Durkheim 2 Positivist tradition out of the enlightenment sciencerational 3 Emphasis a Structures and institutions collective things 4 Question How do societies hold together Cohesion a In the face of change how do societies stay together social fact b Waning of the Catholic Church 9 Religion no longer doing social glue then what becomes the means of holding society together c He focuses on religion the sacred and the profane ii German 1 Karl Marx Max Weber 2 Romanticism literary artistic tradition heart spirit 3 Emphasis a Agency and individual con ict act and change 4 Question How do societies change d Agreement 9 society is changing and fragmenting their question on the how difference III The Rules of Sociological Method a Similar to EB Tyler s introduction in What is a Social factquot Durkheim is setting out to i Object of study sociology as separate from psychology and philosophy ii Method of study 1 Defined society through the social fact 9 2 Pg 1 other natural sciences don t cover society 3 Pg 3 Here then is a category of facts with very distinctive characteristics it consist of way of acting feelingought to be appliesquot a quotRepresentationquot means ideas for Durkheim b The study is social He explains its nature 9 i Not biological ii Not psychological iii Not philosophical 4 What constitutes a social fact a Two traits i External to the individual ii Its coercive to it b Collective representation 9 they come out of society 5 Pg 4 5 quotThus the great movementwill turn against him we are then victimsfrom without a Enthusiasms of the crowd in a soccer game 9 it is not individual but it is social 6 Pg 10 we this arrive at the point where we can formulate and delimit in a premise was the domain tends to violate it 7 Pg 13 our definition will then a include the whole relevant range of facts if we say a social fact is every way of acting fixed or not capable of exercisingits individual manifestationsquot IV Glossary a Social Fact Do et Des The Social Bonds 0f Reciprocity 1 Giftgiving not quite as strength forward as we might think a Is there anything such a pure gift One where there is no expectation in return i Larry David You are either anonymous or notquot 1 In the video he explores anonymous gifts and dry cleaning 9 reciprocity b Focuses on the collective on the social i Fundamental on what hold society together 9 reciprocity and exchange system ii Reciprocity 9 social fact external and coercive c What is reciprocity i Define the exchange of good and services of approximately equal value between two equal parties ii Two types 9 1 Generalized type of exchange between closely related people without expectations of return a Unilateral one to another b Close social proximity c No desire for equal immediate return d Example Mother to child i No desire for equal immediate return maybe in the long term Love 2 Balanced Symmetrical mode of exchange between looselyrelated individual or groups expectations that something of equal value will be offered in return a Two sided exchange 2 Background on Mauss and The Gift a Marcel Mauss nephewmost distinguished of Durkheim18721950 i ii iii Published the Gift in 1922 1 His masterpiece Origin for anthropological study of reciprocity and for economic anthropology 2 Theoretical intervention on giving has had profound impact on all areas of social science 3 Example in International Affairs 9 a Donations have expectations They have implicit obligation i Bosnia and Herzegovina 9 we will give you aid but do what we say and give us your mining Side note WWI years were devastating for Durkhemian sociology 9 students of sociology were sent to war and died Mauss took refuge in administrative capacity 1 He institutionalized sociology in universities 2 The French Institute of Sociology 3 Fought antiSemitism b Questions at beginning of society i ii iii Pg 3 9 quotWhat rule of legality and selfinterest in societies of a backward and archaic type compels the gift that has been received to be obligatorily reciprocated What power resides in the object given that cause its recipient to pay it back Looking a less complicated society in order to understand reciprocity Why They saw fewer variables Interested in the collective in the social within the primitive culturesquot c Mauss asserts that in socalled primitive societies there is a complex system of exchanges First it is not simply individuals who exchange but collective 1 ii iii First Its not individual but collectivities that impose obligationThese ways both at oncequot Pg 5 Second what is exchanged is not simply material such as exchanges are acts more general and enduring contractquot Pg 5 Example 9 weddings a Collectivities impose obligation They invited us to their wedding we have to invite themquot iv b Not simply material Politeness and prestige exchanges These two points together explain 9 the system of total services 1 Finally these total services and counterservices are committedwe propose to call all this the system of total servicesquot Pg 56 2 If you are acting against the social norm you will get sanctions 3 Exchange and reciprocity the example of potlatch a The potlatch i ii iii Most native cultures on the Northwest Coast potlatches including the Kwakiutl and the Tlingit tribes Potlaches were social occasions given a host to establish or uphold his status position his status in society They were often held to mark a significant event in his family such as the birth of child or a son s marriage Guest shared food and received gift or payment Potlatches were also the venue in which ownership to economic and ceremonial privileges was asserted displayed and formally transferred to heirsquot 1 About status prestige and power 9 political The significance and nature of gifting in Northwest coast potlatches has varied through time and across cultures It commonly portrayed as extremely competitive with hosts bankrupting themselves to outdo rivals and aggressively destroying property 1 Display of wealth is competitive and destructive 2 Power is asserted 3 It s a dangerous place 9 if you attend then you don t have resources to reciprocate iv Articles 1 Potlatch bowls 2 Chest as potlatch gift 3 These articles that also bear emblems covered with faces eyes and animal and human figuresall are living beingseach one of these precious things posses moreover productive power It is not a mere sign and pledge it is also a sign and a pledge of wealth the magical and religious symbol of rank and plentyquot Pg 32 quotYet what is note worthy person of its chiefquot Pg 6 The potlatch is about rivalry it is essentially agonistic aggressive combativequot 6 We propose to reserve the term potlatch for this kind of institution that we call total services of an agonistic typequot 9149 7 With the example of the north American potlatch Mauss sets up the famous triad of obligations in the triad Explained in Pg 39043 a Obligation to Give b Obligation to Received c Obligation to Reciprocate 4 Glossary a Potlatch b Reciprocity balanced and generalized c Total system of services 1 Do et des quotIgive so thatyou may give
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