Study guide for the midterm 3/3
Study guide for the midterm 3/3 RELS2311
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey-Siamone Mason on Sunday March 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to RELS2311 at University of Houston taught by Christian Eberhart in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Bible and Western Culture: New Testament in Religious Studies at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 03/01/15
02262015 The New Testament and Other Early Christian Writings Chapter 1 The terms quotJewish Scripturesquot and quotHebrew Biblequot both refer to the collection of books considered sacred in the religion ofJudaism books that were written almost entirely in Hebrew Many of these writings were regarded as holy even before Jesus day especially the rst ve books of Moses known as Torah or Law Jesus received his adoption to sonship at his baptism when he emerged from the waters of the Jordan he saw the heavens open up and the Spirit of God descend upon him as a dove Jesus was said to have been adopted as God s sonadoptionists Paulone of the most prominent authors of the new testament Marcionitessubscribed to the form of Christianity advanced by the secondcentury scholar and evangelist Marcion who himself claimed to have uncovered the true teachings of Christianity in the writings of Paul Jewish God punishes those who disobey Marcion and his followers claimed the God ofJesus extends mercy and forgiveness Gnosisgreek for 39knowledge necessary for salvation o Polytheist protoorthodox became form of Christianity in later centuries o agreed with the Jewish Christians who said that Jesus was fully human but disagreed when they denied that he was human New Testament Contains 27 books written in Greek by fteen or sixteen different authors who were addressing other Christian individuals or communities between the years 50 and 120 C E First four books Gospe quotgood newsquot Noncanonical writings quotApostolic Fathersquot New testament canon was formed by protoorthodox Christians Chapter 2 1st Thessaloniansprobably the rst New Testament book to be written We understand things in light of what we already know Modern religions in the West are monotheistic advocating belief in one Divine Being English term cult derives from the Latin term for care One of the standard religious practices of the Romans that seems most bizarre to modern persons involved the are to extispicy the reading of a sacri cial animal s entrails by a specially trained priest to determine whether the gods had accepted the sacri ce Divinationways of discerning the divine will Oracleswhere people were perplexed about their own future could come to address a question to a god who priestess would enter into a trance and deliver a response In the GrecoRoman world there was no separation between the function of the state and the performance of religion Magic can be seen as the dark side of religion In the modern world we might call these beings angels and archangels for ancient Jews they also included such beings as the cherubim and seraphim o diaspora dispersion The English word law is a rather wooden translation of the Hebrew term Torah which is perhaps better rendered guidance or direction Chapter 3 All four Gospels of the New Testament indicate that Jesus was cruci ed some time during Passover week m in Jerusalem on orders of the Roman governor Pontius Pilate In the days ofJesus Passover was the most important Jewish festival It commemorated the exodus of the children of Israel from their bondage in Egypt 0 One the plagues in Egypt when the Lord sent the angel of death to smite the rst born Egyptians when the angel saw the blood on the Israelites door he would pass over them and the plague wouldn t enter n Jewish reckoning a new day begins when it gets dark that is why the Jewish Sabbath begins on Friday evening It appears that the Gospels have inherited traditions from both written and oral sources as Luke himself acknowledges and that circulating for years among Christian communities throughout the Mediterranean world Chapter 4 Conventions in writings with sources 0 Form poetry or prose Long or short Narrative or descriptive 0 Content 0 Function aim to entertain or inform Chapter 5 Markshortest of the 4 Gospels 0 Author unknown In Jewish circles quotthe son of Godquot referred to someone who had a particularly intimate relationship with God who was chosen by God to perform a task and who thereby mediated God s will to people on earth The portrayal ofJesus as an authoritative Son of God set the state for the rest of Mark In Jesus view in Mark the Sabbath was made for the sake of humans and not humans for the Sabbath that means that it is legitimate to prepare food or heal a person in need on this day Mark 227 34 Who realizes that Jesus is the Son of God 0 God knows declares at his baptism o the declaration comes directly to Jesus so the reader can assume that Jesus knows o evil demons know quotPassionquotterm that comes from the Greek word for 39suffering Mark has many quotpassion predictionsquot where Jesus informs his disciples about the coming events Mark s story ofJesus is replete with such paradoxes the glorious messiah is one who suffers a horrible death exaltation comes in pain salvation through cruci xion to gain one s life one must lose it the greatest are the most humble the most powerful are the slaves prosperity is not a blessing but a hindrance leaving one s home or eld or family brings a hundredfold homes and elds and families the rst will be last and the last rst Chapter 6 Redactor someone who edits a text Redaction criticism the study of how authors have created a literary work by modifying or editing their sources of information There are passages in Matthew Mark and Luke that are verbatim the same What was the common source 0 Synoptic problemwide ranging agreements and disagreements among the 3 Gospels 0 4 source theoryMark was the rst Gospel to be written used by both Matthew and Luke both of these Gospels had access to another source called Q quellesource in German provided Matthew and Luke with the stories that they have in common that are not found in Mark Most scholars think that Q must have been a written document otherwise it is difficult to explain such long stretches of verbatim agreement between Matthew and Luke Chapter 7 Gospel of Matthew unknown author was one of the most highly treasured accounts ofJesus life among the early Christians 0 May explain why is was given pride of place as the rst Gospel in the NT Matthew focuses on the genealogical aspect ofJesus life to portray him as the Messiah a signi cant gure in the line of Israel and his ties to Judaism Parallels in Mark and Matthew Herod is like the Egyptian Pharoah Jesus baptism is like the crossing of the Red Sea the forty days of testing are like the forty years the children of Israel wandered in the wilderness and the Sermon on the Mount is like the Law of Moses delivered on Mount Sinai Marcions had to choose between Moses and Jesus Apocalyptic Jews maintained that the world was controlled by unseen forces of evil but that God was soon going to intervene in history to overthrow these forces and bring His good kingdom to earth Jesus parallels Moses teachings and the laws that were given to him Jesus was not at all to replace Moses He was to enhance and ful ll the law 5 major blocks ofJesus teaching 0 instructions to the apostles o parables of the kingdom 0 other teachings on the Kingdom o the quotwoesquot against the scribes and pharisees o apocalyptic discourse describing the end of time Beatitudesdescriptions of those who are blessed Antithesiscontra ry statement 0 Jesus states a Jewish law and then sets his interpretation of that law over and against it Golden ruledo unto others as you would have them do unto you Chapter 9 Acts dedicated to quotTheophilusquot who is reminded of the basic content of the rst volume of the work We can see many of the major themes of Luke s Gospel Speeches gure prominently in the book of Acts 0 First speech delivered by Peter Salvation in the book of Luke does not come through the death of Jesus but through the repentance and the forgiveness of sins Jesus is portrayed as fullyJewish in Luke Important motifs in Luke and Acts 0 An emphasis on the Jewish origins of Christianity its ful llment of the Jewish Scriptures and its continuity with Judaism o The portrayal ofJesus as a Jewish prophet rejected by his own people 0 The consequent movement of the religion from the Jews to the Gentiles o Repentance of sins and the forgiveness of God Into the late second century of the Common Era when Christianity the quotapologistsquot continued to stress the claims made by Luke that Christianity was not something new but something old Chapter 10 Synoptics Gospelsthe Gospels of Matthew Mark and Luke which describe events from a similar point of view as contrasted with that of John Jesus discourses 0 First public speech 0 Final public speech 0 Prayer 0 Jesus uses sleeping as a euphemism for death Miracles Greek word meaning quotdemonstration of powerquot 0 Matthew Mark Luke all have sources in common 0 Seven is the perfect number the number of God 0 Jesus is called 3 different things in John 0 The Lamb of God 0 Rabbi teacher 0 Messiah Christ Religious sects Like the Synoptic Gospels the Gospel ofJohn s author is unknown Chapter 12 Gospel of ThomasquotFifth Gospelquot Earliest Gospels 0 Narrative Gospels which are written accounts ofJesus sayings deeds and experiences o Sayings Gospels which are comprised almost exclusively of Jesus words to his disciples whether during his ministry or after His resurrection o Infancy Gospels which are narratives ofJesus birth and youth Matthew Mark Luke and John narrative Gospels Apocryphon ofJohn the resurrected Jesus appears to John the son of Zebedee to reveal to him the secrets of the universe and the divine realm ProtoGospel narrates events prior to Jesus birth describes the miraculous character of their mother Mary Chapter 14 Miracles the breaking of supernatural law Chapter 15 Hellenization imposition of Greek culture Jewish sects o Pharisees best known 0 Sadducees real power players in Palestine 0 Essenes not explicitly mentioned in the New Testament they are the group about which are best informed This is because the famous Dead Sea Scrolls were evidently produced by a group of Essenes who lived in a community east ofJerusalem Most of the scrolls are written in Hebrew some are in Aramaic The War Scroll details the nal war between the forces of good and evil that will take place at the end of time It sketches the course of the battles gives regulations for the soldiers who ght and describes the outcome that is assumed by God as the children of light who will overcome the children of darkness fourth philosophy Josephus writes about Judaism for a Roman audience Another important aspect ofJesus historical context involves one of the worldviews evident in a number ofJewish writings from around his time Modern scholars have called this worldviews apocalypticism from the Greek term apocalypsis which means an unveiling or a revealing Jewish apocalypticists were dualists They maintained that there were two fundamental components to all of reality the forces of good and the forces of evil Vindication 0 At the end when the suffering of God s people was at its height God would nally intervene on their behalf and vindicate His name 0 This day ofjudgment nal vindication of all people 0 How did Jesus prediction that the Temple would be destroyed t into His broader apocalyptic message 0 May be that he believed that in the new age there would be a new Temple totally sancti ed for the worship of God 0 May be that Jesus believed there would be no need for a temple at all in the kingdom that was coming since there would no longer be any evil or sin and therefore no need for the cultic sacri ce of animals to bring atonment
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