HSERV 100 Midterm 1 Objectives
HSERV 100 Midterm 1 Objectives HSERV 100
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HSERV 100 Midterm 1 Objectives HSERV 100 CH1 Objectives Lecture 1 Identify components of health 1 Factors in uencing health education access individual factorsage gander skills parental attitude peer attitude community attitude policy state laws federal laws media 2 Health behaviors in uence health the most Identify and use basic public health terms 1 a framework that recognizes the interrelationship between individuals and their environment emphasizes the multiple social determinants that in uence health societal conditions that affect health and can potentially be altered by social and health policies and programs Identify social determinants of health 1 Social determinants of health include factors such as income socioeconomic status educational attainment literacy employment status working conditions housing transportation social support networks and access to health care services Lecture 2 Identify differences between personal health and public health 1 state of complete physical mental and social wellbeing quotnot just the absence of disease and in rmity 2 Personal Health vs Public Health a concerns an individual s health related beliefs practices andor behaviors It also includes their prevention or promotion and treatment for illness or Injury b the study and practice of health promotion and disease prevention at the population level Describe role of genetics 1 basic human traits that are passed on 2 Most genes remain same many systems are in place to reduce risk mutation 3 Genes change or mutate creating variation harmful neutral and bene cial 4 includes genetic mutation alleles single gene disorder multifactorial gene disorder chromosomal disorder a alternate forms of the same gene dominant vs recessive vs incomplete dominance 2 b c Identify red ags for genetic causes in family tree 1 early onset of disease multiple affected individuals clustering of key diagnoses 2 Presence of disease in people with health habits more suggestive genetic cause 3 Remember that lack of family history doesn t rule out genetic cause Lecture 3 Introduce Health People Initiative 1 an effort among federal state and territorial governments and community partners private and public to set health objectives for the nation 2 The objectives are designed to identify the signi cant preventable threats to health to establish goals for improving the quality of life for all Americans Review some models of individual behavior change 1 Behavior change theory health promotion is transdisciplinary theories come out of psychology sociology communications marketing campaigning advocacy community organization autosomal vs sex chromosome 2 a Health related behavior depends on Perceived cuccepticiliw perceptions tic prcblem of 4 areas Cuesto ac on Oquot 1 Perceived ceriuceneee cf model of ccneequenceecf emblem Sel f f a y Percieceel ability behavnor that m aw m f focuses on reccmgmencecl stages of change mm a Perceived benefite cf ececific ectiici l Perceived lcerriere 1c telling ctlcn Precontemplation no motivation to change no acknowledgement of problem Contemplation realize may have problem trying to understand weighing proscons c Preparation pros for change have won making plan setting goals and start date building skill set and selfef cacy d Action implementing behavior change committing time and energy reward self e Maintenance doing new behavior for 6 months working to prevent return to old habits f Termination new behavior is now part of life 100 con dence in ability to maintain Identify components of a behavior change plan Consists of SMART speci c measurable attainable realistic and timely goals Develop action steps Identify bene ts Identity positive enablers Sign a behavior change contract Create benchmarks Assess accomplishments and revise plan as necessary Look at examples of public health messaging 1 Role of health messaging a Key role and essential tool of public health effectively present information in ways that serve as a basis for understanding and decision making Messaging can serve different functions Elicit immediate action Promote long term behavior change Help audience understand why actions have been taken Solicit support or participation Report on ndings or accomplishments 2 Ideal messages are clearly stated conveyed with such direction and clarity that it cannot be misunderstood simple and clear HSERV 100 CH2 Objectives lChU39lIgtJUII 000an Identify characteristics of mentally healthy people 1 Characteristics of Mentally health people High sense of positive regard and valuation for oneself Realistic and accept imperfections Altruistic a general sense that you have control over what happens in your life Demonstrate social competence Not overwhelmed by fear lover or anger the tendency to see problems as temporary and speci c rather than permanent and general h A capacity for intimacy J on c791 SalliFulfillment Thf39D 3 steam needs W g and fading of amplis hma l 7 P ygh l gi l Creative and appreciate creativity Take reasonable risks k ounce back from adversity 2 Mentally healthy people also have positive psychology are emotionally intelligent and selfactualized a area of psychology that focuses on positive emotions character strengths needs security safely thrsilullngiml needs Wuhan wanwlli will and conditions b positive regard and valuation a selfactualized person is realistic has high self esteem has control over their thoughtsstress altruistic and capable of intimacy c the kind of intelligence that includes an understanding of emotional experience selfawareness and sensitivity to others emotionally intelligent people are self aware selfdisciplined persistent empathetic and socially competent De ne individual and community factors that support mental wellbeing 1 National College Health Assessment a 85 percent of college students reports they have been overwhelmed in past 12 months b 565 percent of college students report feeling very lonely in past 12 months 2 Mental wellbeing factors a Neurotransmitterimbalance b Genech c Environment social psychological and cultural Describe common mental illnesses 1 Mood Disorders in any year an estimated 95 percent of adult population a mental state characterized by a depressed mood loss of interest or pleasure in activities and several other related symptoms b Bipolar disorder when a person experiences one or more manic episodes Dysthymic disorder Anxiety disorders Addictions 9159quot a psychotic disorder in which a person has disorganized and disordered thinking and perceptions bizarre ideas hallucinations and impair functioning Eating disorders Suicide second leading cause of death among college students N9 Lecture 2 Explain what stress is 1 the physical emotional and mental response when a person perceives that environmental demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize events or agents in the environment that cause us stress positive stress negative stress shortterm stress produce by the stress response on c791 e when the stress response occurs repeatedly or persists for a prolonged period of time List common sources of stress or social determinants 1 Environment 2 Social Stressors Social 3 Physiological stressors 4 Thoughts 5 Environmen Physiologica tal stresso rs stressors Personalit a a highly competitive strong sense of time urgency easily angered when he or she doesn t get his or her way b play and relax without guilt not hostile not excessively competitive no strong sense of time urgency 6 Outside in theory vs Inside out theory Identify stress management techniques S I OCla 7 1 HOW to Stressors lfllquotl1ltlilggi ilhi manage E ii a ldentify V39grmen 397 Physiologic the Stressors al Stressors cause I b Monitor your moods w c Make time for yourself d Walk away e Analyze your schedule f Set reasonable standards g Consider triggers h Monitor health strategies 2 Techniques Relaxation techniques focus on relaxing the body Stressreduction techniques condition the mind to handle stress effectively Time management planning and prioritizing Healthy lifestyle balanced diet exercise regular sleep schedule avoidance of caffeine alcohol drugs 90 c791 HSERV 100 CH 3 Notes Personal Relationship A Healthy Relationships Three kinds of important relationships are the one you have with yourself the ones you have with friends and the ones you have with intimate partners 1 A Healthy Sense of Self 2 Friendships and Other Kinds of Relationships a Overall friendships and networks can help protect you against illness and help you cope with problems if you do become ill 3 Strengths of Successful Partnerships B Love and Intimacy 1 Attraction a People appear to use a systematic screening process when deciding whether someone could be a potential partner b Some of the conscious and unconscious factors that affect this process include proximity physical attractiveness and similarity 2 The Process of Finding a Partner Dating and More 3 What is Love a Passionate love has been de ned as quota state of intense longing for union with another The Course of Love Sternberg s Love Triangle a In this view love has three dimensions U39llgt b c d e i Intimacy emotional component of love including feelings of closeness warmth openness and affection ii Passion sexual component of love including attraction romance excitement and physical intimacy iii Commitment the decision aspect of a relationship the pledge to stay with a partner through good times and bad Different combinations of these three components represented metaphorically as a triangle produce different kinds of love When there is only intimacy the relationship is most likely to be a friendship Passion alone infatuation Commitment a dutiful obligatory relationship C Communication 1 Nonverbal Behavior and Metamessages a b Nonverbal behavior communication that takes place without words mainly through body language Metamessage unspoken message in a communication the meaning behind the message conveyed by nonverbal behavior and by situational factors such as how when and where the message is delivered 2 Building Communication Skills a b c d One aspect of being an effective communicator when you speak is knowing what you want to say Attentive listening is the cornerstone of good communication Avoid being either passive or aggressive be assertive Assertiveness the ability to stand up for oneself without violating other people s rights 3 Gender Differences in Communication Styles a Men are more likely to use communication to compete and women are more likely to use communication to connect D Sex and Gender Sexuality encompasses not just sexual behavior but also biological psychological sociological and cultural dimensions Gender Roles a The terms sex and gender have different meanings i Sex a person s biological status as a male or female usually established at birth by the appearance of the external genitals ii Gender masculine or feminine behaviors and characteristics considered appropriate for a male or a female in a particular culture Gender role set of behaviors and activities a person engages in to conform to society s expectations of his or her sex Sometimes as a result of genetic factors or prenatal hormonal in uences a baby is born with ambiguous genitals intersex i lntersex a general term used for a variety of conditions when a person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn t seem to t the typical de nitions of female or male Androgynous is applied to a person who displays characteristics or performs tasks traditionally associated with the other sex sometimes it is also applied to a person who does not display overt characteristics of either sex Transgender having a sense of identity as a male of female that con icts with one s biological sex transgendered individuals experience a sense of inappropriateness about their sex and strongly identi with the other sex Sexual Orientation a person s emotional romantic and sexual attraction to a member of the same sex the other sex or both Sexual orientation is known to be in uenced by a complex interaction of biological psychological and societal factors and these factors may be different for different people a Heterosexuality emotional and sexual attraction to members of the other sex b Homosexuality emotional and sexual attraction to members of the same sex c Bisexuality emotional and sexual attraction to members of both sexes E Committed Relationships and Lifestyle Choices 1 Marriage a Marriage is not only the legal union of two people but also a contract between the couple and the state b Partnerships and family relationships provide emotional connection for individuals and stability for society One predictor of a successful marriage is positive reasons for getting married Love alone is not enough to make a marriage successful e Research has found that the best predictors of happy marriage are realistic attitudes about the relationship and the challenges of marriage satisfaction with the personality of the partner enjoyment of communicating with the partner the ability to resolve con icts together agreement one religious and ethical values egalitarian roles and a balance on individual and joint leisure activities 2 Gay and Lesbian Partnerships a Homophobia irrational fear of homosexuality and homosexual 3 Cohabitation living arrangement in which two people of the opposite sex live together as unmarried partners 00 4 Divorce 5 Blended families families in which one or both partners bring a child or children from a previous marriage 6 Singlehood 7 Keeping your relationships strong and vital a No matter what speci c challenges come up three basic qualities seem to make partnerships and families strong i Cohegon ii Flexibility iii Communication ll Relationships and Communities Community a group of people connected in a way that transcends a casual attachment A Community Starts Within Figuring out what your values are what gives meaning to your life and what you want to accomplish will help you identify the communities whose members share your values and in which you will feel most personally ful lled 1 Values set of criteria forjudging what is good and bad that underlies moral decisions and behavior 2 Purpose 3 Goals B Finding a Community That Works For You community involvement provides a feeling of participation in something greater than yourself and a sense of unity with your surrounding and neighbors 1 Religious and Spiritual Communities a Spirituality the experience of connection to self others and the community at large providing a sense of purpose and meaning b One of the most consistent research ndings is that spiritually connected persons stay healthier and live longer than those who are not connected c Another explanation for better health among people who are spiritually involved is that they react more effectively to health crises d Studies have shown that spiritual connectedness appears to be associated with high levels of healthrelated qualities of life the physical psychological social and spiritual aspects of a person s daily experience Social Activism and the Global Community Volunteering Service Learning form of education that combines academic study with community service The Arts Internet Connection OWU39lhUUN HSERV 100 CH4 Objectives The science of sleep Make NIIFIEM sleep newsman A Typical EB lllnunr Sleep Cycle I 39 I I I In Stagel 513982 Stages andz l Awake 39 adults need seven to nine hours of slee a ni ht 7 Stage 1 L REES Elem WEB ELEM amp 9 1 7 3 v V 3M We I I I I e u Stage 2 2 naturally feel L v lpf Sta 3 39Icarnsciuusneas 3 le S I n HEM Low Mliajlggfi dsnf Stage 4 Type oil sleep Light Ini meui ate Slowewaiue phaslo actile I HELEEPSmE39 tWO rent Qlilrnimte cycles throughout the night 3 i i g A g g I times of the day about 2 am and 2 pm It is this Huiifs After uimg Tn Bed natural dip in alertness that is primarily aim39 mwfl mummy responsible for the post lunch dip 2 types of sleep A Nonrapid eye movement NREM 1 Reduced brain activity 2 4 stages a Stage 1 transitional light sleep 10 seconds to 10 minutes b Stage 2 slower brain activity no movement 10 to 20 minutes c Stage 3 and 4 quotdeep sleepquot blood pressure drops heart rate slows respiration slows blood supply to brain is minimized 20 to 40 minutes Rapid eye movement REM 1 Brain waves characteristic of waking state 2 Breathing and heart rate increase 3 Reduced muscle tone sleep paralysis 4 Dreaming most common 5 70 to 90 minutes after you have fallen asleep 6 Creativity memory problemsolving Sleep Cycles 1 Changes throughout lifespan a Children and young adolescents more NREM 3 and 4 b Older adults less REM less deep sleep 2 Gender differences a Females more NREM 3 and 4 b Males more REM How well are we sleeping In past 7 days about 50 percent of college students report getting enough sleep on 3 to 5 days 30 percent 1 to 2 days 30 percent of adults reported an average of less than 6 hours of sleep per day in 20057 In 2009 only 31 percent of high school students reported getting at least 8 hours of sleep on an average school night Insuf cient sleep is a public health epidemic Describe health effects of sleep A Bene ts of Sleep B 1 Memory and Problem Solving a Longterm memory 2 Restoration and Repair a Growth hormone b Natural immune system moderator Sleep and weight 1 Lost sleep can lead to weight gain Identify sleep friendly environments 0 Sleep routine 1 Consis tent bed time wake time 2 Calmdown period before sleep a Reading calming music low light b TVComputer screens not within 1 hour blue light blocks melatonin Sleep environment 1 Quiet dark comfortable not too hot or cold a Ear plugs white noise sleep mask 2 Sleep partner behaviors Other behaviors 1 Avoid eating within 3 hours of bed 2 Avoid caffeine 3 Avoid nicotine 4 Avoid excessive alcohol before sleep 5 Nap carefully 15 to 45 minutes 6 Exercise but not within 5 or 6 hours of bed 0 Manage anxieties and stress 1 Journal or planner 2 Exercise during the day 3 Relaxation routines Using sleep aids 1 Prescription medications can be addictive can lose effectiveness some suppress deep sleep and REM sleep 2 OTC medication shortterm insomnia can develop tolerance rebound insomnia 3 Alternative products and approaches aromatherapy vaerian hops melatonin herbal products can interact with medications effectiveness is debatable 4 Technology sleep tracking apps sleep tracking devices white noise generator Describe common sleep disorders A Sleep deprivation lack of suf cient time asleep 1 impairs physical emotional and cognitive functioning performance alertness focus memory irritability dif cult handling stress reduced motivation learning 2 Studies have shown that individuals with severe sleep deprivation score worse on performance tests and alertness scales than do people with a blood alcohol concentration of 01 percent legally too drunk to drive 3 A prime symptom of sleep deprivation is daytime drowsiness B Sleep disorders disorder affecting timing quality andor quantity or sleep 1 Insomnia sleep disorder characterized by dif cult falling or staying asleep a Clinical symptoms i Taking longer than 30 minutes to fall asleep ii Experience ve or more awakenings per night iii Sleeping less than a total of 65 hours as a result of these awakenings iv Experiencing less than 15 minutes of deep slow wave sleep 2 Sleep Apnea sleep disorder characterized by periods of nonbreathing during sleep also known as breathingrelated sleep disorder a Two main types of sleep apnea i Central sleep apnea the brain fails to regulate the diaphragm and other breathing mechanisms correctly ii Obstructive sleep apnea the upper airway is obstructed during sleep 3 Restless leg syndrome 4 Narcolepsy SKI DQOUQJ HSERV 100 CH5 and CH7 Objectives Describe basic types of nutrients 00gt Water inorganic nutrient essential for survival Carbohydrates primary source of energy for the body 1 Composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen 00 1 Protein support tissue growth repair and maintenance 1 Composed of carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen Fats also known as lipids major form of stored energy Important source of energy at rest and during lowintensity exercise 2 Composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen 3 They are composed of fatty acids saturated fats monosaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats that Minerals naturally occurring inorganic micronutrients such as magnesium calcium and iron contribute to proper functioning of the body 1 Macrominerals Major Minerals calcium chloride magnesium phosphorous potassium and sodium 2 Macrominerals Trace Minerals chromium cobalt copper uoride iodine iron manganese molybdenum nickel selenium silicon tin vanadium and zinc Vita mins naturally occurring organic micronutrients that aid chemical reactions in the body and help maintain healthy body systems 1 Fat soluble ADEK a Fat soluble vitamins are stored in the liver or body fat and it can reach toxic levels over time 2 Water Bs and C thiamine ribo avin niacin folic acid and biotin pantothenic acid are part of the vitamin b complex a Water soluble vitamins are excreted Water 115 ml per calorie spent 812 cups of uid Carbohydrates AMDR 4565 of calories consumed Added sugars No more than 1025 of calories consumed Fiber 14 grams for every 1000 calories consumed 2125 grams for women 3038 grams for men Protein AMDR 1035 of calories consumed 036 grams per pound of body weight Fat AMDR 2035 of calories consumed Saturated Fat Less than 10 of calories consumed Trans Fat As little as possible Minerals 6 macrominerals More than 100 mg 14 microminerals Less than 100 mg Vitamins 11 essential Varies vitamins Interpret dietary guidelines and plan a healthy diet Dietary Guidelines for Americans Dietary recommendations for health promotion and chronic disease prevention 1 Bas 2 For ed on Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee report public comments policymakers health professionals 3 4 focus areas a b c d Balance calories to manage weight portion size replacing screentime activity Foods and food components to reduce sodium solid fats re ned grains Foods and nutrients to increase vegetable and fruit whole grains lowfat dairy variety of protein Building healthy eating patterns adequacy moderation variety and balance Energy balance Increase physical activity to balance calorie intake and weight Limit time spent in front of the television and computer management Consumer smaller portions Nutrient For most people nutrients should come from foods not supplements adequacy Favor nutrientdense foods over calorie dense foods Fatty acids and Limit saturated fat to less than 7 percent of total calories and avoid cholesterol consuming any amount of trans fats Consume two serving of sh per week to obtain hearthealthy omega 3 fatty acids Protein Animal sources of protein are the highest quality sources but combinations of legumes and grains can also supply complete proteins Carbohydrates Choose berrich carbohydrates over highenergy nonnutrient dense carbohydrates Sodium and Reduce daily sodium consumption to 2300 mg and further reduce potassium consumption to 1500 mg if you are African American or 51 or older of have hypertension diabetes or chronic kidney disease Increase potassium consumption Alcohol Adults should limit alcohol consumption to an average of up to two drinks per day for men and up to one drink per day for women Men should consume no more than four drinks on any single day women no more than three drinks Food safety and technology Pay greater attention to food safety when preparing meals in the home The health bene ts of consuming cooked seafood outweigh the food safety concerns surrounding it There are special recommendations for pregnant women and children A MyPlate a visual icon that illustrates the ve food groups and is intended as a reminder to Americans about maintain balanced diets 1 Can be used to plan healthy diet V 2 Based on the 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans and the w Dietary References intakes Identify factors in the environment that in uence food patterns A Obesogenic environments 1 Food choices Your food preferences are largely shaped by what you have been exposed to in the past Your choice is also driven by cost and convenience Generally unhealthy foods are more available more convenient more heavily advertised and less expensive than healthy foods 2 Eating out 21 percent of households use some form of takeout food or fooddelivery service daily This trend likely related to the increased number of dualcareer households and single parent households and the convenience and accessibility of fast foods 3 Larger Portions serving size has increased steadily both inside and outside the home B Food deserts low income area where more than 500 people or 33 percent of the population has low access to a supermarket or large grocery store 1 Health experts have been looking at the access to affordable and nutritious food as a contributing factor in increasing levels of overweight and obesity among lowincome Americans and the related increase in dietrelated diseases like diabetes 2 The primary reason for the existence of food deserts is the reluctance of food retailers to locate chain stores in lowincome areas usually for business reasons such as lower return on investment lower consumer demand and high crime rates Describe public health measures that impact the food environment I Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee A Goals 1 Reduce calorie intake and increase physical activity 2 Move toward a more plantbased diet composed of nutrientdense foods 3 Reduce intake of foods containing added sugars and solid fats and reduce overall sodium and re ned grain consumption 4 Meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services ChooseMyPlategov ll FDA A Tasks 1 Regulate food labels and health claims except meat and poultry 2 In charge of monitoring the safety of the US food supply 3 Assesses the safety of food products produced by biotechnology lll USDA A Tasks 1 Regulate food labels only on meat and poultry 2 Regulates the use of terms related to organic foods on the label of meat and poultry products IV Government intervention A 2010 Patient Protection Affordable Care Act requires that all chain restaurants provide calorie labeling on their menus However this act became futile because quotconsumers are not more likely to choose healthier menu items when presented with calorie informationquot B 2010 Healthy Food Financing Initiative provides nancial support to grocery stores and small food retailers in lowincome communities to help them offer healthy food to consumers C Partnership for a Healthier America mission is to confront childhood obesity where healthy foods are limited D Country of Origin Law COOL requires retailers to noti customers of the country of the origin of common unprocessed foods such as raw beef veal lamb vegetables frozen fruits and many other foods HSERV 100 CH6 Objectives Identify public health implications of weight management A Medical signi cance of obesity Associated with increased risk for many conditions High blood pressure Diabetes Elevated cholesterol Heart disease Stroke Gall bladder disease Sleep apnea Certain cancers uterine prostate colorectal B Employment Signi cance of Obesity Bias and Discrimination 1 Hiring prejudice 2 lnequity in wages promotions and termination 3 Education setting 4 Medical setting C Primary and secondary prevention vs tertiary prevention 1 Primary and secondary prevention Economic status lnequty Educa on Social environment Built environment Racism Policy Diet Physical activity 2 Tertiary prevention OONOWU39lbUUNH 39T quot DQDUQJ Hypertension High cholesterol Identify components of physical tness a Heart disease b Obesity c Cancer d Diabetes e Stroke f 9 Fitness having suf cient energy and vitality to accomplish daily living tasks and leisure time physical activities 00w bodily movement produced by skeletal muscle contraction that increases energy expenditure above resting levels 1 Exercise is a subset of PA that is planned structured repetitive and purposive with the goal of improving one or more components of physical tness 2 Measured using subjective and objectives methods Physical tness Skillrelated tness ability to perform daily living activities with vigor Components of health related tness are cardiorespiratory tness musculoskeletal tness and body composition ability of the heart and lungs to ef ciently deliver oxygen and nutrient to the body s muscles and cells via the bloodstream 2 Musculoskeletal tness capacity of a muscle to exert force against resistance capacity of a muscle to exert force repeatedly over a period of time ability ofjoints to move through their full range of motion relative amounts of fat and fatfree mass in the body 4 Flexibility is not a component of healthrelated tness Body mass index BMI Weight kg Height mquot2 or BMI Weight lbs 703 Height inchquot2 1 There are some limitations to BMI only an estimate and does not re ect body fat percentage or body fat distribution 2 BMI Standards a Underweight less than 185 b Healthy Weight between 185 and 249 c Overweight between 25 and 299 d Obese greater than 30 Only 30 percent get the recommended amount of physical activity 55 percent of college students do not get the recommended amount of cardio activity Identify goals for physical activity and exercise A B Reasons to be physically active 1 Live longer healthier life 2 Reduce risk for chronic diseases 3 Improve cognitive functioning 4 Improve mood and mental health Recommendations 1 Aerobic 150 minutes of moderate intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity per week 2 Muscle strengthening 8 to 10 exercises that stress major muscle groups twice per week one or more sets of 8 to 12 repetitions Flexibility stretch major areas 2 to 3 days per week Weight management for weight loss 300 minutes of moderate to vigorous per week 0 more physical activity Make daily activities more active Walk for tness Take the stairs Play active video games Plan ahead U39lhUUNl Uhw Develop an individual tness plan Planning ahead A B C Transtheoretical model Using social and community support Speci c Components of Exercise Prescription 1 Frequency days per week 2 Intensity percent effort 3 Time quotaccumulationquot of exercise minutes 4 Type of Activity a Dynamic large muscle group exercise cardio b Resistance exercise muscular strength Exercise prescription for CRF 1 Purpose is to increase CRF 2 Manipulate Fl39lT to accommodate individual interest population studied and other important factors Describe environmental factors that in uence tness patterns Why do some American not get enough physical activity monwgt ICD39quot 1 Less than half 48 of all adults meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines 2 Some groups are more physically active than others a NonHispanic white adults b Men c Younger adults d Adults with more education e Adults with higher income levels 3 Rates of activity and inactivity vary across states and region Gene cs Hormonal in uences Gender and age men Medical illnesses Built environment 1 25 percent of all trips in US are less than 1 mile and yet 75 percent of these trips are taken by car 2 Increased time in car per day increases risk of obesity 3 Safety and community design in uence method of transportation the more walkable a community the lower the risk of obesity Food environment Neighborhood Barriers to Physical Activity Lack of time Social in eunces Lack of energy Lack of willpower Fear of injury Lack of skill Lack of resources Weather conditions Family obligations 10 others KOOONOWU39lhUUNl l HSERV 100 CH8 Notes De ne body image 0 mental representation that a person has of his or her own body including perceptions attitudes thoughts and emotions 0 Body image is strongly in uenced by culture American culture places a premium on appearance especially for women but increasingly for men Media plays a strong role 0 Average fashion model is thinner than 98 percent of all American women 0 The advertising industry and the media are relentless in selling the American consumer an image of theidealbody Media images and ads created with something to sell carefully crafted to convey values re ect a point of view and sell a product of an idea They are designed to make you feel a certain way 0 Media literacy Who created the message What are the techniques used How might people view this differently What are the values represented or omitted Why is this message being sent 1 Effects of puberty a Eating disorders are most likely to develop during adolescence b By the sixth grade twice as many girls as boys consider themselves fat c Sixth grade boys are more likely to want to gain weight especially in the upper body to become more muscular d The percentage of body fat in healthy girls increase from about 12 percent to about 25 percent during puberty A Sports and Body Image 1 Sports may provide protection against eating disorders by promoting a focus on performance rather than on appearance 2 3 4 Explain ri 0 Sport may also carry pressure both from oneself and from coaches teammates and parents Highlevel athletes often succeed because of their high expectations accompanied by varying degrees of perfection and compulsiveness Athletes often learn to disregard signals from their bodies including pain during training sk factors related to eating disorders abnormal eating patterns that may not t the rigid diagnostic rules for anorexia or bulimia but affect quality or life 1 Disordered eating behaviors are more common and widespread than eating disorders restrictive dieting and binging and purging 2 May occur in response to emotional stress an upcoming athletic event concern about personal event and so on 3 May or may not develop into a fullblown eating disorder conditions characterized by severely disturbed eating behaviors and distorted body image eating disorders jeopardize physical and psychological health 1 2 3 Eating disorders occur primarily among people in Western industrialized countries Occur in all ethnic cultural and socioeconomic group They appear to become more prevalent when food is abundant and has taken on symbolic meanings They are also more common where being attractive is related to being thin A 1 2 3 4 A Contributing Factors Family History Gender A history of depression Characteristics or thought patterns a Low selfesteem b Selfcritical attitude c Belief in the importance of thinness d Blackandwhite thinking e Feelings of emptiness f Need for power and control 9 Dif cult expressing feelings h Lack of coping skills i Lack of trust in self or others 39 Perfectionism J Identify signs and symptoms of common eating disorders eating disorder marked by distortion of the body image and refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight 1 Criteria for anorexia a b c Refusal to maintain normal body weight usually less than 85 percent of expected body weight Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat Disturbance in the way in which one s body weight or shape is experienced undue in uence of body weight or shape on selfevaluation or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight Amenorrhea the absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles 1 lmr1531 quotLb51 h1fi L Iiilel39 l quot Hararessien amciew Eating discrider ll i EEZift 39 rii39j t ug 39 Accul urmig 39 Media Errages quot Lat7 Ell ping aggallg 39 New stress SFQJFDI Distorted Healthy quot i39E39uf39lli39E E EMSEl l df image B ssatiis 39ed pmacmp ied body image 39 Eu liri if39 s it l w r i Eim numm Hz 5 HEELquot fi l lijirtla39ei A 139 g 1 5 Cl iiiu39r nagMaria lzj igjurdcr li f f l IJHE IEI 39 eating F mmmpmd mat g pvtitems Equot l guse 39 Leerquot selfesteem quot Family issues 39l39ieesirigs39ridimle 39 Perfectianism 39 Becial li i e 9 Repeti m dietian 39 Need fear central Coach Effects of Anorexia Nervosa a wens j Immune system increased risk of infection low white blood cell count low body temperature risk of death Blood electrolyte disturbance low calcium potassium risk of death Skin dry cold discolored skin growth of ne downy hair Legs swollen due to excess uid cold feet Brain cecreased size low energy depressed mood loss of coordination dizziness fainting poor sleep risk of suicide Heart low blood pressure slow or irregular heartbeat cardiac arrest risk of death Abdomen bloating constipation fullness after eating Kidneys kidney failure risk of death Genitals lack of menstruation in women infertility decrease in testosterone levels and decrease in testicular size in men decline in sex drive in both sexes Bones loss of calcium osteoporosis increased risk of fractures B eating disorder marked by distortion of body image and repaired episodes of binge eating usually followed by purging in the form of selfinduced vomiting misuse of diuretics or laxatives excessive exercising or fasting 1 Criteria for bulimia nervosa a c d Recurrent episodes of binge eating characterized by both eating in a discrete period of time an amount of food that is de nitely larger than most people would in the period of time and a sense of lack of control during the episode a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain such as selfinduced vomiting misuse of laxatives diuretics enemas or other medications fasting or excessive exercise The episodes occur on average at least twice a week for three months Selfevaluation is unduly in uenced by body shape and weight 2 Socially isolating 3 Health Effects of Bulimia Nervosa a eneeoe Face swollen parotid and salivary glands puffy cheeks broken blood vessels under the eyes sore throat Teeth erosion of tooth enamel pain sensitivity Esophagus heartburn in ammation tears can cause severe lifethreatening bleeding Hands calluses from selfinduced vomiting Large intestine bloating diarrhea abdominal pain caused by laxatives Stomach can enlarge dramatically with binging and even burst risk of death Heart irregular heart rhythms due to low potassium risk of death h Blood electrolyte imbalances risk of death i Kidneys low blood pressure dehydration caused by diuretics eating disorder marked by bingeeating behavior without the vomiting or purging of bulimia PENN 9 9 Psychological disturbance associated with obesity Involves binge eating without vomiting or purging 10 percent among people in weight loss clinics Body weight and shape concerns emotional distress and disordered eating patterns similar to those of people with anorexia or bulimia More likely to have depression and more uctuations in weight than other obese persons Criteria for binge eating disorder a Recurrent episodes of binge eating b The episodes are associated with eating more rapidly than usual eating to the point of feeling uncomfortably full eating large amounts of food when not feeling hungry eating alone because of being embarrassed by how much one is eating and feeling disgusted with oneself depressed or guilty about overeating c Marked distress about binge eating d The binge eating occurs on average at least two days a week for six months e The binge eating is not associated with regular use of inappropriate compensatory behaviors and does not occur exclusively during the course of anorexia or bulimia Health consequences related primarily to obesity cardiorespiratory disease diabetes high blood pressure gallbladder disease osteoarthritis sleep apnea and certain cancers Prevention avoid skipping meals or restricting types of foods exercise for tness not compensation avoid sudden weight gain or loss and positive languages about body what it does for you rather than looks Treatment early intervention lower incidence of purging behavior support and participation of family members and loved ones 10 Prevention recognize discrepancy between real bodies and portrayed bodies
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