Final Exam Notes
Final Exam Notes PSC 103-001
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marina Subbotina on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 103-001 at Northern Kentucky University taught by Kimberly Weir in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see International Politics - AH in Political Science at Northern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
International Law o Roots: western influenced, since western countries are the oldest, most stabilized, and most influential. 1st came European domination, through colonization. 2nd came US domination, through power struggle during Cold War, and later became most powerful nation. Hugo Gratus- father of Int’l Law- huge influence to negotiations and conflict resolutions. He lived during Age of Reason- where scholars began explaining the world w/basic reason. During this age Natural Law also emerged- belief that all people are born with knowledge of right and wrong. o Trends: increased over time- more actors, such as countries, corporations, inter-govn’tal agencies, non-govn’tal agencies; more contact, through interactions, conflicts, partnerships. Also, interdependence increased: need for set rules, coordination of policies (same policies to create efficiency when contacting each other on int’l level). o Issues: early lawcountries freshly out of war- so boundaries were set thencontemporary law- transnational issues based on economies, environment, human rights, etc. todaydifferences between cultures- issue of cultural relativism- trying to understand other cultures can become difficult, even with great effort. Ex: the way Muslim nations treat their women might seem like oppression, instead of personal choice. In this case, Western countries might fight for rights of Muslim women; while Muslim countries might begin feeling as if Western countries are oppressing. o Creating Int’l Law: sovereign states pursue self-interests. Most agreements are based on customs & agreements. Int’l law could be bilateral or multilateral. Could also form IGOs (Int’l Govn’t Organizations), to establish agreements & to hold up agreements/monitor adherence. Ex: Int’l Court of Justice, WTO- World Trade Organization. Customs- common practices- ex: an unwritten agreement back in the days used to state that countries would control 3 nautical miles of the sea, off their coasts. Agreement- formal treaties. o Int’l Law Has a Primitive Nature: is based on old customs & agreements, laws come from different entities (no 1 specific one is set in place to manage for every situation- different countries have different agreements with each other over the same issue. Ex: US might have a law limiting amount of product incoming from Russia, while have no law limiting the amount of incoming product form UK. Issues: no overarching enforcement authority (ex: police); to pass a law a majority agreement is required=cooperation; creating/planning/gaining support/passing a law takes a long time; self-interests might act in opposition to a mutually beneficial change. o Adherence: Is Int’l law really a law? – unanswered question, since there’s no enforcement & compliance is voluntary, because sovereign states’ self-interests prevail. Ex: Russia & Crimea UN declares vote illegal. However, most countries obey these laws most of the time, since their reputations could be on the line due to lack of compliance; there are always long-term benefits, that outweigh short term losses; complying sets precedence for cooperation, creating an effective system. o Article: Creating Int’l Law: Mercury Agreement. Why is the Minamata Convention (agreement over mercury) important? (1) mercury exposure is highly toxic to inhale, ingest, and at skin contact. (2) mercury waste harms the environment by seeping into soil, polluting the water, poisoning animals and plants, and by climbing up the food chain through bodies of animals. 2 Location: Minamata, Japan- one of the world’s worst cases of mercury poisoning/exposure. Here, a local chemical plant caused water pollution. Sickness became known as Minamata disease. What does Mercury Agreement regulate? Supply; trade; use; emission reduction in mining, power plants, metal production. Why did 140+ states agree?- self-interest; uncontroversial objective due to concern of the safety of the people (an easier type of issues to agree over, since it’s a straight forward issue with a straight forward solution). This also doesn’t restrict coal burning, so the agreement is not economically straining and is relatively easy to fix. o Int’l Law Has a Primitive Nature Based on old customs & agreements: ex: coastal territories- verbal agreements of how much sea each country has. Laws from different entities- no 1 set in place to manage. No overarching enforcement authority (police) Sovereignty allows countries to do what they feel like To pass something, majority agreement is required= cooperation Takes a long time Self-interests might act in opposition to a beneficial change The Environment o Managing the Environment Transnational issue Multifaceted- many aspects, many things involved, many solutions = complicated. Based on the collective good- global context. Free riders effect- people who don’t contribute or don’t obey, & pollute. Ex: space junk article. Ex: tuna- int’l waters; massive nets that capture more than just tuna & kills; overfishing. This causes trategy of the commons- everyone suffers because of several free riders. 3 Livestock industry- biggest carbon contributor, more than motor industry. o Brief History Global interest only recent- 1970s. Post-materialism- era after being worried to have your basic needs met. Era of having shortages is over. Shortages due to Great Depression, WWars, under development, lack of financial opportunities (no assistance, loans, etc.). Now, basic needs aren’t the issue= secure in materialistic possessions. Now, concerned with keeping the same opportunities. Global climate change protests occurring all over the world. o NGOs- Nongovn’tal Organizations World Wild Life Fund (WWF) 1960- first int’l nongovn’tal organization created to bring light to issues of the world. Earth Day 1970- attempt to try and raise awareness of importance to preserve the Earth. Recycle, reuse, conserve, etc. Greenpeace 1971- concentrated on specific environmental issues; ex: oil drilling, anti-waling, etc. Earth Watch Institute 1971- gives reports on different locations on Earth, campaigns to bring attention to issues. Tap water runs about 2.5 gal/min = 80 2-liter soda bottles/week. o IGOs- Intergvn’tal Organizations UN Environmental Programme (UNEP): 1st Stockholm Conference 1972- conference over issues and place Earth is in. 2nd Rio, Brazil +20 (2012)- attention to the rainforest deforestation & other issues- to see how far the organization has gone & changes made in the world: improvements in rainforests-planting new trees; focus on ‘Green Economy’- by sustainable development- changing ways of doing business through environmentally friendly ways- renewable resources, regulations, less damages to the environment. UN Conventions: 4 Kyoto Protocol 1997- push to control green-house emissions- climate change issue. Minamata 2013- mercury pollution- clear issue w/clear solution, not so pricey (relatively); not as big of a commitment as climate change. o World Bank (created to help underdeveloped countries & those destroyed during the war)- late 1980s/early 1990s- criticized for not being environmentally friendly- fast & efficient ways to help underdeveloped countries included deforestation, harmful emissions, etc. Millennium Development Goals- becoming more environmentally friendly. Comprehensive Wealth Accounting- a system that balances all aspects for more efficient & progressive development. Economic Capital + Human Capital + Natural Capital = Sustainable Development Economic Capital- money, debt, loans, credit cards, etc. Human Capital- all human aspects like education, jobs, health, motivation; improving lives to encourage people to contribute for the better of the economy. Natural Capital- natural resources that can be sustainable; ways to use natural resources available in efficient ways & make them last longer; preserving, conserving, creating tourist attractions, ‘re-forestating’, etc. o MNCs- Mulitnational Corporations Eco-consciousness- to be aware of the global environmental issues. Goal- educating population to decrease demand so that supply goes down too. Based on consumer demands Responsible businesses/products- brings good image Economic incentive could serve as a motivation- eco-practices, such as reduced taxes, bonuses, etc. 5 Usually the issue is not of GN organizations going into GS and exploiting them by ignoring environmentally friendly ways, but (the issue is) these companies contracting others who ignore these laws/aspects (not laws, but morally correct practices) Going green- entirely green company; ‘greenwashing’- only partially green-certain products, or only certain practices. Fair trade products- movement from NGOs to bring govn’t money back to improve communities, respecting nature, not completely deforestating, variety of products in same areas corporations saw advantages in this too Fair-trade labels- on products- came from areas approved by NGOs, which means no child slaves, respect for the environment & the community NO fair-trade labels- lesser requirements met, might be exploitation involved. o The Future Band-Aid’ Solution- not completely solving the problem, but making certain attempts. Cooperation & conservation is hard because of self-interested states involved. Resource usage is unsustainable. Humans are depleting resources too quickly. Consume faster than renewable resources renew. GN countries consume more than the rest of the countries by about 3 times. o History Historically military focus of countries at the beginning, for protection & to prevent invasion. Late 1970s shift to human focus – tangible (can be physically touched/held) v intangible (cannot be physically touched/held) issues. 6 Intangible security issues- abstract laws, access: ex: Saudi driving law- women aren’t allowed to drive or go anywhere w/o a male escort; censorship- Russian bloggers have to report their existence & their personal info to the govn’t, limited internet access in other countries- different content available; corruption. Tangible security issues- food, water, shelter, sewage more than 72% rural India- no plumbing 20% of world pop- no electricity- living off the grid personal protection- physical- protecting from abuse, sex trafficking, etc. lack public services/jobs- heath care- Liberia has 52 doctors for 4.2 million population utilities- light bulbs, internet café, plumbing, etc.- burning cow dum for energy in Agra; using Chlorine & water in a soda bottle as light bulbs in Phillippines. education- needs utilities as well, staff, etc. o Fun Facts Thai jungle irrigation system- bamboo sticks transport water; bamboo is hollow, grows quickly, is sustainable & flexible. Using bags made of anything but plastic. Road construction in 3rd world countries by hand, not machines- dangerous & takes much longer. o Limited Job Opportunities Farming- best stuff is exported; rural areas. Livestock- selling wool. Lack of formal sector jobs- steady pays, taxes, formal hiring, benefits, etc. Lack of technology- refrigeration, cars, electricity, etc. Lack of foreign investment- cash coming into the country, no support, etc. o Consequences of Human Insecurity Protests- Thailand/Venezuela 7 Uprisings- Arab Spring/Syrian Civil War Migration- attempting to enter other countries Request asylum- refugees legally o Human Security Stuff human focus GS- wide range of development Development issues- always trying to improve Consequences of human insecurity 8
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