HSERV 100 Midterm 2 Objectives
HSERV 100 Midterm 2 Objectives HSERV 100
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Date Created: 03/01/15
HSERV 100 Midterm 2 Objectives HSERV 100 CH9 Objectives Supply reduction A Harm Reduction vs Zero tolerance Focusing on techniques to minimize the personal and social problems associated with drug use rather than making abstinence the primary goal 1 Alcohol one of the most commonly used substance in our society Most commonly abused substance in our society 2 3 9959 E h About 65 percent of all American drink alcohol 83 percent of college students drink alcohol 35 percent of Americans are abstainers 75 percent of student are drinking less than 9 days per month BUT students perception is that 67 percent of students are drinking more than 9 days per month the amount of alcohol in grams in 100 millimeters of blood expressed as a percentage normal 001005 loss of critical judgment 009025 Respiratory arrest gt 045 one drink is the equivalent of 05 ounces of alcohol Most of the risk for younger drinkers is for acute effects of quotrisky drivingquot injury and poor decisionmaking Acute alcohol poisoning alcohol depresses nerves breathing and gaging re ex and a person who has passed out from alcohol can die Caffeine and Alcohol increased risk of alcohol related harm and miss warning signs of alcohol related intoxication Approach to Alcohol a Policy drinking age legal limit driving campus organization pricing happy hours Alcohol free residence halls alcohol free fraternity sororities promotion of alcohol free events and alcohol sales Tobacco 480000 death in the US each year More than 5 million deaths worldwide each yeah a b Tobacco kills 50 to 60 percent of users who don t quit with average loss of 1520 years of life compared with nonsmokers 88 percent of smokers begin smoking by age 18 and 99 percent begin smoking by 26 Only young people are neurologically and psychologically susceptible to this addiction The younger somebody starts smoking the more addicted they will become HSERV 100 CH10 Objectives Identify why drugs are a public health problem A WA State and drugs 1 2 3 Poisoning is the rst leading cause of unintentional injury related death Over 90 percent of poisoning are due to drug overdose 2 percent due to alcohol poisoning Accidental death from quotpoisoningquot has recently surpassed death from mote vehicle accidents as the number one cause of death in young adults in Washington state 4 5 6 CC 1 ha 2 Of deaths by drug overdose 55 percent are dues to prescription drugs a Opiods were implicated 74 percent of these 39 percent of heroin injectors in Seattle report hooked on prescription opiods prior to trying Heroin use increasing again B US drugs overdoses an epidemic 1 Primarily due to increase in poisoning from prescription pain medications opiods 2 States with higher sales of prescription opiods have higher rates of overdose death 3 35 percent get opiods from friends and acquaintances whereas 25 percent have their own prescription nging patterns 19905 emphasis on treatment of chronic noncancer pain policy changes unintended consequence Prescription sales increased dramatically Supply and demand Marijuana is the most common drugs and age group 1825 has had the highest illicit drug use 5 Risk factors for opiods poverty Medicaid clients high daily dose receiving prescriptions from multiple providers use of multiple prescription drugs history of substance abuse or mental health issues D How drugs impact you De ne Drugs and different types A substance other than food that affects the structure or function of the body through its chemical action 1 lost widely used psychoactive drug in the world Increase chemical and a substance that alters psychological state electrical activity in the central and peripheral nervous systems i In low doses boosts energy raises heart rate higher blood pressure increased respiration reduced appetite and thirst alertness active con dent aggressive anxious restless Examples caffeine nicotine methyphenidate cocaine amphetamine methamphetamine blocks absorption of serotonin norepinephrine epinephrine and dopamine It is quickly metabolized and effects disappear Only naturally occurs in topical anesthic with powerful vasoconstriction effects It is snorted injected and smoked iv effects similar to snorting cocaine but more intense and immediate It reaches the brain faster v class of synthetic stimulants with effects that are similar to cocaine but that lasts much longer and are somewhat cheaper to use Drugs recognized for ability to energize counter low blood pressure reduce need for sleep suppress appetite suequot vii Opiates Psychedelics hallucinogens Cannabis occurs naturally in dried owering fruiting tops of Cannabis Sativa plant Cannabinoids active compounds extracted from cannabis Renewed interest in using cannabinoids for medicinal purposes i Pharmological short term effects of smoked synthetic cannabinoids severe agitation anxiety fast racing heart and high blood pressure nausea and vomiting muscle spasms seizures tremors intense hallucinations and psychotic episodes suicidal or other harmful thoughts actions Solvents and inhalants Designer Drugs Synthetic drugs produced by underground chemists Labeled quotdesigner drugsquot due to changes in chemical structures hence are designed or altered They are technically legal dues to their unique chemical formulation Easily obtain instruction for mixing making dosing and ingesting synthetic drugs on line Easily obtained as internet is ourishing marketplace Dangerous and unpredictable side effects because more potent last longer never tested on humans no regulatory oversight or quality control more addictive potential Kratom latest common name for the plant Mitragyna speciosa Korthals Originated from south east Asia Comparable to opiates in the symptoms 2 Drug of abuse medical drug used for nonmedical purposes or when a drug has no medical uses a Drug poisoning and overdose any product or substance including medications can be harmful id used in the wrong way by the wrong person or in the wrong amount A poisoning can occur from that substance by eating drinking breathing or injecting it or getting it on the skin or in the eyes A drug overdose is considered a poisoning B Types of Drugs 1 Pharmaceutical drugs drugs developed for medical purposes whether overthecounter or prescription 2 Illicit drugs drugs that are unlawful to possess manufacture sell or use C39 FaCtorS in uencmg the e eCt 0f l n ulie 39Il39iiimotn reaclh Ibraiiin i nuglEIamplle Poten all dinerse drugs 1 Characteristics of the drug a Chemical composition llnlnallation Til 105a Marijuana Inritationofllungs b quantity 39 Smolking Zraok cocaine 2 Characteristics of the person 39 L 39r Wham a Age gender body weight quot hanam mood experience u u n 1 o quot expectations physical IHIECHGH 15 SEC F min llloroln Blood infection conditions genetics 3 CharaCteriStiCS Of the lMuoous 3 15 min Cocaine Irritation Situation monnloranos a39 EnVirOnmental39 SOCiaI Drallngostion BID 30min Alcohol vomiting D Routes of administration Approaches to the drug probem Skin contact 1 39 clays Nicotine patch Irritation of skin A Regan era 805 the war on drugs 1 The US has the highest incarceration rate in the world 2 227 million in prison 3 48 million on parole or probation 4 2014 quarter of the world s prisoners in US prisons 5 Impact of incarceration a Loss of voting rights b Family disruption c Employment issues 6 Signi cant racial differences B Crack cocaine sentencing 1 19861988 AntiDrug Abuse Acts 2 2010 Fair Sentencing Act C The US 1 In May 2010 the Department of Defense banned synthetic cannabinoids from all US military bases 2 22014 DEA placed four synthetic cannabinoids into Schedule 1 D Strategies 1 Supply reduction 2 Demand reduction a Incarceration b Prevention c Drug treatment d Harm reduction focusing on techniques to minimize the person and social problems associated with drug use rather than making abstinence the primary goal HSERV 100 CH11 Objectives Identify why maternal child health is important to consider A Maternal Child Health measured by maternal death fetal death and infant death internationally leading indicator of well being of a country It is considered most important indicator of health and quality Medical system B PRAMS pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system on going state and population based surveillance for maternal health 1 Identi es scope of problem 2 Identi es possible target populations 3 May lead to health promotion campaigns or policy development or further research 4 Population characteristics age race ethnicity education income C Improving maternal child health First 1000 days are important Nutrition Child spacing Smaller family size Early access to prenatal care and delivery care a Identify problems early P PPP b Intervene with delivery 6 Access to family planning a b c Reduce unwanted pregnancy Preconception health Safe abortion Describe US infant and maternal mortality rates A Maternal mortality 1 In the world there has been a decline in maternal mortality ratio across developing regions a 99 percent of maternal death occur in developing countries 1 in 150 14 countries have maternal mortality ratios of 1000 per 100000 live births b Majority is preventable Hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death 35 percent c More than 50 percent in subSaharan Africa lifetime risk of maternal death remains high in subSaharan Africa 1 in 39 d Athird in South Asia 2 In the US a The US rank 39th 167 in maternal mortality ration number of maternal deaths per 100000 live births b In the past years pregnancy related mortality rates have increased c In the US cardiovascular diseases account of 146 percent of all pregnancy related deaths Cardio myopathy is 124 and hemorrhage is 115 d Maternal mortality rates are highest among nonHispanic Black 361 deaths per 100000 live births but they have decreased1363 in 2005 e US ranked 29th in 2011 605 B Infant mortality 1 Causes all combined below account for 57 percent of deaths a Serious birth defect b Preterm birth c Sudden Infant Death Syndrome d Maternal complications of pregnancy e Injury 2 Factors a Socioeconomic status the lower the increased risk of infant death Stages of sexual development Adolescent Sexuality de ned by cognitive psychosocial and cultural and physical changes of puberty Sexual development Gender Identity sense of oneself as a male or female in society May or may not match biologic sex Gender roles sexual roles characteristics behaviors and interests de ned by cultures that separate boys and girls Sexual orientation heterosexual homosexual bisexual and asexual Consistent pattern of erotic arousal toward person of the same or opposite sex A 1 2 3 The Adolescent Brain brain Function 1 Impulsivity acting without thinking a b Individual variation Linear development in increased impulse control with age 2 Risk taking sensation seeking 3 999 Explore novel experiences Universal in adolescent mammals Bias in judgment of risk Lack experience with adult behaviors In both males and females this peaks in teenage years However in girls it starts earlier and is signi cantly less than males who peak later and have a higher Impatience immediate reward v delayed grati cation a b Memory and IQ related Emotional gain may outweigh executive decision making Identify Ev E 3 Fl 3 i isEquot I E g Egg m5 re ll at ESQ it s is 4 2 R 39li 1quot 39 E MEN 2 in quotre m ml ql39 lg m m i1 1I m m Hquot 1 El 1 5 E El 2 5 3D 3 5 393 quotEl39 1 it s I Lo 3 i i E W rrru M 39 MUMEM 2 p rig 7 3amp4 re fires its It as personal and public health impacts of unplanned pregnancy A US unintended pregnancy 50 percent of all pregnancies 80 percent of pregnancies in women under 20 Adolescent pregnancy rates have decreased but US rates still highest in developed world Higher risk mortality for mother and infant High rates of pregnancy complications later access to prenatal care higher rates alcohol poor nutrition B Individual Factors 1 Goal oriented behavior and what they require C Essential public health services 1 Assessment monitor health status and diagnose and investigate health problems 2 Policy development inform educate empower support 3 Assurance enforce access effectiveness D Sociocultural Perspective 1 90 percent of American parents would not allow their adolescent to spend a night at their mate s home where as 90 percent of Dutch parents would permit it 2 Dutch families have less incidence of unplanned pregnancies P PPPE HSERV 100 CH12 Objectives Learning effective forms of contraception A Long Acting Reversible Contraceptives include lUDs and contraceptive implants 1 Highly effective and safe 2 High satisfaction and continuation rates 3 Underutilized in US 4 Recent study noted signi cant reduction in abortions repeated abortions teen birth rates with use of LARCs B Emergency Contraception Single dose of levonorgestrel taken ASAP within 72 hours exposure up to 5 days Safe for selfmedication Same dose for all women Same medications safely used for contraception for decades Serious adverse effects do not occur No contradiction other than pregnancy 7590 percent effective in preventing pregnancy C Hormonal Methods 1 Available for 50 plus years 2 Many different formulations and ways to administer wewewwe 3 Daily use or other separates contraception from sexual act D Oral Contraceptive 1 Noncontraceptive bene ts or OCs Decrease menstrual ow Decrease menstrual cramps Improve anemia Improve acne Decrease benign breast disease Decrease ovarian cyst formation Prevent ectopic pregnancy Protect against some causes of PID Protect against osteoporosis 2 Contraindications to Use of OCs Deep vein thrombosis Pulmonary embolism Cerebrovascular disease Coronary artery disease Tum sheen Estrogendependent cancer Active liver disease Major surgery immobilization I Pregnancy or breastfeeding 3 Red ags ACHES a Abdominal pain b Chest pain c Headache d Eye problems e Severe leg pain E Withdrawal 1 Very controversial as method 2 Requires control and interruption of sex 3 Perfect use 4 4 Actual use 27 39F Q fDFDPg Methods Perfe Actu De nition ct al use use Oral 03 8 Contraceptive pills Contraceptive 03 8 Almost 2 inch three patch layer adhesive patch that releases estrogen and progesterone Nuvaring Contraceptive vaginal ring about 2 inches in diameter that releases estrogen and progesterone Intrauterine 02 02 Progesterone releasing device IUD system Protect against ovarian and endometrial cancer Migraine headache with aura or neurologic changes Bene ts Fewer and shorter menstrual periods shorter hormonefree intervals better ovarian suppression decreased premenstrual syndrome acne endometriosis menstrual migraine Newly applied weekly for three weeks then one week off for menses It is one size only and does not require tting cannot be inserted incorrectly 5 year ef cacy Risks Less effective in women over 198 pounds slight increase over oral pills for blood clots Highest risk of PID within 20 days of Impanon NeXpanon Barrier Methods Male Condoms Female Condoms Diaphrag m Sponge Abstinence Depopro vera Sterilization Tubal ligation Vasectomy 005 2 2 5 6 9 0 03 05 01 005 15 15 21 16 16 0 3 05 015 Progestin only contraceptive implant that is a single exible 4 cm rod inserted under the skin of the upper arm Depot medroxyprogesterone injected once every 12 weeks List factors that affect ef cacy A Barriers to LARCs Lack of familiarity Misperceptions High cost Lack of access Health provider concerns about safety If remove 23 of women 1420 years old chose LARC mwewwe Describe role of politics in reproductive health A Goal reduce rates in unintended pregnancy 1 Increased time between onset sexual activity and desired pregnancy timing 2 Con icting in uences of biology and development of executive decision making frontal lobe 3 Cultural con icting messages sexuality in media but dif cult discussing B Induced Abortion 3 year ef cacy no pregnancies in 73000 monthly cycles Reduce risk of STI Available to all Highly effective No further action necessary No further action necessary 1 20 percent of pregnancies in the US end in abortion 2 Reduced rates of abortion correspond with increased rates of contraception 3 Legal restriction do not affect incidence of abortion a Legal safe b Illegal unsafe insertion irregular menstrual bleeding common in rst 3 to 6 months clinician visit required for insertion and removal Irregular menstrual bleeding common clinician visit required for insertion and removal Requires control interrupts sexual expression must agree on de nition with partner Irregular bleeding spotting amenorrhea within 2 years 70 weight gain 54 osteoporosis risk Dif cult to reverse Dif cult to reverse an In developed regions 92 safe In developing regions 55 safe e Unsafe abortion can cause hemorrhage and sepsis and leads to 13 percent of maternal deaths 67000 per year HSERV 100 CH13 Objectives What is infectious disease A Infectious Disease when part of the lifecycle of microorganism or particle involves you AND interferes with your usual lifestyle or shortens your life B Chain of Infection C Stages of Infection Pneumonic In Portland Infectious And Disease Can Sicken 1 2 PM Factors In uencing Risk of infarction Caridi puvlmm i ry disease idmprn mined immune system Surgery 5 Diabetes Burns Determining Factors of Outcome 1 2 Type of organism Virulence ability to cause serious death or disease a Virulence is the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as Incuba Hon Where Prodo rgar39uusrne m a I Euwwe Invasn Infectious ii fnf39ri ve i 93M How rganaism AC me W 7 I Epreads m o lin Thup35 f n5 EHE ClEQHHECI utteria Primali5 iimn e Viruses Irielrn intlhs nw a teriai g Covale 1 Ecteparasites V ifb me dm lm 7 scent D Em rthmp d vectuars SEQuel Haw quot 1 ga nii sn 7 j How ae Leaves Body Made if rgal ism Reapimm W TIFEII39IEEITIIEEIDII I 15mm secretions H D39Et Feces MUCQUS Elmz mo rnbmne Cime series 534 Tram Ganjanative Eye Respiratory tract Ezraken skirt Auntie Invasive 5 Elaine EHMIPthE Phase dig353 Phase mdmm l fullablmim sympEms canmhsm t Pafi illness braught under Fm ind vague some WWDMIJ broWit Incubation aquot m Epairizn quuelae F li ii d being diam 399 Remaining Eric Symptnrns symptom the body can39t repair Exposure g i li im lanterns bawdy indicate by case fatality and or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host b Pathogencity its ability to cause disease is determine determined by its virulence factors Pathogens and disease A Viruses consist of genome capsid and some have outer covering or envelope Cannot reproduce on their own Do not survive long outside hosts Can have a number of effects inside the body a Burst and infect more cells b Persist in cell and slowly cause damage c Integrate with cellular DNA and alter growth patterns B Bacteria singlecelled organisms 1 2 3 1 Classi ed based on a Shape b Presenceabsence of cell wall c Growth requirements 2 Varying speed of replication 3 Many are harmless and even bene cial Prions some of the least understood infectious agents 1 Believed to be entirely made up of proteins 2 Found in brain tissue and alter function of other proteins leading to degeneration of brain function 3 Spread by ingestion of infected brain or nerve tissue Fungi single or multiple celled organism 1 Reproduce by budding or making spores 2 Infection results from exposure to spores in the environment 3 Can become serious in people with compromised immune systems Helminths parasitic worms that get food at expense of host 1 Large compared other infectious agents 2 Infected by accidentally eating worms eggs in food or water or by having skin invaded by worm larvae Protozoa singlecelled organisms 1 Most can live independently of host 2 Transmission via a Contaminated water feces or food b Air c Sexual contact d Mosquitoes Ectoparasites complex organisms that live on skin 1 Feed on host s tissue and blood 2 Cause local irritation and may be vectors for other diseases Diseases 1 Tuberculosis bacteria part of the big 3 infectious disease the others are HIVAIDS and Malaria which account for signi cant disease burden a Can be latent or active b Spread from person to person through the air c Symptoms include weight loss coughing and fever d Treatable with antibiotics 2 Creutzfeldtjakob disease prion Has a long incubation period b Very rare condition c Not contagious d lncurable and fatal e Brain develops holed and takes on spongelike texture f T a Q One form of transmission is from eating meat of cattle af icted with Mad Cow Disease hrush Candidiasis fungi Part of natural ora but regulated by immune system b More common in immunocompromised individuals c Can affect various parts of the body d Ranges from fairly super cial potentially lifethreatening e Symptoms include redness itchiness discomfort 4 Guinea Worms helminthes a Symptoms include pain as worm travels fever nausea b Found in parts of Asia and Africa c Primary prevention by changing behavior and providing clean sources of water may be the 2nol disease to be eradicated in the world 5 Malaria Protozoa protozoa spread to humans by mosquitoesvector borne a Another big 3 infectious disease b Symptoms include high fevers chills anemia c Prevention methods include treated bed nets and draining pools of standing water 6 Head lice ectoparasites Usually only colonizes the head or scalp Feeds on blood Itching is common symptom Particularly common in children Transmission via direct head to head contact 9905 f Can be prevented by regular examination of scalp Type of De nition Pathogen Viruses Tiny pathogens consisting of genome DNA or RNA and protein covenng Bacteria Singlecelled organisms that are spherical rodlike or spiral in shape Prions Organisms believed to consist entirely of protein Fungi Singlecelled or multicelled organisms Parasites Helminths Parasitic worms that live on or in host Protozoa Singlecelled organisms that generally live independently of host Ectoparasit Complex organisms that usually live on the host s skin es Outbreaks and public health response In uenza Fatality 520 percent of the US population infected Rates each year 3000 to 49000 deaths per yean Greatest risk Young old pregnant women chronically ill of death Incubation 14 days contagious 1 day before and symptom onset and 5 to 10 days after contagious onset of symptoms Mode of Respiratory droplets cough sneeze or Transmission talking entrance land on mouth nose of nearby people or inhaled into lungs OR touching a surface or object contaminated by virus and then toughing own mouth eyes or nose In uenza A humans birds poultry pigs bats canines wild birds felt be natural reservoir In uenza B humans In uenza C Reservoir Ebola Small clusters of outbreaks Average fatality rate 50 percent ranges from 25 percent to 90 percent All ages pregnant women chronically ill 221 days average 8 to 10 days contagious only after onset of symptoms Direct contact through broken skin or mucous membrane exits blood body uid of a person who is symptomatic objects contaminated with blood or body uids Remains unknown can cause disease in humans and nonhuman primates 5 identi es species bats believed to be the natural reservoir identi ed 1976 near Ebola river A Pandemics an epidemic of infectious disease that had spread through human populations across a large region possibly worldwide B Public Health Response 1 Federal regulations regarding isolation and quarantine are authorized for Cholera Diphtheria Infectious tuberculosis Hague Smallpox Yellow fever Viral hemorrhagic fevers Severe acute respiratory syndromes Flu that can cause a pandemic N POEFTQTWDFLPFT Base on exposure category i High risk ii Some risk DC guidelines for people with potential exposure to Ebola iii Low risk active monitoring and no restriction on movement iv No identi able risk b Symptom monitoring fever gt 1004 or any of the following severe headache muscle pain vomiting diarrhea stomach pain unexplained bruising or bleeding c If symptoms immediate isolation and noti cation of health department mandatory evaluation d If asymptomatic and high or some risk direct active monitory and controlled movement if travel personal vehicle and no interruption of direct active monitoring 3 CDC guidelines for Health Care Workers a Rigorous and repeated training especially by step putting on and taking off of PPE b Trained monitor c No skin exposure when PPE worn double gloves coveralls or impermeable gown single use hood respirator disposable single use full face shield surgical hood to cover full head and neck waterproof apron to mid calf if patient has vomiting or diarrhea 4 Prevention public health measure to mitigate potential u pandemic a Local national international health programs reporting and assessment treatment and monitoring of treatment and compliance stockpiling medications CDC deploying 25 percent of national stockpiles of antiviral b Educa on c Social distancing closing schools business and public gatherings 5 CDC New HIV preexposure prophylaxis guidelines a Released in spring 2014 b HIV testing before starting and at 3 month intervals c Encourage with other risk reduction meaures Defenses A Biological Immune System 1 Innate immune system a Innate acute in ammatory response 1 bacteria invade 2 substances accumulate 3 the substance make plasma and protein escape 4 plasma proteins attack bacteria phagocytes or repair damage 5 phagocytes engulf bacteria b Phagocytes a collection of white blood cells of the innate immune system that digest damage cells foreign particles and bacteria They circulate in blood or remain in tissue 2 Acquired a Lumphocytes white blood cells develop a memory of antigens b Antigens markers on foreign substances from the environment c When see again they rapidly turn on and produce antibodies d Antibodies circulate in blood and bind to speci c antigens triggering immune reaction to destroy and remove B Pharmaceutical 1 Vaccines intentional exposure to antigen in order to learn the characteristics of the pathogen a quottrainingquot for you immune system to prepare it for possible infection Uses acquired immune response Goal produce an immune response similar to if infected with pathogen Strategy reduce the disease causing capability of pathogen while maintaining antigen function to produce antibodies during immune response e Trend there has been a decrease because of a false nding that it leads to autism 2 Antibiotics drug that works by killing or preventing the growth of bacteria only a Antibiotic resistance lessened sensitivity to the effects of an antibiotic b Two factors are believed to account for resistance 1 frequency with which resistant genes arise naturally among bacteria through mutation and 2 extent of antibiotic use including in animal food production C Public Health Measures 1 Safe food production worldwide food distribution can lead to largescale contamination 2 Travel considerations easy to spread disease across continents 3 Sexual behavior sexually transmitted infections are signi cant problem 4 Drug use needle sharing increases risk for Hepatitis C and HIVAIDS 5 Body art increased risk of infection due to contamination Identify common STls and describe signs and symptoms 906 STDs categorized based on mode of transmission It s not who you are it is what you do A How do you get STDs 1 Sexual contact 2 IV drug use HIV Hepatitis B Risk Factors 1 Women are at risk 15 to 24 year olds represent 25 percent of the ever sexually active population but acquired nearly half of all new STDs 2 out of 3 of STDs occur among women 2 Concurrent partners 3 Other sexually transmitted infections C Types Eminence Symptoms Leads to Treatment Bacterial Chlamydia Most 13 weeks after exposure PID Treatable With commonly quotsilentquot disease scarring anitbiotics reported Burning sensation with epididymitis bacterial STI urination 457 Per Discharge clear 100000 Gonorrhea Second most If symptoms 1 to 14 days PID Treatable With commonly after exposure epididymitis antibiotics but there reported STI Burning sensation with infection is increasing 104 per urination blood and antibiotic resistance 100000 Discharge white yellow or JOintS green syphilis 45 per Depends on stages primary Mother to Treated with 100000 secondary tertiary child penicillin transmission Viral Herpes Can be spread virus becomes latent and Causes No cure but without visible infection recurs periodically ulcerssores antivirals can lesion at infection reduce symptoms site Mother and reduce risk of to child transmission transmission HPV human Over 100 types usually transient and Causes Screening with pap papiliomavir asymptomatic genital test vaccine now us warts recommended for cervical men and women cancer HlV Ale 1 HIV AIDS a Transmission anal oral vaginal sex mother to child IV drug use contact with infected blood b Infection with another STD can increase your chances of contracting HIV c Attacks helper T cells C STls infections do not show symptoms 1 Most common symptoms of STls Nothing Identify prevention measures A Preventing lllness Mutual monogamy Reduce partner number Testing For HIV preexposure prophylaxis if high risk 1 Wash your hands 2 3 4 5 6 Stay home if sick 7 B Prevention of STI 1 Abstinence 2 Vaccination 3 4 5 6 Stay in good health eat well sleep regularly manage stress exercise Avoid toughing potentially contaminated surfaces Cover your nose or mouth when your sneeze or cough Avoid toughing your eyes nose or mouth Avoid contact with others if sick except to seek medical care
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