AES 150 Midterm 1 Notes
AES 150 Midterm 1 Notes AES 150
Popular in In-Justice for All: Intersection of Race, Ethnicity, Class, and Gender in the United States
Popular in American Studies
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AES 150 Lecture 1 Notes Documentaries do not just paraphrase question and re ect watch ethnic notions and discuss study costars why can t Asian or blacks be a star on their own Who gets the girl Definitions confirming theories Stereotypes fixed and overly simplified but widely held beliefs about individuals based on perceived group membership 1 Always negative 2 Are not facts a perceived group membership how people view and think of you not what you think of yourself as one drop of blood paternity b Note based on fact Are false if it is a generalization that is true it is not a stereotype c There is no such thing as a positive stereotype d If a stereotype can be proved it is not a stereotype Culture a set of shared ideas about the nature of reality the nature of right and wrong evaluation of what is good and desirable versus the bad and undesirable 1 Ideas are manifested in behaviors and artifacts 2 People are socialized taught the rules roles and relationships of the social world we inherit a Your behavior how you treat other people and how you respect other people and their values b Showing good behavior to another people s values expectations and roles in society c Culture is always about groups and it s always about how you treat other people you can t do it alone d Manifested by your behavior traditions customs food attire and artifacts language e Shared values Ethnicity cultural group you belong to 1 Sense of identity one has based on a common cultural heritage 2 Nationally often refers to Hispanic not Hispanic a Race does not eXist b Race does not eXist but racism does eXist Nationality Where are you from 1 Country of citizenship either by birth or naturalization 2 Notice the hyphen J apaneseAmerican it denotes issues about loyalty Race 1 Social construction or biologically or geographically determined a If something is social it is not real b If it is biological or geographical it is real 1 If it is real the three categories are mongoloid Caucasoid Negroid ii Caucasoid Hispanic Europeans lighter eyes medium height fair narrower nose thinnest lips medium hips medium breast medium genitals iii Mongoloid Asians native Americans pacific islanders have almond shaped and dark brown eyes epicanthic fold straight short in height yellowolive skinned attest nose smallest feet roundest face medium lips attest hips attest breast smallest genitals overall they receive feminine traits iv Negroid Africans have dark brown and bugeyed eyes curlier hair tallest chocolate skinned widest nose thickest lips most protruding breast most protruding genitals overall they receive masculine traits V If race is real people must have a same genetic trait or no one else has that genetic trait except for members of that race c The conclusion is that race is actually not real But RACISM is real d How has racism evolved Minority 1 Population a Whites smaller pop in South Africa but hold the power b More women in the US than men but women are considered a minority 2 Power a Representational power Class 1 Socioeconomic a Economic refers to money vs social construction refers to perception b Perception of how much money you seem to have not what you actually do have 2 What are the classes a Income disparities b Social construction in many more countries more racial AES 150 Lecture 2 Notes Prejudice A De nitions 1 quota set of attitudes which causes supports orjusti es discriminationquot Rose 1951 2 quotan emotionally rigid attitude or predisposition to respond to a certain stimulus in a certain way toward a group of peoplequot Simpson amp Yinger 1965 3 an antipathy based upon a faulty and in exible generalizationquot Allport 1958 4 B Collins 1970 a Prejudice is an intergroup phenomenon b Prejudice is a negative orientation c Prejudice is bad d Prejudice is an attitude Racial Prejudice is an attitude towards an ethnic group that is directed in negative and often stereotypic terms and is based on a social not a scienti c de nition of race and groups Classi cation of Causes they are not mutually exclusive 1 Exploitation Theory a KARL MARX 18181883 iv Marxian Theory History of the world is a quotclass strugglequot Offers strongest explanation for prejudice as a tool in economic exploitation rich vs poor or owners vs workers One group dominates another sexuay economically and socially The quotinferiorquot group must be kept in its place so that the superior group can achieve and enjoy the advantages of better employment and social status quotMask for Privilegesquot how the economically advantaged are able to use and exclude rising from full groups from full participation in American life b quotTenets of Exploitationquot v c Oliver Culture must have one primary goalquot maximization of pro t Societal organizations such as business religious and educational establishments must also support this primary goal There must be a large labor force for the unpopular and menial jobs The inferior group must be considered heathen or subhuman and therefore deserving of unequal treatment Skin color for racial prejudice is an important factor Cox 19011974 Racia prejudice is quotan attitude propagated among the public by an exploiting class for the purpose of stigmatizing some group inferior so that the exploitation of either the group or its resources or both may be justi edquot quotthe inferiority is related to their supposed subhuman nature so that by resourcesquot i Under capitalism labor is just another factor of production to be used in maximizing pro t ii Can be bought and sold on a dehumanized basis so that the importance of individuality and the family is minimized iii Human beings are treated as commodities little different from land and capitalism In the history of the US nonwhite groups have felt the relationship between prejudice and economic exploitation v Overt discrimination restrictive covenant bans on naturalization etc vi Covert discrimination genrtri cation ghettoization d Summary of theory 2 i At the heart of the theory is not race hostility or prejudice but the issues of capitalism and imperialism which creates a class conflict ii The correlation between racism and the development of capitalism is one of cause and effect therefore the prediction is that race prejudice would disappear with the collapse of capitalism iii White people in order to bolster their positions in the class structure have been brought to look at nonwhites as the Other lower class e Weaknesses of this theory i Is the history of the world really just a mere class struggle ii Permeability What about upperincome people of color Mixed race If you were once upon a time a working class person does that mean you will stay that way iii Too broad prejudice is relative not an absolute in the sense that only one country or culture has it and another does not iv All countries contain varying degrees of racism and it is not a trait peculiar only to capitalistic countries Ignorance Theory a Prejudice can result from a simple lack of information and knowledge preset attitudes false beliefs stereotypes and images projected through the media b Explanation about perpetuation more than creation of prejudice c Pure Ignorance cause by problem is not solely regional i Segregation within the nation where do all the Asians go ii Segregation practices many people feel more comfortable with people who appear to be more like themselves d Mass Media becomes extremely important i Whatever information is received come from those who control the existing informationmass media ii Many people do not internationally exploit people but are duped into following the system created by the media bourgeoisie e Selective perception and experiences i When stereotypes of a group are already given wide credence selective perception and experiences can validate the attitude ii selffulfilling prophecy iii Negative experience is recalled more frequently f Pygamalion effect g Blaming the Victim gt earned reputation i This perspective shifts the responsibility from the dominant to the minority group h Weaknesses ii Better as a supporting theory than a creation theory 3 RacismEthnocentrism a Belief that one s own group is unique and right b Universal phenomenon c As an individual is socialized to the belief and behaviors of hisher own family and society comes to believe that what hisher group does is natural and begins to judge everyone from this standpoint d Ethnocentrism is inevitable because the very standard ones uses to judge others are part of the culture shehe has absorbed e Those who deviate are seen as unnatural and become targets of prejudice f Family becomes important in the process Family is the main institution the way one s family conducts itself is seen as normal iv Ethnocentrism is part of the identity of the individual and linked to other variables such as pride belonging standards etc v vi Arguably having pride in one s family is normal Ethnocentrism only negative when it becomes overly rigid and intolerant of the behaviors of others g quotReverse Ethnocentrismquot iv When linking this explanation to the exploitation model we see a phenomenon known as quotreverse ethnocentrismquot quotThe lack of even a minimal sense of pride in one s own family and culture because of the constant exposure to the dominant modelsquot In the US the dominant models are Western European model h Passing iv Rather than being proud of one s family or ethnic background an individual may deny his family or quotliequot about his background so that his immigrant parents are now uent and acculturated or he may even attempt to pass as a member of the majority group Therefore ethnocentrism mainly serves the group in power i Structural Opposition For ethnocentrism to work needs to be quotwethey phenomenon to create group membership must have another identi able group for comparison to create pride most people have to be able to look down on someone else j Weaknesses i ii iii iv It is truly inevitable Is it truly human character to diminish others ls group identity only created through animosity toward others Is it truly normalinherent or do we have to learn to like or dislike others 4 Symbolic a More of a psychological explanation psychoanalytical though b All behavior is physically determind and that prejudice as a symptom is a relfection of a deeper interpsychic phenomenon c Prejudice as Displacement of hostitility scapegoating Social psychologists emphasize frustrationagression as one of the critical variables behind prejudice Blockage of goaldirected behavior whether by other people natural forces or by one s own lack of skill or unrealistic expectations is a frustrating experience In many cases since an individual cannot take it out against the primary source of frustration either because it s too powerful to retaliate or because it cannot be identi ed the individual takes her hostilities out against a more convenient target or scapegoat Less powerful but readily identi able racial group can easily become the scapegoats Frustration to hostility to scapegoat to prejudice Frustrated individual can feel guilty about her displace hostility and the effectiveness of the outlet may be open to question Guilt and anxiety develop there may be further displacement and hostility towards the scapegoat so a vicious cycle is reinforced Rationalization Similar to quotearned reputation approach In both actor tries to justify actions that he knows to be wrong with the explanation that the victim deserves what he gets or get what s coming to him Summary By the process prejudicial attitudes can be justi ed and restrictive acts and outright violence can be rationalized Reliance on labeling and dehumanization Process is really common and may be more closely linked The ease with which other human beings can be bombed burned and destroyed simply by labeling them the enemy is in many ways frightening particularly because such behavior is closed in selfrighteousness morality patriotism and heroism Furthermore sometimes a lack of prejudice by those who destroy so that the act is removed from a sense of emotion participation reality Sick personality Comes from a group of psychologist in Berkeley led by Theodore Adorno Studying the relationship between personality structure and antiSemitism They found that a prejudiced person was closer to a pathological personality than the normal person The authoritarian was pessimistic cynical antiintellectual distrustful suspicious dogmatic and lacking in poise and appearance In contrast those low in prejudice were exible tolerant autonomous self reliant and possessed realistic goal orientations Weakness biased sampling no control for education and group membership dubious coding could not be replicated Social change Comes from sociologist Robert Park 1950 The more rapid the social change the higher degree of prejudice Conversely the more static a society the lesser the degree of prejudice What follows is that the higher the diversity of groups the higher the probability of prejudice Prejudice is a conservative tool used to retain social distance and to preserve the social order Conversely in a rigid society everyone knows hisher place and few people are going to challenge the status and power In a rapidly changing culture with multiple and diverse groups there are constant challenges to status Thus there is a greater need to retain social distance and prejudice is the result based on all the other theories Weakness this is really hard to prove Does a country have to be static of just its institutions The causes of prejudice are multiple varied and interactive It is learned perhaps not intuitive It is up to individual scholars to decide which of these theories is most applicable While aspects of it can be positive racial prejudice is negative because it is a condemnation or prejudgment of an entire race AES 150 T3 Ethnic Notions Notes Reactions Horri ed from cartoons Still relevant Start believing portrayal What about the actors a foot in the door do you take the roe form of release for quotblack facequot white actors Sinful black dancing white civilized Christians don39t dance Make fun of stereotypes are viewers following Af rming stereotypes Black is ugly have we moved away from this It39s changing but not much Mixed races are preferred Black is savage prior movies still portray this stereotype Blacks are happy servants What goes behind these stereotypes Characters 1 Sambo happy simple lazy 2 Mammy strong unattractive obedient to whites but mean to blacks asexual 3 Jezebel is a prostitute allusion to the bible she seduces and tempts men 99 F causing them to lose their power Zip Coon the savage northern black Pickaninnies kids that are savage Uncle Tom subservient happy content save Brute aka black rambo Jim Crow black face but a lot like Sambo AES 150 Intergroup Contact Theory Notes Intergroup Contact Theory What happens should happen when distinct ethnic groups interact with each other A Joe Feagin 1 Department of sociology 2 Graduate research professor 3 Wrote Racial and Ethnic Relations B Most popular American Intergroup contact theories 1 Melting pot Assimilation 2 a b A B C Z an amalgamated entity Popularized by Israel Zanguill Russian Jewish playwright in his play The Melting Pot 1907 In America everyone should forget hisher old native prejudices and become a new group the American Metaphor for the Stew Criticism Only meant for white note the date of the play Symbolically not everything melts in a stew who is the beef In terms of what appears to be American tends to be mythic norm White AngloSaxon Protestant etc So to be more American is not to become something new but to become more like the mythic norm assimilation Assimilation Anglo Conformity PP PP h A B C A When in Rome do as the Romans do Theory promoting AngloConformity Popularized by the University of Chicago s School of Sociology Robert Park According to Park this is the most natural thing to do Part of the 4 step race racial cycle 4 step Race Racial Cycle i AB interaction meet at the same territory ii A v B competition ght to win the territory iii A wins B loses accommodation one is victorious over the other and they both know it A takes the best territory but allow B to stay if B accepts lesser position iv B gt A assimilation loser eventually imitates winner to t into society ambitious members of B do not want to stay a loser tries to become more like A A eventually accepts these members of B who becomes a role model for other group B members Milton Gordon 7 step process to assimilation He also argues that there a different degrees of assimilation As opposed to Park who sees people assimilating entirely after 3 generations Gordon argues that it is gradual 7 step process to assimilation i Cultural assimilation change core culture to become more like dominating group ii Structural assimilation change neighborhood friendship to be closer to dominant group iii Marital assimilation wants to have spouse from the dominant group must be among best member of B who gets a lesser member of A iv Identi cation assimilation no more need to hyphenate since so many members of group B have become like A seen as members of A v Attitudinal assimilation no more intentional discrimination vi Behavior assimilation no more prejudice vii Civic assimilation no more value or powerorder con ict Criticism who says the battle is over To prematurely ve up makes that person a traitor Bad for psychological reasons Can never assimilate because of perceived racial differences Not all these steps necessarily re ect assimilation 3 Acculturation a ABCA B C b Changed somewhat because a person is no longer in the other country but do not change entirely keep what s best of the old world and take what s best of the new world c Partial assimilation but not complete attitude is the main difference d Popularized by Horace Kallen of the Nation 1919 as he visited Northeastern slums e Began metaphorically as an orchestra f Now seen as a Salad bowl g Aka cultural pluralism model h Criticism orchestra metaphor not everyone is equal maestro controls everything there is ranking in seats and instruments 0 Salad metaphor no everyone is equal 0 cannot overcome the emphasis on Europeans as quotnorma for all the others certain groups dominate more than others tokenism as best 0 What is the difference between someone who is assimilated versus someone acculturated Not everyone agrees with the degree of assimilation that makes someone an acculturationist 0 Sometimes when people think they are acculturating they are actually assimilating because they have bought into a stereotype Too much division emphasized America will balkanize 4 Internal colonialism Model a Popularized by Robert Blauncer UC Berkeley b Based on Oliver Cox work Race Caste and Class c Experience of people of color cannot be understood like that of Europeans in the US d People of color are Third World People or colonized They are poor because they are people who have been colonized and therefore have no power e Frantz Fanon Algerian psychologist revolutionary Author of wretched of the earth black skin white masks After the nationstate period by the 18th Century 0 First World colonizers Europe 0 Second World former colonies turned colonizer US Canada Australia 0 Third World the colonized most countries of color f Internal colony 0 Why colonize others For labor and resources 0 US and other colonists need both for their development Iquot Europea 3rd World 0 Since people of color came from colonized countries they are forced to go to the Peo ple colonizers country for menial jobs because land is taken from them g Blauner s Triangle of Power h 3 conditions of internal colonialism o Forced entry immigrants migrants had no choice but to go to the 1st or 2nOI world country because of colonization 0 Labor exploitation the reason they are allowed to come to US is because we would like to exploit their labor must prove that they are paid less 0 Cultural subordination the reason why immigrantsmigrants and their descendants perform these jobs is because their culture has been inferiorized hegemony i Antonio Gramsci s Hegemony Gramsci is an Italian intellectual imprisoned by Benito Mussolini during WW2 o Noted for his prison writings hegemony how the dominant group controls others without the use of force how the oppressed collaborate in their own oppression j Criticism 0 Not all countries of color are colonized Voluntary assimilation colonization still segregated in US 0 Many new immigrants from Asia and Africa are among the most elite of country no longer forced 0 New Tokens or subordinate elites used to put down others Not accurate example of hegemony o What is solution Socialism Arguably more ethnic con ict 0 AES 150 T5 Multicultural History Notes Multicultural History Title quotA Different Mirrorquot A Barbara Tuchman s Distant Mirror 1 2 3 4 ll 12 Takaki is borrowing a term from Tuchman She argues that quotthere are phenomenal parallelsquot btw 14th century Europe its calamities and our own era Like Tuchman Takaki agrees that the mirror guides us to see ourselves Yet traditionally in the writing of histories or the compiling of documents the modern historian like the modern student is largely dependent on the availability of sources Unfortunately the kinds of sources collected depend to a large extent on the predilections interests prejudices and value of the collectors and archivists What Takaki differs from Tuchman is his notion that it is not a distant mirror but a different mirror People are occupying the same space same time but through different perspectives In other words it s not that the history of the past is inaccurate per se but that all scholars are looking at occurrences through our biases Until fairly recent people of color in the US have been denied their history Even fairly sympathetic treatments like Hector St John De quotNotes from an American Farmerquot still focuses on Native Americans and African Americans as secondary gures but of the common run human beings the world has saved all too little of authentic record and tire to forget or ignore even the little saved With regard to Negroes in America came also the attempt conscious or unconscious to excuse the shame of slavery by stressing natural inferiority which would render it impossible for Negroes to make much less leave any record of revolt or struggle any human reaction to utter degradationquot WEB Du Bois Takaki s argument for Multicultural History a Multicultural history serves whites as an antidote to centuries of racist indoctrination Without this knowledge a more truly democratic non racist society b Multicultural history serves people of color differently by arousing pride in legitimate past enhancing self respect and recognizing the leaders with whom all people including people of color can identify with c Multicultural history serves all Americans because it is the history of all people and how impact one another Multicultural history is quotAmerican Historyquot B Vinland before Columbus 1 2 mwew l C l 2 Ironically takaki starts his book with Leif Ericson In 1003 AD he and other Vikings went to the quotNew Worldquot but it was not con rmed until 1960 when they found Norse artifacts dating back to that time Story is also told through oral histories Why is it always European Is it true Then who are the Native Americans and Mexicans that were discovered Discoveryquot before Europeans De ne discovery ls discovery only when people of one country self consciously visit another country and reports it to 5 king we ll nd that other have actually encounter the United States before the Europeans D Early Discoveries 1 Western culture tends to be hierarchical we put down others for not accomplishing the same quotfeatquot earlier 2 Yet even when recorded and even with artifact and anecdotal evidence the West tends to ignore others version of history E Beringia a land bridge connecting two continents across what is now the Bering Strait Probably joined Siberiea to Alaska about 60000 to 25000 years ago F Fusang Recorded History according to the anneals of the Lian Dynasty the Chinese ock Huishen and four Asian Indian monks wen to the kingdom of Fusang about 20000 Ii 1 Met men and women wearing deer skin growing what sounds like corn living peacefully 2 Liked everything about them except that they were not Buddhist 3 Fusang legend still highly controversial but persists 4 1979 archeologistjame Moriary I reported 2 separate discoveries of 3000 years old sailing relics from China off the California Coast G From Africa 1 Ancient Egyptian in uence on certain Native American languages 2 Ritual grave object found in an ancient burial mound in Libertyville lllinois that appears to have been made during the 26th dynasty in Egypt which began around 685 BC H History of the World 10 million years ago quotGreat Explorers 1 Secondary American education emphasizes European explorers 2 The greatest was arguably Magellan who was the quotfirst to sail around the worldquot in 1521 j quotZheng Hequot and Discovery of America 1 Trying to get to India controversial theory that Columbus used Chinese maps 2 In 2006 a map said to be a copy of a 1418 Ming Dynasty original that has not been located was discovered and triggered a reevaluation of Chinese and Western maritime exploration 3 Discovered in Beijing the 1763 copy could be proof of a theory that Chinese sailors sailed around the globe long before their European counterparts 4 Radio carbon dating tests showed that paper used for the copy could date back to 1763 according to Waikato University scientists 5 If the map is a genuine copy of a 1418 map it means Zheng He discovered America more than 70 years before Christopher Columbus 6 The map and Chinese narratives dispute these Western teachings ll Christopher Columbus 1492 route beginning of European settlement A Europe 1 Consolidation of strong monarchs 2 England has just gotten through the War of the Roses lead to the oppression of the Catholics a Lancaster York Tudor 3 Time period where everybody who is not Christian is discriminated against B Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain 1 Ousted the Moors 2 Shortly afterwards sponsored Christopher columbus journey Columbus goal was to gain pro ts this greed leads to people slavery C Columbus and the Americas 1 Columbus was trying to get to india 2 He meet the quotTainosquot the native people of San Salvador They treated him as a friend They were really nice peaceful gentle but he saw them as quotheathensquot because they were not Christians Heathens subhuman quottainoquot actually means quotwe are good we are noblequot 3 Because the tainos were nice and friendly Columbus took it as their weakness and told the Queen that it is possible for them to be trained He kidnaps 10 of 4 5 their men Thinking he s doing the best for them he kidnaps them so that they can go back to his home and get baptized The following year Columbus is commanded to bring more He tries to bring 500 tainos but only 200 survive the trip The taino people are hunted down by dogs In 20 years the population of 1 million tainos decreases to 46 thousand D Later Spaniards l 2 3 5quot After Columbus came the other Spaniards European colonization of the Americas started with the Spanish but US history emphasizes Anglos Probably the rst European to tough US soil was Ponce de Leon in 1513 who was looking for the Fountain of Youth 20 years later Francisco Coronado and Hernando de Soto Between Coronado and de Soto there was also Cabeza de Vaca a nobleman who went to Florida then crossed over to Texas Northern provinces of Mexico De Vaca is beaten and taken as a slave Later they free him after people start dying less He works among the native people and becomes a trader As he is living with them and he saves Spaniards are being enslaved by the natives When he return to Spain he tries to urge peace between the natives and the Spanish Eventually when he had to side with one side and he went with the Spanish he was erased from history Point of this background information Tons of people visited the Americas before Europeans They were not the rst and they have absolutely no right to claim that they discovered something Yet the people who discovered the Americas before the Europeans did not discriminate against the people there calling them names like quotsavagesquot Neither did the people who went there conquer the indigenous people The indigenous people are conjectured to have been derived from Asia or the Paci c absolutely not Europeans Nevertheless Columbus is a signi cant gure in that his visit to Americas brought more people and started the future mass migration AES 150 T6 English in the Americas Notes Background VI After Columbus returned with news of discovery other Europeans were also anxious to get involved with these discoveries England has just concluded the very bloody quotWar of the Rosesquot then there would be another major change King Henry VIII would break with the Pope in Rome to establish the Church of England of the Anglican Church Puritans Among the Christian sects established would be the Puritans a group of Calvinists an odd ascetic group even in England They were crazy Black and white Focused on purity whether in relationships behaviors etc selfdenial was key Calvinism they believe in the Elect the selected people who are blessed and predetermined by God Puritans wanted to purify the Anglican Church British and Irish At this moment the British are trying to colonize and oppress the Catholic lrish To get them to submit they use violence British rationalize their violence by saying that the Irish are barbaric British lay claim to an AngloSaxon supremacy that would be used to justify their conquest of Native Americans and African Americans Caliban from quotThe Tempestquot Summary of the tempest Prospero the magician befriended Caliban the only native of an island The Prospero enslaved Caliban after Caliban tried to rape Prospero s daughter But Caliban with speech given to him by Prospero states that Prospero unfairly colonized Caliban s island Caliban s name is anagram for Cannibal cannibal George Weymouth and Abenakis 1605 The Abenakis lived in southeastern Maine They were captured by Weymouth and taken back to England for display The tribe is decimated after an epidemic jamestown 1607 British were not harsh with the Powhatans Unlike some native lndians Powhatans were farmers Winter arrived and many Brits starved so that of the 120 initial settlers only 38 survived only because the Powhatans provided food to rescue them To persuade the Powhatans to save them they gave him a gold crown Wahunsonacook was ambivalent about the white settlers which led to the resentment of some of his people He was initially tried to be friendly his daughter married john Rolfe but he was enraged when the English tried to exort food supplies by attacking the Indians and destroying their villages By 1609 Governor Thomas Gates arrived and told the Indians that they have to labor for the colonists and make annual payments of corn and skins After Wahunsonacook the Powhatans rose up in revenge to drive the English away But the British had weapons and in a short time the Powhatans went from 800 to less than 1000 By 1613 tobacco becomes a developed export industry the best land which is occupied by the natives are taken from the natives They rationalize this action by calling the Indians savages that take up the land They quotroot out the people from being any longer a peoplequot William Tucker In a treaty 1623 captain tucker persuades the Indians to take a drink and serve them poisoned wine 200 die immediately another 50 are killed and scalped This action is justi ed by calling lndians quotculturally savagequot VII VIII XI XII XIII XIV Pilgrims believers of Puritanism Puritans did not want to separate from the Church of England but they wanted to quotpurifyquot Catholic practices Pilgrims of Plymouth Rock were also called Separatists They wanted to break with the Church of England Governor Winthrop did not want Puritans to become separatists but they do and follow him to the new world Plymouth Rock Massachusetts 1620 When the British pilgrim in 1620 they met the Wampanoags another farming group with a representative political system a division of labor with workers specializing in arrowmaking Pilgrims and Indians Samoset an Abenaki sagamore lesser chief from Pemaquid Point of Maine was the rst Indian to meet the Pilgrims He and three other Wampanoags Massaoit Sqaunto and Hobomah became missionaries to the Pilgrims All of them spoke English from having learned it from previous Europeans Squanto is the most famous he had been kidnapped and enslaved by the British but escaped with the help of another English He persuades the Indians to help the En lish Thgnksgiving day share corn show how to catch sh and gets them through the rst winter In the spring they come back and teach the pilgrims to plant and cultivate Samoset and land in 1625 some of the Englishmen ask Samoset to give them an additional of 12000 acres of Pemaquid land Even though the Indians were farmers who helped out the Pilgrims other Englishmen came and created their own realities of the Indians It justi ed in dispossessing the Indians of their lands because of their quotsavageryquot Unlike Jamestown where Indian savagery was attributed to their culture New England savagery was based on their physical appearance the quotdescentquot their race Indians and the devil in this social construction of race Indians become associated with the devil Motivation Takaki argues that it is the economic competition over land Pilgrims misportray Indians as people who do nothing productive but hunt sh and fowl They also argue that Indians are nomadic and the change from place to place Then as more and more Europeans started coming in they brought diseases As a result the Indian population falls from 12K to 3K for Abenakis and 65K to 10K for Southern New England tribes mainly because of disease and battle 16101675 Within half a century of Pilgrim s landing Blake Island Indians want from 1500 to 51 16621774 This tragedy is seen as a quotDivine Interventionquot or quotPuritan Destinyquot Nonetheless the reality was that Indians were farmers and had taken most of the prime land for their own farming IndianWhite Wars A Pequot Wars 163637 1 In 1636 the colonists went on war against the Indian because they wanted to make the land vacant 2 700 Pequots are killed 3 Part of Algonquin tribe B King Philip s War aka Metacom s War 1 Over 1000 Indians killed another 6000 died of disease and combat 2 Metacom was the younger son of Massasoit as a Wampanoag chief he wanted to resist all the European invaders 3 To try to assuage Metacom the New Englanders tried to atter him by crowning him Kind Philip of the Pokanoket 4 Meanwhile Metacom King Philip formed alliances with the Narrangansetts and other tribes in the region in order to save the Indian confederacy 5 After his older brother Wamsutta was murdered by colonists King Philip attacked 52 settlements completely destroying 12 6 But after months of ghting the colonists won and virtually exterminated the Wampanoags and Narrangansetts 7 King Philip Metacom is killed and his head is publicly exhibited at Plymouth for over 20 years 8 Wife and son sold into slavery in the West Indies 9 Native Americans are sent to slavery in the West Indies because of the British colonialism 10 The newenglanders are a people of God settled in those which were once the Devil s territories Cotton Mather promotes the death of natives by calling barbarians 11 The killing of Indians was divine a ght between god and the devil Being indian meant to be the devil Purpose of making Indians the devil was to not only take the land but to help create the notion of an American who has right to the land versus who doesn t C FrenchIndian War or the Seven years war 1 Not all Europeans were like the Brits a Spanish While oppressive recognized some marriages between Native Americans and the Spaniards creating upperclass Mestizos At least 7 types of classi cations of Mestizos The difference is that the Spanish thought that the way to make Indians civilized was to make them Catholic In time skin color and class become nearly synonymous but it was not absolute b North America and the Middle Ground Historian Rishard White pattern of alliance and playoff is key to understanding the relationship between the Indians the different whites they encountered Indians were able to play Europeans against one another if you don t join up with our group then we will join your rivals Strength of Indians was that they could navigate for themselves c FrenchIndian Alliance Although outnumbered French were able to withstand English expansion because of their Indian alliances The Algoquins were the most important for the French in maintainingprotecting their empire The French rulers gave tribute to subjects to preserve the alliance The Indians knew how to exploit their function d Committal Ground Common Ground the alliance was about kinship in the form of patriarchy There was a French father and his children Problem with French in relations with Indians is the French do not have the power to command They must nd a committal ground Lots of initial cultural misunderstandings but a middle ground was often achieved Mixed children of French Indian descent Metis Dif culties initially arise from different cultural perspectives with regards to what is meant by a father Both French and Indian talked in terms of patriarchy father and children relationships as a governing model French had to adjust ne tune their father i French daughters were subordinate to the fathers fathers provided for their needs ii Choctaws maternal brothers or maternal uncles are the central gure iii Algonquins fathers were kind protecting but could not counsel obedience 2 Patterns of FrenchBritish Warfare a b C d e Empire wars on the North American continent between the French and the English were usually limited to warfare between the New England area and Canada Typically the English would attempt to strike the heart of Canada via water by sailing around Nova Scotia and trying to reach Quebec and Montreal Sometimes during these wars before the 7 Years War 17561763 the English never captured Montreal or Quebec A stalemate results and the con ict would scale back to Indians raid across the French and English border Most of these wars had little consequences 3 Prelude to 7 Years War a Migration of people intersect Europeans were moving into the Pennsylvania region Displaced Indians from New England moved into Ohio River Valley Meanwhile ve Nations of the Iroquois the mightiest and most advanced of the Eastern tribes also moved into the Ohio River Valley Iroquois Confederacy US Constitution equality of women US representative government modeled after them Thomas Jefferson had marveled at their sophistication and morality Iroquois tried to assert control over the Ohio River Valley but they could not Juan Gonzales argues that is because they were truly peaceful and they did not believe in dictatorship They believed in democracy After years of bloodshed to save their political independence they ended up being defeated So they sell the area to the English even though they do not have control French were enraged so they marched to Pittsburgh and set up Fort Duquesne to protect their empire Miitia from Virginia under direction of George Washington marched to the area to protect the area and the settlers 1755 British General Braddock cut a road and marched to Fort Duquesne His force is destroyed this starts the French and Indian War 4 7 Years War a b C d European war fought in America Pattern of warfare broken because the British decided to fund the way with their own money and to provide their own regular troops With this commitment of extra troops British nally took the heart of Canada French ended up ceding all of Canada to British with defeat 5 Consequences of 7 Years War a b c d e Colonists started to believe that they might not need England for protection or help Meanwhile Indians were devastated fet betrayed to have the balance of power shift entirely to England British viewed all Indians as savage culturally and racially British General Thomas Gage now Governor of Massachusetts wanted to subjugate all Indians Indians planned rebellion Pontiac s Rebellion in 1763 D Pontiac s War Pontiac s Rebellion 1 In 17605 Pontiac of the Ottawas United Tribes in the Great Lakes region tried to drive the Brits back to the Aleghenies 2 Proclamation of 1763 aimed to keep the English east of the Andirondacks Basic goal bring back the French into his rebellion He failed major error was an alliance with French speaking white men who withdrew aid during siege of Detroit Although Pontiac s in uence declined around Detroit after unsuccessful siege he gained stature in the Illinois and Wabash country as he continued to encourage resistance to the British In July 1766 Pontiac made peace with British Superintendent of Indian Affairs Sir William Johnson The attention which the British paid to Pontiac created resentment among other Indian leaders particularly because Pontiac claimed far greater authority than he possessed Increasingly ostracized in 1769 he was assassinated by Peoria Indian
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