AES 150 Midterm 2 Notes
AES 150 Midterm 2 Notes AES 150
Popular in Injustice for All
102- Social Science
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Culture
verified elite notetaker
This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angel Lee on Sunday March 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AES 150 at University of Washington taught by Connie So in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 202 views. For similar materials see Injustice for All in Culture at University of Washington.
Reviews for AES 150 Midterm 2 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/01/15
AES 150 T7 Slavery in the American Colonies Notes A Slavery 1 Major issue impacting people of color in the United States 2 Began before the Revolutionary War 3 2 typical approaches to researching African Americans and Slavery a Topdown model from the perspective of the slave holders policy makers media never hear from those enslaved b Bottomup model slave narratives but they are insufficient supposedly from mouths of people Representation Writing is privileged even when being recorded by another oftentimes have hisher own agenda Since some people did not think Blacks are real people must prove humanity to listener Questionable accent sounds like South Carolinian in most records B Two views on the advent of American Slavery 1 Carl Degler quotethnocentricismquot perspective goo9 No slavery initially in North America Discrimination against Blacks predated the legal status of slavery North America v South American Slavery South America free blacks were treated more equally for 3 reasons Roman law of slavery which saw slavery as a possibility for almost anyone a mere accident Roman Catholic Church s advocacy of equality Roman s had a lengthier history of interacting with darkerskinned people than the British Interracial relations The Roman Catholic Church in South America insisted that slaves be allowed to marry They forbade promiscuous relationships between slaves as well as between masters and slaves and it encouraged marriage instead of formal marriage In the predominantly protestant North America slaves were considered property and were not allowed to marry The courts decided that slaver owner should be free to sell his property as he wished This overturned laws which prevented slave families from being broken and separated Eventually because the Catholic Church interfered with Spanish colonization they would be expelled in Latin America But this does not mean that slavery in Latin America is equal either it is more class conscious among the indigenous people than in the US class and color ended up colluding because being lighter skinned is seen as having more European ancestry although this is not actually always true many mixed Spanish with dark blood e Black in North America while life for blacks in Latin America also difficult it is always a relative standard Clear the from the beginning the 16301660 quotEvidencequot from 16301660 blacks were not called slaves or servants but quotblacksquot to show that they were not English Blacks were typically sold to poor white men who nished their apprenticeship but it seemed that Blacks were serving for life In the British colony of Bermuda Blacks were not allowed to carry weapons while other were Black and Indian women were called quottithablesquot while white servant women never were Thus Black women were always treated differently from that of white women from the beginning f When did slavery begin 1635 a widow bequeathed her Black servants as slaves to her children in Virginia Slavery status became inheritable beginning as early as 1643 with mulattos inheriting slave status g Story ofjohn punch in 1640 case of three runaway servants in Virginia two white men and one Black All were punished with lashes but the white men had their service extended a year while the Black man John Punch has it extended all his life Basically this meant slavery for doing nothing more than what the other men did In July 2012 genealogists at ancestrycom announced the strong likelihood that Obama is a descendant the 11th great grandson ofJohn Punch who in 1620 became the rst black person to be legally de ned as a slave This lineage comes through his white mother Shirley Ann Dunham who is apparently descended from children ofJohn Punch h Of cial slavery i AnthonyJohnson was born into slavery but was eventually freed As an indentured servant Anotnio Johnson s owner released him after nearly 14 years gave him a plot of land to farm the Antonio renamed himself Meanwhile he married a female slave Mary About 15 years later couple moved to NorthHampton Country Virginia where AnthonyJohnson became a plantation owner In 1640 the year of the notoriousJohn Punch case Johnson eventually owned 500 acres and 5 indentured servants 250 of his 500 acres came from a headright claim He would purchase an indentured servant John Casor After 15 years passed Casor asked for help from a white man because Johnson was making him a servant for life Johnson won the suit and in retaining Casor as his servant for his life Johnson became the rst of cial slaveholder in Virginia Others then followed his suit AfterJohnson s death in 1670 a court ruling set a precedent that would be an important factor in determining the social status of freed black men in the colonies A white Virginia planter was allowed to seize Johnson s land because a ruling court that said as a black man Anthony Johnson was not a citizen of the colony ii Chattel slavery degler s persepecitve argument particularly his use of comparison of Latin America and Catholicism is used to underscore the culture of the British Whites toward slavery he is indirectly tying Protestantism into slavery arguments In the West Indies white weren t really interested in settling they were just business people In Virginia race and religion were inseparable iii The colonial process 1662 slavery de ned by statute law of Virginia 1664 Maryland said slavery was durante vita and hereditary through the father meaning that is you re free white woman who married a Black man you would become a slave as well as your kids 1667 Virginia decided the conferring of baptism does not alter the condition of the person as to his bondage or freedom In 1670 Virginia enacted a law stating that no negro or Indian be allowed to purchase Christians 1680 term negro would become interchangeable for slave in Virginia iv Only 25 years later would blacks become a major work force for the south or come to occupy 20 percent of the population of Virginia but already blacks had discriminatory status which re ected the treatment already given to them by whites 2 Oscar Handlin exploitation theory blacks never treated well slavery evolved to formalize white treatment and attitude toward blacks slavery was not always there a Slavery emerged from European institutions blacks were initially indentured servants and rst group of African indentured servants came from Angola to C Jamestown on August 1619 a year before pilgrims arrived to Plymouth Rock But by 16605 the pressure of attracting white indentured servants led to making their conditions more favorable than those of Blacks In the process the status of Blacks turned to slavery With the development of large plantation in the 16905 and the importation of numerous slaves there became an economic necessity for slavery While other lowerclass immigrants climbed their way socially into a higher social class the quotBlacksquot skin color remained their badge of inferiority and slavery Skin color becomes the reason for exploitation Criticism even before American slavery already slavery system in the West Indies No proof that Black servants ever had the status of white servants Blacks were always treated differently but the legal de nition of how they were treated came later Slavery does not depend on improving situation of whites because servants in New England were of minor importance White servant status did not improve or deteriorate during 16605 1660 slavery rst formalized in Maryland But this is 40 years after the rst Blacks came Question which came rst Slavery or discrimination 3 Takaki s View a b Exploitation and ethnocentricism credible Takaki s view Nathanial Bacon s Rebellion changed the rules Led by a 29 year old planter Nathaniel Bacon in Virginia It was the rst rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part Bacon s rebellion 1676 similar uprising in Maryland would take place later that year About a thousand Virginians rose up in arms against the rule of Virginia Governor The alliance between former indentured servants and Africans disturbed the ruling class who responded by hardening the racial caste of slavery Giddy multitude the fear that there would be too many poor people landless servants freed men slaves whose discontent would uproot the few gentry developing the colonies Blacks and Whites joining hands Bacon s rebellion showed that class tension could and did surface Slavery Thus slavery was institutionalized to provide a solution to class con ict among whites Slavery occurred then the logical economic incentive of slavery took over The gentry was afraid of poor whites taking over yet they could not force Native Americans to serve them Thus they institutionalized and brought in slaves The Atlantic Slave Trade was the largest Forced migration in world history New York City when it was New Amsterdam becomes the capital of slavery in the colonies Natural seaport so that ships from all over came Charlestown South Carolina has the largest enslaved population 4 Summary of causes a b c Degler ethnocentricism what s with the brits Handlin exploitation looking for free workers white or Black or anything else Takaki largely an ethnocentrisms treatise second part is exploitation 5 Conditions of Slavery a b Death rate under slavery extraordinary a quarter of all Africans died within their rst year of slavery Life expectancy in the British West Indies was 7 years Takaki and other books tend to focus on men More men than women Less controversial to read about Enslaved women females enslaced did everything men did and more Despite her importance to the Master s household eld she only made a third of the those sold in slavery during its heyday in 1690 Some were sold into bondage because they were accused of adultery or breaking other tribal laws Other were captured a king s daughter to lure men themselves Slave ships women treated differently from men aboard slave ship Males chained to oors because shippers were afraid of violence of resistance from them Female slaves on the other hand moved about freely to become ready targets for any white male who chose to physically abuse or torment them All slaves branded with a hot iron before boarding ships For those who cried out in pain or resisted the torture a cat of nine tails used Women as a consequence lashed more severely for crying After their branding all enslaved Africans stripped of all their clothing Bell hooks ain t l a woman the nakedness of the African female slave served as a content reminder of her sexual vulnerability Rape was a common method of torture slavers used to subdue rebellious Black women Rape was so common that Robert Schufeldt observed and reported that many black women already impregnated by someone of the crew Pregnant women on ships many African women pregnant prior to their capture or purchase Had to endure pregnancy without any care given to their diet without any exercise without any assistance Annals of History record that the Ameircan slave ship Pong carried 250 women many of them pregnant whowere squeezed in to a 16 by 18 compartment Women who survived the initial stages of pregnancy gave birth aboard ship with their bodies exposed to either the scorching sun or the cold winter Slave ship diagram 1790 was presented as evidence to the House of Commons to abolish slavery Women with children on ships Black women with children on ships were ridiculed mocked treated contemptuously by slave crew Slavers were often brutalized children to watch anguish of mothers Purpose these types of experiences were part of the indoctrination process ued against free African man and women to transform them into slavesproperty Some people remarked that African as they departed from the ships seemed to be happy and joyful New assessment perhaps merely expressing relief Punishment in North America brutal equality in slavery both men and women were abused But arguably African females bore the brunt of this mass brutalization and terrorization not only because they could be victimized via their sexuality to assert control masters not only dressed their slaves but also undressed them Slaves were stripped for inspection on the auction black and often provided with insufficient clothing while working in elds Whipping was a common form a punishment demanded the removal of clothing For females this generally meant disrobing down to the waist While the state of half dress allowed women some modesty it also expressed her naked breasts to all eyes This sight reinforced white perceptions associating sexuality with the uncivilized black slaves David baker quotblack female executionsquot beginning with MA s execution of Maria a young slave woman for arsonmurder in September 1681 officials executed 58 slave women before 1790 Of the 165 slave women executions during colonial antebellum slavery some 48 percent involved multiple executions that occurred on the same day for the same crime This means that slave women after acted in concert with slave counterparts in response to White oppression Jurisdiction often imposed harsher punishments on slave women than their male conspirators slave women often burned to death for their crimes whereas male coconspirators hanged for the same offences Growth of slavery as slavery grew so did the African population Over half all white immigrants to the English colonies of North America during the 17th and 18th centuries consisted of indentured servants The major problem with indentured servants was that in time they would be freed but were unlikely to become prosperous The best lands were already in the hands of wealthy plantation families by 1650 By switching to pure chattel slavery new white laborers and small farmers Chattel slavery the slavery system as it evolved was designed to extract the max pro t from unwilling and dependent subjects Under this system slaves were a piece of property that could be bought and sold according to the Master s wi Emergence of black stereotypes it would be suggested that Africans were mentally inferior sexually immoral and many other negative description which were widespread by the time of the Civil War Some masters wanted to protect investment especially once the slave trade was abolished quotDiaries of William Byrd llquot Meanwhile the American racism ingrained in most whites that Blacks were inferior Subhuman also made slavery increasingly oppressive In the famed diaries he wrote about how he beat branded and quotbrokequot his slaves Slavery grew to be great division between the North and South North indentured servitude No one crop like tobacco and cotton in New England Unlike VA no great need to get a cheap free labor force AES 150 T8 Pocahontas Notes By Roy Disney Pocahontas Myth The lm distorts history beyond recognition Pocahontas 1 Her real name is Matoaka She was only 7 or 8 when she rst metJohn Smith and the English 2 She quotsavesquot John Smith39s life 3 Actually means quotspoiled childquot Captain John Smith 1 He wrote a lot of other stories than this one but they never rose to fame 2 Why does this story become so famous a Because she saved a white person b And white people are quotnicequot c Because she was an quotelevatedquot person for not hanging around her own race but whites Different depictions of Pocahontas 1 The depiction of Pocahontas is corrupted throughout time 2 She is transformed to look more quotEuropeanquot as a result she looks more Spanish and Latino For example clothes and jewelry 3 Her only existing portrait is extremely European True story vs fake 1 Wahunsonacook was a part of Algonquin Tribe 2 Pocahontas was actually already married Kocoum Notice how in the original movie his husband is betrayed as a quotjerkquot 3 To get the chief to help them they actually kidnapped Pocahontas 4 She was taken as a prisoner and taken in hostage for about a year by Captain Argall 5 John Rolfe was a 28 widower who took a special interest in Pocahontas Pocahontas was the one who introduced tobacco to him To establish peace Pocahontas is married with John Rolfe and also baptized Her new name is Rebecca Rolfe a Rebecca in the Bible is the mother of two sons and two nations 8 They bore one son Thomas Rolfe and she shortly dies at the age of 21 9 An integrated educated exotic princess a They take her back to England b She is used as a display and advertisement to bring more colonists to the Americas 10n actuality Pocahontas called John Smith a liar and did not like him 101 AES 150 T9 American Revolutionary War Notes A Explaining the revolution there continues to be a contradiction between what will be said in our American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence and the reality of slavery and emerging Indian reservations B Context of the Revolution there are those who want to bring about radical change and those who want to keep things the same At the time revolution the colonists lived in a precapitalist society modeled after patriarchy Patriarchs are able to retain power by their control of the land It was not wagebased society and most young people in this society were poor and without land 1 Why so little land it is expensive and powerful French and Indian alliance prevented Westward expansion before 1763 By the 18th century most men do not inherit land until their 305 or 405 land is made accessible after the 1763 and wars between French and Indian Reason for revolution colonial seem to be doing well economically not too much taxation a lot of the people happy under the rule of the King of England Revolution was a byproduct of the convergence of imperialism social change and ideology Carl Marx Theory Background winning the 7 years war was expensive for the British It became necessary to keep a large British force in the colonies But who was going to pay for these efforts Emergence of Republican to collect taxes and pay for the 7 Years war King set up more officials in the colonies At rst most people did not want to overthrow the Kind or to have a revolution they were only interested in halting the abuses of the King What emerged is the idea of Republicanism Republicanism stands for democracy the sovereign rights of people and right of government to control government A set of values were created liberty independence a balanced government and virtue This ideology grows in the 1760s In practice this ideology condones popular rebellions when they are conducted in the community39s interest Whigs believes all power in government comes from the people True Whigs say revolt is justi ed after all legal options are exhausted and authorities are acting outside of their authority If a government fails to respect people39s wishes people have the right to overthrow government C American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence 1 Stamp Act 1765 Stamp Act revenue would force colonists to cover a third of war expenses Applies to newspapers journals and legal documents To pay for the 7 years war the British had to decide whether to a Collect taxes on already existing laws b Start a new tax c Stamp Act Congress mob resistance emerged in form of Sons of Liberty Stamp Act Congress created to oppose Stamp Act 9 out of 13 colonies attend Congress called for boycott of English products Limited resistance not a fullblown revolution eventually Stamp Act is repealed Braintree Resolutions 1765 Sept 24 1765 town meeting at Braintree MA John Adams wanted to appoint a committee of ve to draft an of cial protest to Stamp Act The protest was called the Braintree Resolutions Instructions a Ironically used the language of slavery to oppose the Stamp Act b quotcolonials will not be slaves to Englandquot c English saw colonials as hypocrites d British insisted that colonials are represented in Parliament by quotvirtual representationquot e Colonial39s response if we don39t elect them they don39t represent us f Debate over term quotrepresentationquot 3 Townshend Acts 1767 passed to tax imports Tax revenues used to pay salaries of the tax collects and judges to free them from colonial control a To enforce Act British bought in troops In Boston city of 15000 there were 4000 British troops 4 Boston Massacre 1770 the result of Townshend Acts a First person killed was Crispus Attucks a freed former indentured servant African American who fought on the side of the colonists Townshend Acts repealed But British left symbolic tax on tea 5 Boston Tea Party 1773 1773 Tea act Britain tried to trick colonists into accepting taxation by lowering price on British tea to make it even to previous price Even when it was cheaper colonists drink smuggle tea Leads to Boston Tea Party a By 1772 talk of revolt the debate intensi ed in 17731774 b Colonials divided in 2 basic groups Patriots Whigs v Tories Loyalists 6 Publication of the Common Sense 1776 After Boston Tea Party British passed the quotIntolerable Actsquot it closed down the port town meeting and etc a Thomas Paine s arguments attacked monarchy why do we need a King People have the power b It sold 100000 copies in a population of a million c Colonists weren39t really interested in change just wanted to govern as they had without the British presence d Common sense pushed people toward more revolutionary thoughts and acUons Declaration of Independence Assignment re ected Whig doctrine What was retained and altered Consider the use of language Change in tone Consider organization of arguments Consider audience Implication for black native Americans and women Role of quotSlaveryquot in the declaration Why the change American Dilemma contradiction between the declaration and slavery American revolution around 4000 colonials bear arms for King Rough a third of the population was against revolution About 50 percent were neutral 1 Continental army most of new England was revolutionary most of the south was not quotAmericaquot was already a divided country It formed in 17756 It was a regular army that joined with another ghting force the quotMilitiaquot 2 Britain vs Continental Army Usually when British Army faced the Continental Army the British won They found that they could defect the Continental Army but they could not destroy it This led to frustration and opposition to the war in England as well as colonies Most Indians sided with British because colonists took land led to Indian frontier war 3 French involvement France came in on side of the colonists after they showed their staying power at Saratoga French assisted during Battle of Yorktown 1781 The French eet defeated the British Cornwallis the British General surrendered This British defeat led to the end of the War F PostRevolution after the revolution Thomas Jefferson and the gentry felt that they would be recognized as the legitimate rulers of the new country All in all bad governments rule by fear good governments rule by natural af nity 1 This new country would be based on republican virtue the willingness to make individual sacri ces for the good of the whole 2 At the same time there was a belief in laissezfaire economy and a view that for a person to be a good person he must exercise selfreliance 3 What is an American One of the most important beliefs that quotfounding fathersquot had was that the colonists were homogenous Jefferson believed that the US must stay homogenous to be strong If people were different then there would be no uni ed interest a b Some argue that this desire doomed the vision from the start because there were already so many different people Also the reliance on selfsacri ce is undercut by the selfinterest that arises with the rise of the market economy One of the biggest problems Jefferson had is with the notion of quotindependencequot both national and personal Banjamin Banneker the whole do not amount in point of evidence to what we know ourselves of Banneker not without the suspicion of aid from Ellicot who was his neighbor and friend I have a long letter from Banneker which shows him to have had a mind of very common stature indeed Thomas Jefferson 1809 three years after the death of Benjamin Banneken Citizenship in America naturalization act of 1790 quotfree white personsquot or quotgood moral characterquot Left out American Indians indentured servants slaves free Blacks While women were included in the act the right of citizenship did quotnot descend to persons whose fathers have never been resident in the USquot Citizenship was inherited exclusively through the father Most people cannot vote only independent white men over 21 By 1795 residence of 5 years added to check good moral character Meanwhile for census Blacks considered 35 human National and International Developments 1777 Slavery abolished in Vermont 1783 6 states in North abolish slavery 1808 Fed Law abolishes Slave Trade G New Republic 17851830 1 Expansionism a lot of white people a b Land Ordinance of 1785 established the way to sell new land that was being quotdiscoveredquot The federal government claimed all Western lands Northwest Ordinance 1787 said slavery would be illegal north of the Ohio River At this time slavery was dying institution economically and there was growing more opposition 2 Issues the arise in the West a Authority of the Federal government b Type of economic system used c Treatment of American Indians 3 Federal government had 2 challenges to its authority in the West a Indians b White black country settlers c By what right did the US claim Western land US conquered the British but the Indians did not recognize the British right to give up land Plus Indians did not considered themselves defeated 4 Indian Confederations 17851794 Indian confederation consisted of Iroquois and other tribes around Ohio River Valley what remained of the New England tribes a 1790 US attacked Indians US defeated b 1791 US attacked Indians US defeated c 1794 War of Fallen Timbers Indians lost British support too occupied with other wars d Indians compelled to give concessions to the US e Resulting treaties establish principles for Indian policy Indians own land Indians were not defeated and negotiations would be honored since both parties were legitimate peoples f Unfortunately not what necessarily occurred there would be abuse of land deeds The civil war the JeffersonianJacksonian view having all American be farmer quotManifest destinyquot all contributed to the continuation of American Expansionism 5 Louisiana Purchase 1800 territory given to France from Spain in a secret treaty Napoleon wanted to sell land for 15 million Jefferson abandoned the strict construction of the Constitution and buys the land Because of ghting between France and England in Europe Jefferson approved an embargo on trade and also began to encourage manufacturing Resulting Industrialization made tremendous impact on Native Americans and African Americans H Industrialization on Slavery 1 Erie Canal Jefferson by end ofJefferson39s life he witnessed the growth of the most two things he feared most slavery in the south and wage labor in the north a Jefferson like the other founding fathers like Madison and Franklin did not think that whites and Black could ever coexist b Part of the reason why created Liberia questioned Phyllis Wheatley Ben Banneker etc c Although it is ironic given his relationship with Sally Hemings 2 Cotton Gin invented by Eli Whitney in 1793 Cotton gin made cotton extremely pro table Cotton production expanded rapidly westward pushing Indians off land again a In the north erie canal opened up a new industry manufacturing started replacing home labor system Piece work was the rst stage Later the word quotbossquot entered the American language I End of an Era these social changes were exactly what the Founding Fathers feared On July 4 1826 on the 50th Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died within hours of each other J quotIndividualismquot there is a race in the notion of quotindividualismquot A rise in the consciousness of race Rise of the market economy These changes embodied by Andrew Jackson Jackson was the symbol of the quotselfmade manquot He became a war hero at the Battle of New Orleans in 1812 He is a man of rage anger and ruthlessness Qualities showed through his duel with Charles Dickenson when he took a bullet but still stood up to shoot Dickenson fatally K AndrewJackson 1 Became president in 1828 2 Initially sounded like an old Jeffersonian a b Antinational backs opposed national improvement projects like roads etc Believed in the quotselfmade manquot and rugged quotindividualismquot and these images dominated the US But individualism was racialized and gendered only white men have the ability to control their destinies did not apply to anyone else AES 150 Antebullum South and Slavery Post 18305 Jacksonian Era A South stopped being defensive about slavery and began to assert it as a positive practice Southern Defense of quotpeculiar institutionquot 1 Slavery is not evil it is good 2 Justi cation Slavery is not the problem it is black people 3 Three reasons a Religious blacks were the cursed tribe of Ham Southerners say there was slavery in the Bible so it must be okay Jesus never said anything about slavery so it must be okay Most importantly slavery was seen as a method to convert African Americans to Christianity b Racial inferiority Samuel Morton developed science of craniometry to determine intelligence according to skull capacity Takeki critiqued this based on ndings of Stephen Jay Gould could not be repeated used the skills of white criminals but the ideas persist namely people of color all inferior to white intelligence quotDiseases and Pecularities of the Negro Racequot in an 1851 article Dr Samuel Cartwright a highly respected and widely published doctor from the U of Louisiana discussed two diseases which he claimed were unique to African Americans One was his newlydiscovered quotdrapetomaniaquot a disease which caused slaves to run away The other quotDysaethesia Aethiopicaquot a disease causing quotracialityquot in blacks c Patriarchy Southerners say their families were in good order compared to the North Slavery is a blessing to African Americans because they are cared for by a caring master Otherwise Blacks were foolish helpless children North only wanted to halt the expansion of slavery into New territories 1 Abolitionists wanted slavery ended completely a Abolitionist argument b Religious argument said people have free will to determine their salvation so how could any Christian allow African Americans to have their free will taken away by slavery c Therefore slaveholding is a sin Northern response to Southern Arguments 1 Patriarchy defense What type of family sold its own kids 2 What type of values were being promoted 3 Violence held this system together The system of slavery 1 Slave conditions where and how do slaves live a Lots of interaction between slaves and their white masters b Most enslaved blacks did not live on large plantations but in small or medium isolated agricultural units where they were in close contact with their owners and worked side by side with them c Many enslaved blacks also lived in city households working as servants artisans small tradesmen where they frequently interacted with other blacks both slaves and freed men in other words it s not homogenous but consistently oppressive 2 Work conditions for enslaved women Initially men made up the majority of those enslaved because of their labor After the dissolution of the Atlantic Slave Trade more women became enslaved Women were exploited as eld laborers domestic workers breeders and objects of assault While Black men were not forced to assume a role colonial American society regarded as feminine Black women were forced to assume a masculine role Few Black men were domestics with the possible exceptions of butlers whose status was still higher than that of maids In contrast privileged white women rarely worked in the elds e Occasionally white female indentured servants were forced to work in the elds but only as punishment for misdeeds not common practice f In the eyes of white Americans only debased and degraded members of the female sex labored in the eld and any white woman forced by circumstances to work to work in the eld g West African women hand labored in the elds of Africa but these tasks were seen as an extension of a women s feminine role h But in America African women soon realized that they were treated as surrogate men by white male slavers goo9 i Despite a widespread belief among white plantation owners that Black women were often better workers than men only male slaves could rise to position of driver or overseer j Despite the distinctions made in leadership roles black men and women were treated equally when it came to punishment Tools of punishment punishment meted out against them regardless of motherhood pregnancy or physical in rmity A Sale of slaves slaves were often sold because of death of a master or during periods of economic stress Many were used as a means of punishment for an insubordinate slave Their affection for their children was used against them as a way of tying them to their masters Children could be used as hostages in case the mother tried to escape Sometimes children sold because mistress did not want maid s attention diverted from the mistress children Number of homicide cases involving Black females Beatings initially during colonial days some black women were used as studs to breed with black women By 19th century white men raped women to produce quotmulattoesquot which reaped higher sales Paddling James Glass Bertram wrote in his 1869 History of the Road in order not to mark the backs of the slaves and thus deteriorate their value in VA they substituted the pliant strap and the paddle A sacred slave was troublesome Floggings in the Victorian world where white women were religiously covering every part of her body black women were daily stripped of their clothing and publicly whipped Slaveowners were wellaware that is added to the degradation and humiliation of Black women for them to be forced to appear naked before male whippers and onlookers Even pregnant women were ogged to accomplish this a special hole was dug in the ground for her stomach Jealousy and servicing of the mistress Calvin Hertnon s sex and racism in America 1966 was one of the rst books that talked about the intersecting myths about sex and race It discussed the jealousy of white mistresses and how she took it out on the enslaved black woman instead of her husband Ironically the same white mistresses who beat her slaves were supposed to be charitable Christian women Dependency of white women as black women worked white women were trapped in their title as lady and could not work Consequently white mistresses often made their maids sleep in their quarters because they were dependent upon their services The domestic slaves were separated Life of mammy black women were forced to nurse the children of their oppressors and rapists while being forced to neglect their own children Cultivating ignorance deny education 1 They were not allowed to speak in their native American tongue because that was regarded as subversive 2 In 182018305 slave states enacted stringent laws such as denying those enslaved the right to even the most rudimentary learning restricting contact with fellow slaves and just the repression of other rights of human beings They denied education to rationalize and categorize them as equivalents to animals If they were caught reading they risked having eyes gouged and ngers or hands chopped off Enforce ignorance to discourage runaways Rationalized the quotsavageryquot animalistic qualities of Blacks Espionage 1 Enslaved people constantly watched by the overseer for fear of rebellion ofjust social control a They were not allowed to speak in their native African tongue because that was regarded as subversive b People could not sing sad sing and only happy Christian songs Household slaves 1 Popular notion that they were given preferential treatment but not the case 2 They were more carefully watched over They were more likely to suffer endless cruelty and torture because they were constantly under pressure 3 Black women working in close contact with white mistresses were frequently abused for petty offenses like burning waf es Altering Names Changing Identity 1 Slave names were often changed according to the whims of the master 2 This was particularly hard after a mother gave a name to her child Rapes 1 Arguably the most worse exploitation of black women was sexual O P PP 2 Under the sexism of the time the female slave lived in constant awareness of her sexual vulnerability and in perpetual fear that any male might her out for assault 3 Black females slaves were usually assaulted between the ages of 1316 4 They usually began after they left the hut or cabin of their parents to work in the white householf 5 Common practice for a young slave girl to be forced to sleep in the same bedroom with mistress 6 There is some evidence that male slaveowners usually tried to bribe black women as preparation for sexual overtures 7 As long as he paid something he can absolve himself This is how stories of rape have been interpreted as a result of women s complicity If she resisted compensation she was punished 8 It is used as a social order It enforced passive acceptance of sexual exploitation Females submitted unwillingly lll Stereotypes A Stereotyping of White Woman 19th century growing prosperity of Americans caused them to stray from the stern religious teachings that shaped their lives White women were no longer seen as sexual temptresses they were the nobler half of humanity whose duty was to elevate men s sentiments and inspire their higher impulses 1 This new image was diametrically opposed to the old image She was depicted as a goddess not a sinner 2 By raising the white female status white men effectively removed the stigma Christianity had placed on them Message as long as white women possessed sexual feelings they would be seen as degraded immoral creatures remove sexual feelings and they become beings worthy of love consideration and respect 3 The price white women had to pay for this respect was the suppression of natural sexual impulses Stereotyping Black Women 1 White men adopted a selfrighteous sexual morality for themselves 2 Since women were designated as the originator of sexual sin Black women were seen as the embodiment of female evil and sexual lust 3 Despite the obvious brutalization of black women it was considered as prostitution 4 house of illfame a master s house labeled by Frederick Douglass when speaking at NY in 1850 5 Unfortunately this de ected attention away from the prevalence of forced sexual assault and it gave credibility to the myth that Black females were inherently wanton and therefore responsible for rape Stereotyping Black Men 1 Not only were Black women viewed as surrogate men and jezebels black men were viewed as overly sexual 2 Because of the pregnancy of black women and nakedness of black men there become a view of black men as rapists 3 studs used to call black men breeders to call white men 4 brute black men as rapists Creation of Stereotypes in defense of slavery several stereotypes created Black women were not women because of their masculinity and black men were not real men because of their immaturity 1 Mammy Jezebel Sapphire women 2 Uncle Tom Brute Coon Zip Coon men 3 Pickaninnies children Barren Black Women were victims of great physical psychological abuse Women were flogged for not having babies Some slaver owners devised a system of reward to induce women to breed 1 Some took advantage of pregnancy to get a lighter work load but this did not always worked Enslaved women were still undernourished and rarely in a physical condition for easy childbirth Pregnancies without proper care lead to miscarriages IV Resistance A Individual Struggles and Acts of Resistnace 1 Mammies and household servants a Poisoning b Stealing food for others c Delivered messages d Used affection of master s children to get her way in the household 2 Individual Tactics a Arsonincendiarism Gabriel Prosser VA 1800 led a revolt and began a movement b Nat Turner 1831 VA pretended to be an Uncle Tom until he led a rebellion killing white people lnstilled positive feelings despite negative treatments by whites maintaining pride Killed children to keep them out of slavery induced abortion Feigned illness pretended to be pregnant Trickster gures pretended to be slowwitted to not nish task Practiced witchcraft Tituba was a 17th century slave belonging to Samuel Parris of Salem MA She was the rst person accused of practicing witchcraft during the Salem witch trials 1692 She became the rst person to confess to witchcraft in Salem village but she was never tried or executed but was sent to jail and later released from jail 3 Community supported resistance a Escaping and running away mostly failed and returned voluntarily Most common reason for escape was to go visit relatives This was usually tolerated well by masters b Organizing slave revolts brigantine hope march 17 1765 and David Walker s Appeal September 1829 c Writing or organized thinking d Slave community by 1860 the south made it impossible to free blacks from slavery They were forbidden to practice their own culture and forced to practice white culture 3a1 Harriet Tubman 18201913 1 Born a slave in Maryland 2 Learned to go North by looking at moss on trees 3 Later Used the North Star Drinking Gourd and coded slave spirituals 4 Escaped in 1849 and became a conductor for the Underground Railroad 5 Returned over 19 times to help entire family and other escape 6 7 8 9 9quot Escorted over 350 people to freedom Commanded both white and black troops on scouting raids Went undercover as a slave in confederacy Mostly freed black helped out and of the whites was mostly Quakers From PENN to NY to Canada 3b1 Denmark Vessey 17671822 was born as a slave to Captain Vessey in South Carolina After winning a lottery he purchased his freedom and became a religious minister He began to recruit supporters for a slave revolt but he failed and was executed 3b2 German Coast Uprising of 1811 under the leadership of Charles Deslandes 1780 1811 emerged a slave rebellion that nearly toppled New Orleans 500 slaves dressed in military uniforms and armed with guns cane knives and axes rose up from the plantations around New Orleans and set out conquest the city It was shushed because it might encourage other slave revolts 3c1 Sojourner Truth 17971883 was born a slave in NY and forced to marry an individual and have ve children She had 4 different masters before quotwalking offquot to another master with her daughter nally freed purchased 4 children are freed except her son Peter who she sues for his freedom In 1851 she spoke at Akron Ohio Women s Convention and made 2 religious points to arguments against feminism After the Civil War she worked tirelessly to assist newlyfreed Southern slaves 1 God and women made jesus man had nothing to do with it 2 Women were not inherently weak and helpless she could do anything a man could do and quotAin t l A Womanquot 3c2 lda B WellsBarnett 18621931 known for her antilynching campaign She was born a slave in Mississippi and she was educated She loved to read but she noticed bias in writings Her parents died of yellow fever and became the caretaker of her 7 siblings Activism began in 1884 after she was sent to the back of the train during a commute It took 3 men to move her She sued and won in the lower courts but eventually this decision was reversed by another court Wrote her ideas down and became a columnist reporter and publisher of various freedom papers In her research she found Black men were lynched to protect white women from sexual assault She toured Europe and spoke out against lynching and in favor of suffrage In 1990 she became one of the founders of the NAACP and focused on segregation 3c3 Margaret Garner 1856 escaped slavery in Kentucky with her husband her inlaws and her four children They crossed the frozen Ohio River to get to the quotfree sidequot or Cincinnati Ohio but were pursued by slave catchers who had legal rights to reclaim runaway slaves because of the Fugitive Slave Act She killed her second youngest daughter to avoid slavery for her children She would have murdered all her children but they stopped her However she was charged with theft not murder Beloved Toni Morrison V Antebellum Society A South 3 By 1850 the South only had 26 percent of railroads 18 percent of industry 4 South fell behind economically Marriage Vow 2011 was a document endorsed by the Republican presidential candidates Michele Bachmann and Rick Santorum The vow which included the assertion that a child born into slavery in 1860 was more likely to be raised by his mother AES 150 T11 Manifest Destiny Notes Native Americans and Mexicans I Native Americans A Missouri Compromise 1820 Fight over slavery crystallizes around expansion of country As US expands West South wants to maintain political balance btw quotfreequot or slave states 1 Missouri entered the US as a free state 2 Maine broke off and entered as a free state 3 States that all states south of Missouri would be free Indian Removal Act 1830 1 Gold is discovered in GA 2 Removed the Cherokees from Georgia As a result more settlers come to GA 3 AndrewJackson promotes the forced removal of Native Americans and in 1814 he command B the US in the removal of Natives C Battle of Horseshoe Bend 1814 l 2 3 4 This battle was revenge for the quotFort Mims Massacrequot where 200 whites were killed In 1814 Jackson killed around 800 Creeks because quotattempts to civilize Indians had failedquot Jackson viewed Indian termination as an inevitable part of progress Creeks lose 22 million acres of land in southern GA and central Alabama The US acquire more land in 1818 when spurred in part by the motivation to punish the Seminoles for their practice of harboring fugitive slaves D Trail of Tears where Native Americans walked from Georgia to Oklahoma under very harsh conditions 4000 out of 16000 Cherokees die of cold hunger and disease The real reason was the discovery of Appalachian gold within their territories l 9199 quot When he became presidentJackson called for the forced removal of the remaining Creeks Cherokees and Pawnees In 1830 the Congress of the US passed the Indian Removal Act The US government sent in 7000 troops who forced the removal They were not allowed time to gather their belongings General Win eld Scott said he planned this operation with a little bloodshed and hardship as possible E Treaty of New Echota 1833 l 2 ChiefJustice John Marshall of the Supreme Court rules that the land was sovereign Cherokees have to agree to more by signing a treaty with the US There were supporters and opponents on both sides a Opponents Daniel Webster henry clay and Davy Crockett b Supporters Major Ridge John Ridge Elias Boudinot Cherokees were tricked In 1833 a small faction of 6 signed the treaty but the number of Cherokees supporting a treaty was small compared to the 17 thousand who made up the tribe Leaders of this group was not representative of the Cherokee people As a result ChiefJohn Ross gathers 15000 to signed a petition in protest But the minority ruled and the treaty was signed by President AndrewJackson ll Second Great Awakening 18305 With the American Revolution American believed that it was their destiny to become a land of freedom and justice under Republican values and virtues It was a movement where they believed people were perfectible if they followed the Bible First Great Awakening 173040s it resulted from powerful preaching that gave listeners a sense of deep personal revelation of their need of salvation byJesus Christ Effects of second Great Awakening A B l 2 3 4 Church membership rose sharply Growth in new denominations a The churches of Christ b SDA c Christian Church d Evangelical Christian Church in Canada The need for perfectibility The growth in Christianity made many European Americans feel that their country had a quotmissionquot this led to quotManifest Destinyquot Pre manifest Destiny and Spanish Mexican territories even before Manifest Destiny Americans had been making incursion into Spanish and Mexican territories for a long time 1 Filibusters when a group of men enter a town and proclaim that they were taking it over as their own Republic a Already between 18101819 the US started picking apart Mexico Through streetcorner holdups the US took over Florida Initially Spanish allowed Anglos to stay if they would settle and become Catholics But this only delayed the inevitable The Anglo colonist population increased In September 1810 Anglos hold up one West Florida town after another declare it a Republic Republic of West Florida attained after the war of 1812 a AndrewJackson was already interested in Florida during the War of 1812 After the War of 1812 the rest of West Florida will go to the US b Other libuster revolts soon spread to East Florida with Andrew Jackson backing many of these efforts Also like Native Americans Mexicans were seen as idle people wasting on a land that they had been living on for thousands of years AdamOnis Treaty 1819 Spanish cede an area larger than Belgium Denmark the Netherlands and Switzerland for a mere 5 million 1 Spanish sell the rest of Florida in hopes to focus on filibuster attempts in Texas Monroe Doctrine 1822 declares that the Americas are off limit to any new European colonization 1 PresidentJames Monroe 1822 suddenly became the rst world leader to recognize Latin American countries independence He did this to align the interests of the Latin Americans with the English 2 Monroe Doctrine began with English prodding England wanted to stabilize trade with Spain s Latin American colonies and to renounce any attempts to colonize Texas or Cuba but Monroe refuses 3 By 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain 4 From 18205 and on Anglos squatters continued going into Texas which Mexicans allowed as long as they swore loyalty to Mexico and became Catholic Some Anglo squatters married wealthier Mexicans and some also began commercial enterprises Mexicans did not minds their presence 5 Stephen Austin 17931836 quotfather of Texasquot he decided to ful ll his father s dream of a colony in Spanish Texas Austin In 1822 when Austin established the colony in Texas he hired a band of horsemen to range over the country to scot the movements of hostile Native Americans a Exhorted Anglos to help him quotredeem it from the wildernessquot b Described is as a battle between quotcivilization and the AngloAmerican racequot c Added violence was inevitable outcome and told people to bring their ri es 6 Rise of Santa Ana 1833 In 1833 General Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana took power he was a cruel dictator a However one of his rst acts was to abolish exemption from taxes and antislavery laws that prior Mexican government had granted to the Anglo Texans This gave Anglo Texans the excuse they needed to break from Mexico s tyranny b By 1835 there were already more Anglos than Mexicans in Texas 20K vs 4K 7 Battle of Alamo 1836 187 people martyred for the US cause Defending slavery stealing land not even US citizens but Mexicans a Legendary Heroes Jim Bowie slave trader looking to make money in the mines William Barret Travis abandoned his family and ew to Texas after committing murder in the US Davy Crockett veteran of the grisly massacre of the Creeks of Horseshoe Bend as a politician came to oppose many of AndrewJackson s bills resulting in the end of his political career b General Sam Houston close friend of AndrewJackson elected governor of Tennessee He was slaveholder who fought alongside Jackson during War of 1812 Horseshoe Bend Knew ofJackson s desire to take Texas Houston lost the Battle of Alamo but won the following Battle at San Jacinto 8 Battle at San Jacinto Santa Ana splits his army between 2 different sites Houston and his men stabbed Mexican soldiers that surrendered on their knees 2 Americans died versus 630 Mexicans 1 Santa Ana is forced to sign a treaty recognizing Texas independence for his freedom 2 Mexican government refuses and the borders remain in dispute Regardless in 1845 US annex Texas Manifest Destiny a nationalist doctrine about the expansion of country but race and sectionalism began to complicate expansion Native Americans and Mexicans do not want to be absorbed by white America Believed that it was the duty of America to take over the entire country Opposing races who do not agree would be quotjusticelyquot destroyed Manifest Destiny White Supremacy Term was coined in 1845 after Texas was annexed by John O Sullivan from the New York Morning Post A James Polk 11th president 18451849 who supported an expansionist policy quotPolk provoked the warquot 1 Problems still remained between North and South free vs slave states 2 Polk wanted Texas and California to be states as well as Oregon 3 It was decided a Texas slave b Oregon free c California half and half 4 Polk also succeed in obtaining Washington territory 5 Polk Provoked the War a Mexico is outraged that Texas is taken from them b Polk wanted a war to solidify US power over Texas and the West c When US soldiers were killed in ght over disputed Texas land Polk asked Congress to declare war d Mexican War dragged from 184648 B Mexican War 184648 1 People debated on how much land to take C Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 US took half of Mexico s territory in this treaty 1 Included New Mexico California Nevada and other parts of other states 2 Was a result of mexico s loss in the Mexican War and the discovery of gold two weeks before the signing of the treaty 3 California biggest prize for US was not Texas but California because of gold The discovery of gold prompts the movement to the west in search for gold a American Mexicans in California had the best lands After the war Mexican Americans living North of the border were made US citizens those below were labeled immigrants In addition Mexicans lost their lands through legal fees court fees and transportation D California Land Act of 1851 drawn by Senator William Gwin it taxed people based on the size of their land rather than the income produced from it As a result it gave Mexicans very little time to pay taxes 1 It favored Anglos who brought money 2 Mexican deeds were taken away from them through squatters the courts recognized as fair and legal 3 Those that intermarried with Anglos generally did better 4 Many lawyers posed as friends or helpers to the Mexicans but instead would steal their land lnnovated by Senator Barton 5 In the end to pay off their debts Mexican Americans sell their land 6 William A Pile of New Mexico a land speculator who steals from original Mexican settlers by burning land grants belonging to Indians and Mexicans and claiming ignorance afterwards yet not Anglo land grants were destroyed a He was also the owner of Maxwell Land Grant Company and Railroad Company which would end up giving away 17 million acres of land 7 Santa Fe Ring 18605 created by the Mexican government to identify land claims and give them to the right people It was notoriously corrupt and Thomas B Catron a member of thie group becomes the largest landholder in the US a Collection of land grants that takes land away from Mexicans b to protect them The US constitution is violated because these acts are done to Mexicans with US citizenship E Gadsden Purchase 1853 1 Five years we purchase the rest of Arizona 2 The goal was basically to take all of the fertile lands 3 These lands were also taken for the purpose of cattle ranching The rst cowboys were Mexican PENN D Conclusion of land deeds polk s administration made the commissions put these irresponsible and corrupt leaders in charge With this lack of leadership fro mteh top of the US gov it is easy to see that Mexican land was taken by the very peple put in charge E Purpose of land deeds alienation of Mexican Americans on their own land After the discovery of gold they became outnumbered As a result many Mexicans return to the US as an immigrant group 1 Foreign Miner s Tax 1850 made those who spoke Spanish to pay 20month whether or not they made money mining its purpose was to take away lands from the Mexicans a Resulted because of ghts over territories lead to lynching of Mexicans b It was passed to assist Anglo miners c Eventually overturned by those who did business with Mexicans 2 Greaser Act 1855 was an antiMexican law enacted in 1855 in California thinly disguised as an antivagrancy statute a Law de ned vagrant as quotpeople who are commonly known as 39Greasers or the issue of Spanish and Indian blood and who go armed and are not peaceable and quiet persons b Most Mexicans were becoming proletariat and nd jobs in the railroads competing with t Chinese Many found jobs working on electrical and telegraph lines Many went South of the Border to nd equality AES 150 T12 Civil War Notes A Precursors to Civil War 18611865 Wilmot Proviso 1846 all territory acquired from the defeat of Mexico will be free no slavery will be allowed according to their rider on this bill created by 1 Northern perspective a people were not against slavery because morals but rather economic competition with labor It was hard for white people to get jobs when it was cheaper to hire black slaves b Small white farmer cannot compete with slaveholders 2 Southerners were against it because their economy relied on slavery 3 This lead to the creation of Republican party and rise of lincoln Compromise of 1850 said California would be free and texas slave 1 18505 was a decade of compromises because of the rise of contradictory ideas and stances 2 Effect a North came to be de ned by utopian capitalism market and felt that south wanted to keep spreading slavery b South came to feel that north wanted to destroy slavery 3 This lead to fugitive slave act to make southerners feel better Fugitive Slave Act 1850 escaped slaves in the North must be returned to the South 1 Outraged the North because the northerners wanted to use this cheap labor Creation of Republican Party 185056 1 Created by the division of the whig party into two 1850 a Knownothing Party which is antiimmigrant b Republican party KansasNebraska Act 1854 trying to build a new railroad from Chicago to California Senator Stephen Douglas captured Southern support by saying 2 new states would be formed West of Missouri and these would be allowed to vote on whether free or slave 1 Results in blood warfare Between abolitionist and proslavery 200 people die in Kansas Dred Scott Decision 1857 1 Dred Scott a slave who lived in a free state for 5 years sued for his freedom 2 Dred Scott v Sandford Dred Scott is returned to slavery because he is property and property cannot sue Furthermore blacks are not born with constitutional rights or protection a Signi cance ruling meant that anywhere in the US slavery was legal because slave owners can still take around their slave in free states 3 Eventually Scott s rst owner emancipates him John Brown and Harper s Ferry 1 In 1859 John Brown captured Harper s Ferry and tried to lead a slave revolt 2 He was captured and sentenced to death 3 His death became a rallying point for the North and the election of Lincoln Election of Lincoln 1860 saw himself as an individualist who believed in Utopian Capitalism 1 Lincoln became leader because he symbolized northern values and its ideology a These included capitalism b And individualism selfeducated himself and became successful c Utopian capitalism capitalism as a system full of opportunity for people to better themselves 2 He believed that a slaveholding conspiracy was trying to spread slavery over the US Initially he did not believe in racial equality 3 As he was in of ce his ideas toward race changed as he met more people and etc 4 Timeline of Lincoln s attitude toward slavery a 1830 opposed abolitionists b 1850 c 1860 allowed people to serve in army and met with black leaders Favored integration 5 He barely won the election Civil War 18611865 started with an economic issue slavery in the economy vs capitalism but was changed to focus on slavery 1 Secession forms the 11 state confederacy Caused by lincoln s election South Carolina leaves followed by 6 states 8 southern states are left undecided In 1861 Virginia splits into two Eventually half the undecided become slave and the other half free were mostly border states on 0399 2 Starts in April 12 1861 the south starts the war at Fort Sumter 3 Southern side a They were disadvantaged but they thought the North would not ght back They were hoping for a stalemate or an agreement to their wishes b They expected Europeans to help them 4 Lincoln Military Strategy 1861 1862 a Lincoln said the war s purpose was to quotmaintain the Unionquot b But as the union army loses he changes the focus out of military necessity By emancipating slaves he persuaded black to leave south and ght for the north As a result south s economy falls c By focusing it on slavery it discourages European countries to help south because they are countries that have already abolished slavery 5 Emancipation Proclamation 1862 frees slaves after the Battle of Antietam which involved 6000 dead and 17000 wounded a Contradiction fugitive slave act b Because of the fugitive slave act slavery was legal in the Constitution but freed slaves in rebel territories c To get people to cooperate and reduce opposition speci cally the Northern Democrats he suspends the writ of habeas corpus As a result 4000 were held throughout the war 6 New York Draft Riots 1863 prompted by linconln s decision to institute a draft it was the worst riots in US history The Irish in America attacked and killed 105 people mainly free Black people a The draft fails Of the 776K 46K show up for war 7 Union Army 18631864 a Begins winning in 1863 b Generals Ulysses S Grant and William quotTecumsehquot Sherman aka quotthe lunaticquot play a crucial role Sherman burns and destroys everything a These generals ght quottotal warquot they are willing to absorb huge casualties to defeat the South b They manage to get veterans to quotreenlist in overwhelming numbers c Sherman persuades slaves to join by promising a portion of captured land after war This never happens after the war d However as a result by the end of war 10 percent of the union army is made of African Americans whereas the population is about 1 percent 8 End of the Civil War a Sherman quotscorched the earthquot He destroyed not only armies but also the people They burned Atlanta to the ground 600000 people were dead as the end of the war b After the war the north only executed one person Only one person was executed Henry Wirz He was head of Andersonville Prison commandant of the inner stockade at Camp Sumter North treated south generously because they wanted peace c End of slavery 13th Amendment abolishes slavery Post bellum A Controversy over 40 acres and a mule 1 Sherman although he tries to keep his word about giving land to the Africans that participate in the war his promise is unable to be kept by the interference of President AndrewJohnson B Postbellum America 1 1865 in Texas whites killed 1000 blacks for silly reasons 500 people are indicted murder but not one is convicted 2 Lincoln becomes reelected in 1864 with southern representative AndrewJohnson as his vice president Lincoln is then assassinated byJohn Wilkes Booth C AndrewJohnson allowed old Southern rebel leaders to return to Congress This led to the passing of the quotBlack Codesquot 1 Black Codes a Its goal is to make blacks feel and be like slaves again b This angers North and leads to Radical Revolution 2 After Black Codes are repealed South uses contracts giving the right whip Blacks In response North uses Freedmen s Bureau to protect Backs from contract abuses a Carpetbaggers many people from North went to South because it was so poor Most intended to settle in the South and take advantage of speculative and commercial 3C a b c d e opportunities there Some went to in uence politics Blacks did not mind but white southerners did Biased de nition any outsider who meddles in an area s political affairs for his own bene t ivil Rights Bill 1866 Passed by one vote overJohnson s veto Backlash elected Republican to national of ces Reconstruction Act of 1867 US divided South into 5 military district 14th Amendment African American citizenship 15th Amendment African American right to vote D Reconstruction gt BACKLASH 1 KKK 1865 secret group that targeted freedmen and their allies they helped whites control politics by violence and intimidation a b c d e Founding of the rst KKK founded by wealthy people of the South or old members of the Confederate Army Groups spread loosely throughout the South from 18605 to 18705 Klan Dogma Former Confederate Brigadier General George Gordon developed the Prescript Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest became the Grand Wizard claiming to be the Klan s national leader Goals white supremacy white government Voting rights limited to whites Restitutions of Southern people s rights Became the paramilitary arm of the Southern Democratic Party They intimidated blacks in politics and with education 2 Colfax Massacre Louisiana 1873 150 to 250 people are killed most Blacks when they try to vote a 3 Election of 1876 Rutherford Hayes 165 v Samuel Tilden 184 a Leads to the most corrupt election in US history Leads to Compromise of 1877 an informal deal was struck to resolve the dispute In return for the Electoral College s Democrats giving their votes to Hayes election the Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South ending Reconstruction b First where there was an absolute popular vote candidate loses 4 President Rutherford Hayes 0069 Hayes withdraw the federal troops in South Blacks are stripped of their right to vote Ends reconstruction Result ultimate failure of radical reconstruction white supremacists strip blacks of their rights Lowerclass whites are ignored The quotNew Southquot remained vulnerable to exploitation by Northern business interests E Ulysses S Grant as President 1868 uses troops to enforce laws AES 150 T13 Westward Expansion Notes Westward Expansion was dominated by the North because of capitalism It took about 250 years to occupy and control a third of the American continent but for the next third it only take 50 years This process was expedited all due to the development of railroad Manifest Destiny and Native Americans What is remembered A We remember losses more than victories see below We celebrate are losses because it gives us an excuse to oppress minorities If we celebrate our victories we might become to be perceived as the quotbad guysquot It masks the reality of American Western conquests l 2 3 4 A B C Battle of the Alamo Custer s Last Stand at the Battle of Little Bighorn Despite his orders to wait he marches his cavalry ahead of other two columns and becomes trapped by the Sioux and Cheyenne warriors Sioux people kill all of Custer s men a On Jun 24 1876 Lt Col George Custer attempted a surprise attack on the Sioux to revenge the cavalry s earlier losses b Natives say that they did not know that they killed Custer c Many want revenge for the death of Custer As a result the whites want to kill Sitting Bull but the US government is against this idea Eventually they decide to go after everyone else except Sitting Bull d In 1877 Sitting bull leaves to Canada because he is fed up with the US He looks for Crazy Horse but he is unable to nd him Massacre of Wounded Knee or the quotBattle of Wounded Kneequot Geronimo and the Apaches William F Cody quotBuffalo Billquot him and his Wild West Shows were highly in uential in the shaping the history of the West He shared a story that said peaceful White settlement in the west that was threatened by the Native Americans savage attacks 1 quotMarch of Destinyquot was a major theme that individuals march into either barren Western lands or lands occupied by useless lndian savages 2 The wagon the railroad was actually how the whites settle the west but wagons were romanticized 3 quotIron horsequot railroads were important for navigation and transporting goods to the market in the west It was also known as the transcontinental railroad because it moved goods from the East Coast to the West Coast To support the railroad lines the governments gave grants for them to be built 4 Homestead Act 1862 signed by Lincoln after secession of the South it turned over vast amount of the public domain to private citizens 270 million acres of land was distributed to people who squatted for more than 5 years If they lived on it and subsisted life on it they would get 160 acres of land This law remained in effect until 1976 5 Railroad companies majority of people purchased land from railroad companies Often there was favoritism among relatives and friends At the expense of Native Americans Railroads became the agents of settlement George Custer Crazy Horse aka Tashunka Witco 184277 Oglala Sioux Lakota chief there is no con rmed existing photo of crazy horse only one photograph identi ed as Crazy Horse 1 Origin of his name his name was passed on from his father or he dreamt himself in the real world as a horse 2 Crazy horse headed toward the area of the Nez Perce at Yellowstone after the death of Custer because people were coming after him a He was pursued and there were stories about the Calvary recruiting the Indians to spy on the Nez Perce and Chiefjoseph Then there were stories about the Sioux joining the Calvary to capture him Crazy Horse told some of his followers to disperse but Little Big Man does otherwise b General Crook the only nice guy among the whites who Crazy Horse planned to meet to set up a place for the Oglala to live He was told that he could see his dying wife As a result 900 of his people went to Fort Robinson When he gets to the location he nds out it is a trap there is no general Crook Instead he meets Little Big Man and two calvary of cers c Little Big Man lndian policeman who was crazy horse s lt 3 Death of Crazy Horse assassinated by gun as he is trying to escape Little big man was holding him down as he was killed Little big man looks different from crazy horse 4 His body his killers at least sends his body to his parents It supposed that he is buried somewhere near the creek called Wounded Knee D Sitting Bull hunkpapa Sioux Lakota chief the bigger chief among everybody 1 US government and Sitting Bull a Sitting Bull went to Canada but Canadians could not provide much assistance because he was not a citizen of Britain After 4 years of freezing and starvation he takes his people back to the US b After his return in 1882 he is held as a prisoner for 2 years and then he is moved to the Standing Rock Reservation in South Dakota He became popular not just among natives but with whites and especially European visitors they saw him as the Noble Savage c Noble savage the man who just wants to protect his people and keep peace but they have no choice 2 Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill in 1885 officials released him Sitting Bull takes advantage of his popularity for the sake of his people He joins the Buffalo Bill Wild West Show and toured throughout Europe The US allowed him to tour the world because they wanted him off the reservation When he is gone the US takes land away from his people a He refuses to go on his second tour although he likes bill Cody 3 Break the quotGreat Reservationquot one treaty fell after the other a On July 27 1889 the US waned to enter a new treaty with the Sioux to break up the Great Reservation But they needed half of all Hunkpapa and Blackfoot Sioux to agree b Sitting Bull went to the rst meeting but just sat there and looked at his people Silently signally them to not sell the land The US notice and have a meeting with the people without inviting Sitting Bull When sitting bull nds out he tries to interrupt the meeting but he is mitigated by a 4 column formation between themselves and the Chief The commissioners lie to the natives that sitting bull is informed of the meeting when he is not As a result the Indians sign the treaty and give up the land He is disappointed with his people E Ghost Dancing 1 Origin occurred through the introduction of Christianity to the native people of the Northwest It led to the Shaker Movement in which Christians danced and prayed for the second coming of Christ 2 Founderjohn Slocum 1881 a Squaxin lndian leader who became a minister to his people As a result he finds the quotShaker ministryquot It quickly spread to the native population in the Northwest causing some unease among settlers lndian shakers have their own dance priests and churches The Presbyterian actually attempts to include and incorporate the shaker ministry In the shaking ritual a person goes into a trance in which the sickness is pulled out of the patient and absorbed by the priestmedicine man who falls down dead and the patient is recovered 3 Wovoka also known as the cutter he a young Indian man who was the son of a highly respected Paiute medicine man prophet of the Indian people in Nevada called Tavibo a When Tavibo dies he passes on his role to 14 year old Wovoka who was his apprentice b He receives a promise from god that is he follows the instructions his people will be reunited and healthy c He begins spreading the gospel that came to be known as the Ghost Dance Religion He claims that if people believe they will be able to go back to the good times of their ancestors 4 Kicking Bear a miniconjou teton Lakota war chief made a pilgrimage to walker lake Nevada to lean about this new religion Together with Short bull another Miniconjou mystic they give another interpretation choosing to disregard wovoka s antiviolence and promoting the destruction of whites by calling back their ancestors to ght with them 5 Kicking Bear was the rst cousin and a close friend of Crazy Horse he visit Sitting Bull and persuades him to take part in the Ghost Dance Sitting bull does not really believe in it but the ghost dance becomes popular among his people To please his people Sitting Bull allows it As soon as he approves of it it becomes extremely popular White people do not understand the purpose of the land but they don t like it because they are happy US decide to march into the Sioux reservation to remove Kicking bear on October 16 1890 6 Sitting Bull refuses the removal of Kicking Bear As a result the US try to arrest Sitting Bull but because he is too popular Afterwards Ghost Dancing became even more popular than Sitting Bull himself 7 White people saw this dancing as rebellion They were offended because it was a dance hoping for the resurrection of natives and the deaths of whites As a result they devise a plan to stop them by turning natives against Sitting people 8 Death of Sitting Bull angry at the imprisonment of sitting bull Catch the Bear shorts Lt Bull head a Indian Policeman Bull head is wounded on the side and in turn shoots Sitting Bull on quotaccidentquot This angers all of the Sioux This leads to the Wounded Knee massacre Wounded Knee Massacre 1 Big Foot Oglala Sioux 2 Chief Spotted Elk Miniconjou Sioux who is buried at Wounded Knee He was follower of the Ghost Dance and he was a man of peace known for his negotiation skills a When Sitting bull was murdered the tribe feared for their lives and ed to Chief Spotted Elk s reservation Together they debated whether to ght or not b The decision was made to search for Red Cloud c In Decmber 1890 Spotted Elk falls sick and commands his people to raise the white ag Major Whiteside promises food to the hungry and blankets for the cold And the escorted his tribe to Wound Knee creek where his calvary was located d In the morning Whitside is replaced by col James forsythe who surround the Indians with the cannons and forces them to disarm themselves One of the soldier who was death Black Coyote did not disarm fast enough consequently he was shot In fear people began to run to stop them from running the other solider began shooting Of the original 350 men 300 indians were killed whereas only 25 american soldiers are killed These murder include women and children The Lakota Sioux native people of the Great Plains They are part of confederation of the seven related Sioux tribes Includes Oglala hunkpapa Lakota have things in common but each tribe is different from each other 1 Signi cance a As Europeans went west the met the Sioux White Americans slaughtered the buffalos conquered the land and when gold was found began invading the Black Hills 2 Sioux and the Black Hills in 1868 Sioux with other native tribes sign the Second Treaty of Fort Laramie promising exclusive rights to the Great Sioux Reservation an area including Black Hill But with rumors of gold in the Black Hills whites want to take back their word and they begin settling there anyways Sioux tribes become angry and the US government want to remove the Sioux from the land As a result US government offer 6 million for the land but they refuse a Black Hills War US government order the Sioux off the land byJan 31 1876 Sioux and Cheyenne warriors de antly gather in Montana to ght for their land Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull unite Having foreseen the rebellion US government gets troops ready but they are defeated as the Battle of Powder River and Battle of Rosebud Chief Leschi 1808 1858 chief of the Nisqually nation near today s Olympia 1 Medicine Creek Treaty of 1854 Put a fake x signature beside his name to take the land which was rich in seafood The treaty gave his tribe only a 2 square mile reservation with no access to the Nisqually river Signed on December 26 1854 First of the ten negotiations by Governor Isaac Stevens He negotiated the treaty on behalf of the US Indians at the council represented the Nisqually Puyallup Steilacoom Squasin Cash settlement of 32500 over ten years And an immediate 3250 US promise to furnish agricultural and industrial training a black smith a carpenter and a doctor Rati ed by US senate on April 10 1859 2 Unfair treaty leads to the Battle of Seattle a During the battle Chief Leschi is hanged on February 19 1858 b There sheriff was arrested for not wanting to execute the chief c Chief leschi s descendants ght back by retrying the case Chief leschi is exonerated in 2004 with the help of UW Chief SeattleSealth 17861866 leader of the Suquamish and Duwamish tribes 1 Was a great warrior 2 Promoted understanding between the Native American tribes and the white settlers but resisted the wearing of quotBoston Clothesquot btws most others have goo9 3 In 1853 the city of Seattle was named after him 4 Best known for his leadership and oratorical skills Wrote a de ant speech against the whites as he is forced to leave Seattle in 1854 He cursed Seattle with the apparitions of his dead people from the people who died on the land 5 Dies on June 7 1866 Tecumseh everybody admires him 1 All the battles were around him as he was growing up 2 He sided with the british 3 He helped start the PanNative American independence movement 4 Confederacy eventually moved farther west 5 Condemned Native Americans who signed the quotTreaty of Fort Waynequot where they ceded 3 million acres of land to the US 6 Confronted Indiana Governor William Henry Harrison to demand that land purchase treaties be rescinded Tecumseh eventually loses his temper and goes to South of US in an attempt to unite Native American tribes to While he traveling his brother goes to battle in the Battle of Tippecanoe and his brother dies 7 During the War of 1812 Tecuseh s confederacy sided with Britain Canada Tecumseh is remembered by many Canadians for his defense of his country 8 Also puts a curse on America Zero Year Curse Reagan breaks the curse Geronimo 1829 etc surrendered because he wanted to be with his family in 1887 But they do not let him see his family and take him to Florida and other tours He never gets to unite with his tribe or his family Sacajaweaa 17881812 1884 captured as a young girl and made a Clark French trader s wife She gave birth to her rst child JeanBaptiste Not credited for Lewis and Clark s exploration Helped communicated and navigated and saved journals 1 Post Lewis and Clark 2 theories a Died on December 20 1812 b Or in 1813 she leaves lewis and clark to go to her family Black Hawk 17871838 exempli ed ignoble savage Things to emphasize Native Americans treaties and land Treaty of New Echota Wounded Knee and Trail of Tears African Americans Slavery attitudes of Jefferson and Jacksonian Mexican land Lakota Sioux Minconjou Oglala and Hunkpapa
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'