AES 150 Midterm 3 Notes
AES 150 Midterm 3 Notes AES 150
Popular in Injustice for All
102- Social Science
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AES 150 T14 Immigrant History Late 19th Century 19th Century Growth A Industrial revolution taking nature and making it more pro table conversion for the purpose 1 Agriculture to livestock 2 Deforestation forests seen as timber which will be used for building home fences and etc B 18391899 industrial output grows in 40 fold 1 1900 a third of the world s industry in the USA 2 1920 Most Americans live in urban areas 3 Leads to greater migration to the US 4 By 1860 US already the 4th most populous White nation in the world C Urban Growth proportionate and explosive 1 1790 only 2 cities boasting more than 20000 people a New York City Gotham Big Apple b Philadelphia 2 By 1860 we have 43 cities with more than 5000 inhabitants a New Orleans Queen of the South b Cincinnati quotporkopolis of the Westquot meat packing c Chicago formerly a founder town because a symbol of capitalism because it is where the railroad lines met European Immigration A Early Europeans 1 1840505 over 15 million Irish and over 14 million Germans came to the US 2 quotAmerican Dreamquot via quotAmerican Lettersquot a To struggling masses in Europe America is still seen as the traditional land of freedom and opportunity as expressed by Tocqueville America freedom from aristocratic caste and state church Abundant opportunities land and better conditions Low taxes no compulsory military service abundance of resources Americans most commonly de ne American Dream in term of opportunity freedom and family in 2010 3 Alexis De Tocqueville we are a very money oriented country 4 How they came over introduction of transoceanic steamships goes from months to days Chain migration is the primary mechanism that has caused legal immigration in this country to quadruple from about 250000 per years in the 1950 and 19605 to more than one million a year in the 19905 immigrants tend to cluster in areas where they can get help Next to relatives people from the same village region dialect etc explains why people tend to group up and live together in concentrated quantities As increasing information ows to origin there is an increase ow to the quotdestinationquot First migrants gt wifechildren gt close relatives gt friends A Push Pull Theory 1966 Everett S Lee 1 Push Factors unemployment lack of safety lack of services poverty crop failure drought war civil unrest hazards and isolation a Perspective of other country b Motives for leaving c Current events 2 Pull Factors potential for employment safety better service provision greater wealth fertile land food and political security less risk of natural hazards and friends and family a Focus on the US b Why so attractive c Why at that particular time 3 Intervening Variables egos a Politics b Economics c Social IV Immigrants WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW types and who was rst and where did they settle types of jobs types of hostilities eventual performance Sojourner Guest Worker sojourntravel through temporary residents Sojourner vs Immigrants Sojourners just wanted work and they did not plan on settling down where they went Most European immigrants of the 19th century were sojourners but the term would come to follow Asians especially Chinese more Irish Immigrants Americans Mobility of Irish Americans would not have been possible if not for their ability to become naturalized citizens Despite discrimination there would not have been Irish American cops mayor and other civic leaders if they had been treated as the Chinese Japanese and other people of color 1 7 1839 1 percent of the Irish population made up of landed proprietors a This 1 percent owned 80 percent of all the arable land in Ireland b Below them were middlemen seeking to make a quick pro t by letting land to workers by the yeah c They did this because very few peasants had enough land to feed their family Potato Famine 18451852 the Irish agrarian system was particularly archaic a Rents for land usually exorbitant Irish population Growth they are not doing well but their population is growing By 1845 they have 65 million Situation of the Peasantry wretched with no industrialization coming to offer an outlet for an underemployed work force Growth in population lack of development potato failure the potato famine kills a quarter of the population from disease and hunger They went to the US because they viewed it as the quotLand of Plentyquot 1st Wave From 18401860 18 million Irish arrive to the United States First large wave of nonprotestants to the US Most Irish dup up canals Erie Canal 2nOI Wave 1920 49 million emigrated Biggest arrival by single population to US until equaled with the Jewish f Eventually more Irish are living in the Americas than in Irish itself Settlement most Irish were too poor to move west Instead they more to the larger seaboard cities especially Boston and New York City which becomes the largest Irish city in the world a By 1890 Irish made up 25 percent of New York City population Job Opportunities they got jobs that the whites did not want They lived in squalor and were degraded as a social menace a Pick and Shovel drudgery of working on canals and railroads especially railways of the East Coast and midwest b Cheap Laborer in Factories Northeastern factories and coal mines of Pennsylvania They were paid less and therefore more popular among employers As a result White people came to resent them c Domestic servants Irish quotBridgetquot Irish women also found jobs as servants a job for impoverished people They were usually uneducated and single Most men did not permit wives to work As workers Irish women were required to wear aprons caps and other uniform to signify their inferiority d Women Factory Workers Irish hired to work at woolen mills In the 19105 they are replaced byJewish and Chinese men e Politics even though they were discriminated against by other whites they were still white and entitled to US citizenship As citizens they can vote As their numbers grew they soon began to exercise control over powerful city machines Example Tammany Hall i Political machines basically existed to make money out of public office They were almost always corrupt Political machines help real people ii Ex George Washington Plunkitt was the leader of the Tammany Hall political machine in NYC He made a distinction between honest and dishonest graft People voted for him because he gave jobs medical help protection etc Boss Tweed iii Since the Irish still hated the British there became a saying quotTwisting the British PP PP Lion s Tailquot iv Progressives against political machines and believe in centralization as long as it works for the public good They focus on the middle class v machine s immigrant center f Labor unions Irish initiated many of the labor unions of the US Many of these union leader became the politicians of the West Coast g Civil servants Irish Americans gradually came to dominate the police forces and re departments and civic government Progessivism 8 Beliefs in progress Accepts industrialism US is no longer agrarian Trusts experts experts can solve problems Expanding government role Moral fervor reform guided by evangelical feelings Progressives don t the European Immigrants who are with the machines but both progressives and machines will coalesce when it comes to the Asian presence in America Blacks v Irish a By 18305 more than half of NY City s servants were Black b 20 years later Blacks replaced by Irish women lead to tensions between Blacks and Whites c Among Irish female workers outnumbered male workers PP PP B German Americans 1 2 3 Push a Crop failures and other hardships b German liberals saddened by collapse of revolution of 1848 c Fleeing militarism and wars of Europe aka German fortyeighters coming to America for free government Pull a Cheaplands b Light taxes c Need of laborers d Opportunity to gain a competence in a short time by toil First wave a Wealthier and more educated settled throughout US notice the places ending with quotvaniaquot b Have access to more capital and went to Midwest great farmers c Introduced kindergarten beer hamburger frankfurter cheese 4 Anti immigrant Sentiment a quotNativistsquot fear Irish and Germans would take jobs from others b Initially Catholics were a minority but with the arrival of Irish and Germans Catholics became a powerful minority From 5th in 1840 by 1850 they become rst quotNo Nothing partyquot sponsored a lot of propaganda and wrote quotnonfiction fictional books Maria Mock s Awful Disclosure 1836 sold over 300000 copies Occasional mass violence but not as frequent as attacks against nonEuropeans Most famous occurred in 1844 in Philadelphia when Irish fought back against threats of Nativists In the end 2 Catholic churches burned 13 killed and 30 wounded e een C Scandinavians and Washington State 1 Seattle settled by quotBoosterish Midwesternersquot and Portland by staid New Englanders a Midwesterners were mostly Scandinavian b Germans largest group in WA but swedes and Norwegians are the most in uential c 1st wave 18401880 d 2nOI Wave 1880 WWII Push a Norway and Sweden Feudalism created poverty leading to socialist movements Center is Ballard s Shilshole Bay and West Seattle b Denmark and Finland minidepression Danes related to the Germans whereas the Fins related to the Asians and Baltics They live in Grays Harbor Pull a Timber b Seafood Hansen s law 18921938 Marcus Lee Hansen writes quotthe son wishes to forget the grandson wishes to rememberquot a Have European immigrants generally assimilated and lost its cultural core b This law predicts that ethnicity is preserved among immigrants weakens among their children returns with the grandchildren Children of immigrants tend to reject the foreign ways of their culture parents including their religion and want to join the American mainstream but the next generation wants to retain the values Seattle s Culture labor unions industrial workers of the world and populism supported by Sandinavians b c d Pop a b c Wiz a Socialist tendencies in Seattle such the Seattle s downtown streets memorized by the refrain Jesus jeffesrson and James Christ Cherry and Columbiamade Seattle Under Protest Washington state s nickname under Roosevelt administration Socialist Republic of Washington and quotRed Squarequot at UW Group Health began in Minnesota and spread to Wisconsin and Washington Seattle is the only city that had a 1919 quotGeneral Strikequot ulism rose in the 19th century it is the belief in decentralization Sandinavian settlements like Minnesota Wisconsin and Oregon are seen as fairly populist states Decentralization breaking up large organization sand bringing them under local control Paradox even though populists distrust big governments they to the government to intervene and carry out the role of decentralization other organizations Therefore they make the government stronger and bigger ard of 02 is a populist fairy tail Scarecrow farmers b Tinman industrial worker c Sea Cowardly lion William Jennings Bryan a populist Democratic candidate ttle s Scandinavian Politicians and Cultural lcons a Johan quotJohnquot Nordstrom b c d lvar Haglund Warren G Magnuson Henry Scoop Jackson AES 150 T15 Asian Americans and Paci c Islander Americans Notes China A Zhang Quian Chang Chian B Silk Trade Route c 3000 BC PENN 5 C Ma Stretches from Guangzhou to Constantinople Zheng He Cheng Ho was eunuch he helped establish the Silk Trade Route His travels connect the sea trade route with the silk trade route Most Chinese Americans come from Guangdong The main language there is Cantonese Guangzhou was where the Silk Trade Route and the Sea Trade Route converged rco Polo traveled in about 1271 did not discover the Silk Trade route but he met Khan as he traveled all over Asia He never called himself a discoverer he called himself a merchant from Venice 1 2 3 4 When he goes back to Venice he brings a lot of goods such as porcelain silk spices compasses paper and gunpowder People try to force him to reveal where he got his goods Because he is afraid China will get invaded he does not reveal where he went He is imprisoned for his secrecy While he is in prison he writes about China The book is mostly about women It motivates people to go to China for goods When people start figuring out that this expensive going back and forth and buy and bringing good people in European countries start producing fake Chinese products Chinoiserie D British Chinese Relations 16371860 1 2 1637 British warships bombard Humen port Guangzhou China is forcibly compelled to trade with Britain 17501800 British aristocracy develop a passion for Chinoiserie fake Chinese stuff which affects not only furniture and ornaments gentlemen enjoy dressing up in dragon and mandarin robes on festive occasions ladies endeavor to procure Chine boys as pages or pets 1800 100 tons of opium shipped to China marking escalation of opium trade 1814 Chinese seamen employed by the East India Company are housed in barracks in Shadwell East London a parliamentary enquiry finds conditions 39clean and airy but expresses doubt as to whether there is sufficient space E Opium introduction by the British leads to the Opium War 1 2 3 Opium War 18391842 Court s debate on legalization of opium and decide to commander commissioner Lin a Lin enforce strict policies that threatened stoppage of trade signing of bond by foreigners and enforced with severe punishment b This leads to the outbreak of the war in 1839 c 1839 Lin Zexu the Emperor s special commissioner orders the public burning of opium surrendered by foreign merchants d 1840 British merchants demand vengeance and 4000 troops are sent to China Chartist press condemns the immortality that China is quotdestined to destruction by the horrors of civilized warfare for refusing to be poisoned by opiumquot e China loses Treaty of Nanjing August 1849 china agrees to open ve coastal ports to British trade limit taxes on imported British goods pay for the costs of the war loss of the British opium and also give Hong Kong to British a Moreover in ve ports Europeans lived in their own sections and were subject not to Chinese laws but to their own laws a practice known as extraterritoriality Second Opium War 18561860 results in unequal treaty of Tianjin 4 Treaty of Tianjin includes a clause allowing British and France to recruit Chinese to British Colonies North and South America and Australia as cheap labor following the cessation of the slave trade a Provided for the creation of ten new port cities b Permission for foreigners to travel throughout the century c Indemnities of three million ounces of silver to Great Britain and two million to France 5 Taiping Rebellion 18511866 popular rebellion led by a former school teacher by the name of Hong Xiaoquan who preached a doctrine of strict equality between people equal division of land communal ownership of goods and an end to social distinctions 6 Hostile Period 18481945 a Earliest major wave Chinese b Type of immigrant poor young male bachelor gt laborer young female gt prostitute Region toisan taishan rural suburb of Canton Kwangtung Guangdong Push Opium War drought famine and political turmoil Pull gold in California 1849 sugar plantations in Hawaii Settlement particularly west coast cities but late to quotchinatownsquot because of segregation in Hawaii ended up intermarrying with many native Hawaiians ll Chinese in America A Chinese in America 1 Chinese in Oregon 18711885 a 60 percent of all people arrested in Portland for violating city ordinances at the time were Chinese but Chinese only 8 percent of Portland s population 2 Labor Golf prospector Railroad pick and shovel Migrant laborer Fishermen Merchant in Chinatown Prostitution for women Factory garment industry shoe manufacturer feminine labor domestic service lack of women in West Coast cheap startup cost rotating credit systemHui Guan 3 Recreation Camaraderie through gambling family village speech associations Brothels Meetings held at merchant stores Rotating credit system i Chinese huiguan ii Japanese tanomoshi iii Korean gei iv Vietnamese hui e Gambling f Prostitution as a result of lack of Chinese women g Marriage disappearance of prostitution by 1920 B Sucheng Chan s 7 types of US Hostilities against Asians and Paci c Islanders 1 Prejudice a Encyclopedia of Britannica 1842 quotA chinaman is cold cunning and distrustful always ready to take advantage of those he has to deal with extremely covetous and deceitful b Sources of prejudice missionaries merchants diplomats journalists academics rhme P39EQTFDPPP39 0069 6 7 c Missionaries bible in one hand opium on the other d Journalists boxer rebellion and Taiping rebellion e Academics scienti c racism eugenicism led initially by Sir Francis Galton and then Edward Aen Ross 18661951 who creates quotrace suicidequot quotcockroach theoryquot quotChinese will underlive whitesquot and quotyellow perilquot Japanese economic threat Chinese population threat Asian indian yellow health and religious threat Filipino threat to white women f Social Darwinism adapted by William Graham Sumner from 18401910 quotpoor people are to blame for their own conditionquot Economic Discrimination unfair taxes a 18501873 Immigrant taxes foreign miner s tax laundry tax cubic air ordinance sidewalk ordinance queue ordinance b 4 tax on Chinese sherman 1880 c 1876 law regulating size of mesh in shrimp and drag nets selectively enforced against Chinese d 1880 CA forbade issuing of shing license to quotaliens not eligible to become a state electorquot e 1862 quotPolice taxquot in CA for Mongolians over 18 who has not already paid a foreign miner s tax or other taxes Social Segregation exclusion aw quotaliens not eligible for US Citizenshipquot 1882 a 1860 Chinese Indian and Blacks excluded from CA public schools b Scott law 1888 prohibiting reentry of Chinese laborers c 1866 special law for suppression of Chinese House of III Fame directed at Chinese women Incarceration a People v Hall 1854 Hall was a white guy who killed a Chinese person with 3 chinese people present Chinese are put under that native American category and Chinese cannot testify against white people because they are quotdishonestquot b Legalization of an image Chinese gangsters c After Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 20 percent of Californians are Chinese d But from 19001927 there were 470 arrests of Chinese people in CA 1519 Chinese youth had an arrest record of 21 percent compared to 3 percent of Chinese that were jailed e Why high rates of criminality state and federal laws restricting and excluding Chinese from immigrating to the US Elimination of Chinese from occupations which they aegedy competed unfairly with white labor and number of laws with punitive or harassing intents language selective enforcement etc f Cabe Act 1920 American women marrying quotalien not eligible for citizenshipquot would lose citizenship Double standard Physical Violence a Massacres of Chinese b Antichinese riots in Seattle 1886 Political Disenfranchisement a 1882 Exclusion Act denied immigration and naturalization of laborers Naturalization ban a 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act C Secret Societies l 2 3 Normal Feuds Nationalist components Criminal elements D Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 all laborers excluded from China Chinese forbidden naturalization 1 Yellow Peril Fear of Chinese population takeover 2 Discrimination resulted in Chinese people coming together to ght against the exclusion laws They used the credit system to pay for their white representatives 3 Causes for exclusion act building of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1869 connected US from East to West a Led to an integration of economic markets the industrial revolution so the NE could enter partnerships with the West Coast more easily b To gut costs companies began substituting machines for labor that there was a scarcity ofjobs not just in CA but OR and WA c The Industrial Revolution symbolized by building of the railroad lead to new forms of nancial institutions including monopolies d Consequently two labor classes emerged the working class and the nancial class e These changes led to the Labor Movement as working people were displaced socially and nancially by the economic elite 4 The Barons ofLabor by Mike Kazin the Labor Movement took time to evolve different unions were dominated by different ethnic groups and to bring people together the different labor groups had to nd a convenient scapegoat to tie them together In this case it would be the Chinese 5 San Francisco Earthquake 1906 all Chinese become citizens because of lost records a Because all records are lost people could claim to have children in the US Using the credit rotating system they distributed birth certi cates This is the culmination of paper children b To stop Chinese immigration of quotpaper sonsquot As a result there is the creation of Angel Island CA detention center E Resistance to exclusion laws and discrimination 1 Angel Island CA detention center 2 Family associations and selfgovernment 3 Rotating credit systems 4 Legal challenge US Constitutional Law a Yick Wo v Hopkins 1886 challenged the laundry tax 5 Nationalist movements quotChina will rise againquot or quotthe sick man of Asiaquot lHjapanese A Early Beginnings 1 Tokugawa leyasu 1603 takes overjapan to start the Tokugawa shogunate military dictatorship lt ushered in a long period of isolation from foreign in uence in order to secure its power For more than two centuries this policy enabled Japan to enjoy stability 2 Commmodore Matthew Perry 1853 his arrival challengesjapan s isolationism Japan welcomed him partly because all the rest of Asia has fallen to Western colonialism Tokugawa s quotfearquot of the West led to the Shogunate s collapse 3 Meiji Restoration 18681912 a Following the Treaty of Kanagawa with the US in 1854 japan opened its ports and began to intensively modernize and industrialize b With weakened traditions the daimyos from Kyuchu and Southern Honshu unite to overthrow the Tokugawa Shogunate c The capitol Edo was renamed Tokyo which signals the beginning of Modern japan d During the late 19th and early 20th centuries Japan became the regional power that was able to defeat the forces of both China and Russia e It occupied Formosa Taiwan and southern Sakhalin Island f Meiji s Impact on Farmers Sought to modernize like the West Sent best students to Western Universities Tax for modernization middle class farmers of SouthwestJapan most impacted Price ceiling implemented meanwhile population ofJapan grew Mandatory military service implemented farmers are socially demoted Former samurais create new military industrial order B Second Major Wave Japanese 1867 Hawaii 18905 mainland 1 2 3 4 10 IV Korea Type of immigrant middleclass farmers some students some families Region SWJapan Push Meiji Restoration which put taxes on middle class farmers emphasis on industrialism Pull California agricultural labor HI sugar plantations AK canneries replacement for Chinese cheap laborers domesticshouseboys Settlement little Tokyos West Coast and Hawaii especially Seattle San Francisco Honolulu divide and conquer strategies in HI elevated above Native Hawaiians and Chinese Associations a YMCA jobs b Kenjikais prefecture c More likely to have family than Chinese and Filipinos Recreation bowling alleys Labor sugar cane plantations CA labor AS canneries a ended up starting own jobs through rotating credit system tanomoshi b became extremely competitive with whites Terminal Island Vacaville Pike Place Market c Alien Land Laws in CA WA and OR preventing people who cannot be naturalized from owning land Japanese Military and Economic Success Overseas and Japanese American Farming Fishing Success leads to yellow peril fear of the Asian population taking over Exclusion stops laborers from entering the US then laborers from Hawaii excluded as well a 1907 Gentlemen s Agreement leaves a provision open for picture brides b Picture brides 1908 1920 especially in HI and CA Allowed them to keep the Japanese laborers quotstay putquot If they were married they would have families and therefore move around less Regardless of the effort to show that Japanese men wanted to settle down and Japanese women are not prostitutes the general American population still views Japanese as prostitutes because females are willing to marry men they have never met before c Ladies Agreement 1920 when the population ofJapanese laborers begins to increase and they succeed economically this is passed to exclude picture brides and mitigate Japanese expansion and labor d JohnsonReed Act 1924 excludes all Asians and Paci c Islanders from entering US e Overall not as many harassing laws because Japan is ally of the US and at the time more powerful A Short History 1 2 Korea had been a tributary state of the Yuan Ming and Qing dynasty China China and Japan had last clashed in Korea during the Imjin War 159298 when Min and Korean forces drove out the Japanese 3 Koreans modeled their institutions on the Chinese Confucian model and were heavily in uenced by Chinese culture 4 Since 1637 Korea had cutoff contact with most of the world with the exception of China B Japan and Korea 1 As a newly emergent country Japan turned its attention towards Korea 2 Japan wanted Korea s coal and iron ore deposits to bene tJapan s increasingly expanding industrial base 3 By 1875 Korea had con icts with Catholic missionaries and other allies including Japan 4 Later that year a Japanese surveying ship accompanied by gunboats where red upon by forts in Kanghwa Bay 5 Japanese return re and destroy the Korean forts using the excuses that they are opening up the ports of the Korean Bay C Tonghak Rebellion aka SinoJapanese War 189495 began with opposition between the queen and the people of Korea China sides with the queen and tries to calm down the nation on the other hand the Japanese people pretend to side with the average Korean people They say they are helping to liberate the people 1 Japan is victorious and Korea is colonized 2 TaftKatsura Treaty 1905 On july 29 1905 Japan s count katsura met with secretary of war later President William Howard Taft to resolve the grievances between the two countries Japan agreed to accept the US presence in Hawaii and the Philippines and in exchange America agreed to give Japan a free hand in Korea D American Missionaries 1 Dr Horace Allen recruiter for unigar Planters Assn 2 Con dent to Korean King friend to Japanese emperor 3 First Presbyterian missionary in Korea in 1884 the country began allowing missionaries entrance to Korea 4 The Christians are revolutionaries E Assassination of ito hirobumi 1909 combination of Korean and Manchurian efforts 1 1910 Japan annexes Korea 2 Their goal is the complete assimilation of Korean into the Japanese Empire F Japan remakes Korea 1 Bow to pear tree 2 Exploit land and labor 3 Rename people in Japanese 4 Cleanse people of Chinese in uence and independence for Korean G Samil AntiJapanese marches 1919 students in Korea are crushed by force H Immigration Push colonization byJapan Pull Hawaii Sugar plantations looking for an alternative to replaceJapanese labor Settlement mostly in Hawaii and other parts 0 LA Part of second major wave mostly to Hawaii and some to Southern California anyways places away from Chinese and Japanese immigrants Type of people mostly Christians and families Exclusion King Kojong intervenes in 1905 because he hears of massacres of Koreans and Chinese in Mexico Japan intervenes in 1910 because Korean delight in hurting Japanese in America lndepdence movement estimated that Koreans in America gave 10 to 25 percent of earning to independence movement Excluded by 1924 JohnsonReed Act same as Japanese 7 Christian students 18805 1911 a After 1910 only students from Pai Chai Mission School allowed PENN 9 5 b Syngman Rhee proAmerican was a student of Woodrow Wilson v Ahn ChangHo c Woodrow Wilson intervention d Diplomatic Faction ProAmerican syngman Rhee e Militant faction Prono foreign intervention Ahn ChangHo V India and Pakistan Bangladesh Afghanistan A IndoAryan settlement 1 They began in the Caucasoid mountains and traveled to the other areas A 2 They met indigenous Dravidians 3 Book of Vedas Hinduism Warriors and B European Invasions Rulers 1 Alexander the Great 356323 credited with 2 Muslim Presence in India there are lots of UNSkilled WOI kel S religions in India as time goes on Buddhist Chistian Hindu jain Muslim Sikh and Tribal Introduction of Islam Muslim Invasion of Sindh 711 11th century Turkish invasion Mahmud of Ghazni Mughal Empire from 15261686 Genghis Khen eligion prominence Hindu muslim and then Christian Sikhism God is onequot I WO P PP a Adi Granth Holy Book b Guru Nanak 14691539 founder c No caste d After persecution by Moghuls 10th guru Gobind made all men Singh the lion all women kaur e Gobinds also created Khalsa the elect f Warriors Punjabis mostly Kshatriya caste from Punjabs g Five Ks uncut hair comb sword or dagger bracelet on the right wrist and shorts D How they rise spread 1 Recruited by British to become Imperial Soldiers 2 Went to hong kong heard about the gold in the Americas 3 Labor Canadian Paci c Railroad 4 Hostility head tax in Canada sends people to US E Summary Asian Indians did better than all of the other Asians because they understood English They knew how to speak it because they had been colonized by the English 1 Minor third wave Asian Indians 1849 mainland US 2 Type of immigrant Sikhs who were former soldier of the British Imperial Forces elite students mostly NE universities Region mostly Punjab in Northwestern India now also Pakistan Push colonization of India by Britain and of Punjab in 1849 and poverty Pull Canadian Paci c Railroad needs cheap laborers Settlement in California at Yuba city and Sacramento college towns especially in the North east and California biggest Sikh temple at Yuba City CA Associations free India movements which united Asian Indians Exclusion 1917 Barred Zone Act excluded everyone East of Ural Mountains excluded Central Asian South Asians East Asians Southeast Asians Paci c Islands Africa unless passed a literacy test Act done because of race prejudice and because England did not like the fact that so many Asian Indians were working on independence from Britain P P PP 9 9 Labor same as other Asians but Asian Indians sometimes given slightly better treatment because of Caucasian ancestry they did lumber work 10 Recreation independent movement ex Bellingham riots F Yellow peril health threat and cultism 1 Vedanta Society San Francisco 2 Vedanta Society Chicago G Student Wave 1900 1917 Bhagwant Singh Grewal H Litigation how they got political power 1 Harassing laws US v Thind 1923 Thind is scienti cally Caucasian but not socially Caucasian so he is denied US citizenship Vl Hawaii A Origins Hawaiians lived on the islands of Hawaii for 14 centuries before European contact 1 Centuries of travel between Hawaii and Oceania and Asia 2 1778 Captain James Cook arrives interested in trade of sea otter to China market 3 Russians Spanish and American ships follow 4 1795 Hawaii becomes important trader 5 1804 King Kamehameha l takes up residence at Waikiki only 11 foreigners around 6 1825 as more foreigners King Kamehahmeha lll creates new Constitution to ensure Hawaiian independence status 7 More missionaries continue arriving B European intrusion 1 December 5 1842 US Secretary of State gives rst formal recognition of Hawaii s independence by the US states hands off to everybody because they want to be free 2 February 24 1842 July 26 1843 British naval officer seizes the Hawaiian islands Hawaii under British ag France Britain and US meet to resolve issue British admiral restores Hawaiian independence 3 July 31 1843 King Kamehameha lll one of Hawaii s most beloved kings 1846 4 Manifest destiny occupation Oregon territory 1846 was with Mexico 1846 admission of California as state 1850 alters status of Hawaii 5 1851 rumors circulate about Californians coming to take over Hawaii President Franklin Pierce s administration discussed expected that Hawaii would want that 6 As result more and more missionaries keep going to Hawaii with bible in one hand and colonialism in the other C Economy 1 Gold seekers make sugar pro table 2 Sugar planters want Hawaiian colonization to avoid tariffs sugar plantations started by Chinese Hawaiians but moderately successful by 1835 Americans take over D Immigration and politics 1 1853 Native Hawaiian population 75000 by 1866 drops to 57000 2 1864 Chinese imported 3 1868 Japanese recruited and designated as whites to prevent integration with others 4 18705 Hawaiian royalty is dying 5 1885 almost all Hi plantations are owned by missionaries E King KalaKaua February 12 1874 distant relative of Kings ascend to throne 1 1876 negotiates with US to make sugar tariff free Hawaii becomes world s largest sugar producer 2 1881 Kalakaua makes journey toJapan China Siam and India to promote Hawaii 3 4 1887 Kalakaua returns Hawaiian League forces King to sign quotBayonet Constitutionquot to reduce power of monarchy and denies Hawaiians the right to vote 1891 broken and bereft Kalakaua goes to CA for medical treatment but dies on his journey there F Liliuokalani sister proclaimed heiress to throne l 2 3 4 5 6 Stops steamer ship with ill Chinese laborer with small pox Missionary boys steamship owners secretly form Hawaiian League to dethrone royalty plan to annex Hi to US 1891 becomes Queen 1893 announces plans to proclaim new Constitution betrayed by 2 American ministers US revokes most favored nation status Sugar planters meet with US to discuss annexation US will accept annexation as long as requested by government G Hawaii Annexation 1 January 16 1893 US armed forces land to quotprotest American life and propertyquot but aims directed towards the Queen s palace 2 The very next day the sugar planters read a proclamation to get rid of monarchy establish provisional government until terms of annexation is arranged 3 No official knowledge of activities by US president 4 Queen yields her authority to US gov con dent US will do the right thing martial law established 5 February 1893 President Benjamin Harrison dies and doesn t sign the treaty 6 President elect Grover Cleaveland withdraws treaty sends investigatorJames Blount to Hawaii 7 March 29 1893 Blount meets with all sides September 1893 Blount condemns US imperialism and deceit solution is to restore Queen to throne 8 Queen grants full amnesty to all involved but Provisional Government repudiates the right of the US to interfere with Hawaiian affairs 9 Revolutionists form Republic of Hawaii US stunned but refuses to ght Americans Cleveland defers issue to Congress 10 1895 counterrevolution movement to restore Queen fails Queens is unaware of plan but arrested and imprisoned anyway 11 Tried by military tribunal and convicted for being the Queen 5 years hard labor and ned 5000 121896 pardoned and civil rights restored pardoned by Stanford Dole 131898 After US it is taken it 14 1959 statehood forced by tourism Vll Philippines A Spanish Rule 1 2 3 4 The Spanish went there attempting to convert the Filipinos into Christianity 1521 Magellan arrives and tries to claim Philippines for Spain Battle of Mactan death of Magellan by King Lapu Lapu Impact of Spanish Rule on Filipinos Style of building and clothes Catholicism led to change in last names Fnarland Lighter skin preference Focus on nose as standard of beauty Spanish surnames for taxation purposes rhmqpcp B Spanish American War 1 Jose Rizal Jr Philippines a The Philippines have been ghting against the Spanish for a very long time b Chinese Filipino c His story poem changed the world It was about a lover but underneath it was about uniting as a country to overthrow the Spanish d He is exiled to different countries Japan and China But he comes back The third time he comes back they execute him in December 30 1896 This outrages the working class There is a war that breaks out It ignited a mass movement 2 Jose Marti Cuba 3 Theodore Roosevelt USA 4 George Dewey USA a Emilio Aguinaldo met with Commander Dewey in Tokyo Even though Philippines is winning at a steady pace he looks to US for help b Spanish in response waits for the US to join the Philippines because they want to write down that they lost to the US Spain surrender to US at Manila Bay c He feels bad about the Philippine war and wants to leave the Philippines alone but it is impossible 5 lnfanta Maria Theresa Spanish Treaty of Paris October 3 1898 created by the US and Spanish 1 Because the quotUSquot won not the Philippines 2 US met with Spain to negotiate Treaty of Paris 3 US purchased the Philippines from Spain 4 Gave the US the countries of Cuba Puerto Rica Guam and Hawaii Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippine independent on June 12 1898 1 He declares war after the Treaty of Paris Philippine American War aka Filipino Insurrection 18991902 more than 14 million Filipinos died during the war 1 20000 14 million Filipinos killed 2 Aguinaldo surrenders 3 Pensionado competitions held a Offers to educate the Filipinos in English 4 Justi cation for US colonialism White Man s Burden a Christianize and Civilize Filipinos Primarily Methodist and Presbyterian Prepare them for self rule Save them from the Japanese and the Germans New military base in the paci c Base for the china market 5 American Colonialism and its impact on Filipinos a Education programs on US b More emphasis on European beauty and languages colonial mentality c Cultural changes holidays and religion d Many leave for USA as nationals leads to Brain Drain llocos Norte and llocus Sur 1 Drought famine in llocos Norte and llocos Sur 2 Went to manila in search ofjobs 3 Hired by US companies looking for replacements for East Asians and Indian labor post 1917 Barred Zone Act 4 US wanted less educated workers because Major Third Wave Filipinos 1894 peak in HI 1910 peak in US 1920 during Great Depression 1 Type of immigrant 1894 pensionados students given US pensions US nationals later mostly young poor llocano males 2 Region llocus Norte llocus Sur wens Push colonization of the Philippines by the US after Spanish colonization language religion surnames poverty colonial mentality created by US educational system Pull alternative to Chinese Japanese Asian Indians after everyone else has been excluded by Barred Zone Act and Johnson ReedAct Settlement manilatowns in urban centers near Chinatown Associations quotmanongsquotolder brother uncle kinship some dialect groups Filipino Christian Commonwealth and other religious groups Labor same as other Asians fought against the exploitation by forming unions Filipino federation of American and lettuce strikers cannery strikes Agricultural Committee of California which united farm workers and its grape strikes a Sakadas HI b Manongs Older Brothers or Uncle US c Alaskeros WA AK Yellow Peril a Harassment of white women Sexual perverts kowboy kowboy Recreation gambling billiards and dance balls for female companionship Roldan v LA County 1933 changes CA code to exclude Malays from intermarrying with whites e Watsonville Riot 1933 CA 906 H Tydin39gs Mcduf e Act 1934 a b C Promise of impendence in 10 years no longer nationals does not actually occur until 1946 Offer of repratriation 19331935 Filipinos replaced by Mexicans through Braceros Program AES 150 T16 Mexican Americans Mexicans have distinction in being the largest indigenous and immigrant l Review A Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo B Polk Provoked the War C The Greaser Act II Mexico after Treaties A Origins 1 Reform leader oust Santa Ana in the Revolution of Ayutla 1855 2 Santa Ana was always controversial part of the reason Mexico lost the US Mexican War is because Mexico was torn by internal strife the presidency itself change hands 12 times during the war and some of the Mexican states refused to help their federal government 3 ln setting up a new constitution the reformers also wanted to reform the government 4 Reformers a Targeted action of reformers land reform free education freedom of the press secularization of Church property the abolition of army privileges b Reforms caused an uproar among Mexican conservatives c After changing presidency twice the Minister ofJustice for the Reformers Benito Pablo Juarez a Zapotec Indian lawyer becomes president Previously he has been governor of Oaxaca and in 1853 he had been imprisoned for opposing Santa Ana 5 War of Reform 185861 a This a erce struggle between reformers and conservatives b This war left Mexico on the edge of ruin and bankruptcy c In the end Juarez defeats the conservatives 6 French Invasion a New dif culties were caused almost at once by foreign powers particularly the US Spain and England b They intervened because Juarez government was unable did not want to pay Mexico39s international debt c Late in 1861 a well armed French eet stormed Veracruz landing a Large French force and driving President Juarez and government to defeat 7 Cinco De Mayo a Moving on from Veracruz towards Mexico City the French army encountered heavy resistance from the Mexicans near Puebla at the me b The 8000 strong French army attacked the much more poorly equipped Mexican army of 4000 c Yes on Mexicans mange to defect the French 8 Foreign intervention 186467 Reign of Maximilian a This victory against the French would be shortlived b Napoleon III of France with support from Mexican conservatives decided to place unemployed archduke Maximilian on the throne of Mexico aka pseudo colonization c Maximilian might be a wellintentioned but deluded man he seemed to actually believe that the Mexican people elected him to be their emperor In 1864 he and his wife Carlota sailed for Mexico in 1864 e As French forces move in to enforce his rule Juarez had to ee again and moved his capitol to El Paso f The Mexican people supported Juarex and the empire of the Europeans collapsed when the French soldiers withdrew g Maximillian was captured and shot in June 10 1867 byJuarista soldier cinco de mayo h Juarez was a stubborn capable and honest leader 0 9 i He is reelected twice and started molding modern mexico by starting free education and developing transportation and industry j He dies in 1872 Reign of Por rio Diaz 18761910 a He controlled the legislature and the press and even changed the constitution so that he could stay in power b He ignored Juares39 reform laws by allowing the Church to accumulate property again and solg public lands cheaply to his favorites c As diaz encouraged industrilaition foreign capital poured into mexico d Roads railroads harbors and telegraph lines were established which leds to exploitation by foreigners e The Mexican government and few of the very rich got richer but mexico39s oppressed people became poorer than ever f Education stagnated democracy became empty g All over mexico Indians lost even more of their communal lands and sank deeper in peonage the system that forced to work on planatation to repay debts from which they could never escape h To sti e the rising discontent in the countryside Diaz created the Rurales a new brutal force of federal police that became a hate symbol of the diaz regime 10Mexican Revolution 1910 diaz cuases a sensation in 1910 by announcing that he intended to restore Democratic rule But in 1910 he was reelected as usual This led to popular anger which boiled into a revoltuoion This revolution was led at rst by an aristocrat Francisco Madero When Madero attempts to run against Diaz for election he is imprisoned After Diaz is reelected madero is released Madero ees to texas where he proclaims a revolution On his return to Mexico he found that several groups of rebels were already up in arms in Chihuahua under the leadership of Francisco quotPanchoquot Villa Villa s rebels supported Madero and captured the town of Juarez on May 9 1911 At almost the same time an independent army of rebels rose in the south Morelos under Emiliano Zapata an Indian tenant sfarmer who rallied for peasant cause federal soldiers deserted to join the revels they has been sent to ght Landless Indians of many tribes joined mestizo factory workers and liberal quotSpanish intellecturals to carry the revolution to triumph Mobs riot in National Palace in Mexico City Diaz resigns on May 23 1911 and ees to exile a Madero is elected by an honest vote but unfortunately he is more an idealist than an administrator b By February 1913 Victoriano Huerta one of the government39s generals betrayed Madero and had him murdered c Huerta then maneuvered his way in to Presidency on again reactionary dictatorship 11Counter Revolution 191424 counterreboltion appeared at once led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapanta and others a For the next ten years Mexico was in a continual state of chaotic ghting which included interventions by American troops b More than 800 thousand people died by violence or starvation and disease c During these years of strife as revolutionists turned against one another Villa and Zapanta were assassinated d Still by 1917 there was new constitution and some reforms made B Push 1 All these different upheavels and the destruction the followed led to pushes out of Mexico each revolution was part of a different wave 2 People left according to who was in power 3 The social political and economic upheaval of the home country Mexico pushed many of its people to the US a country perceived as having many opportunities The US 154051848 1 Mexicans were always in the US by the US takes Mexican territories 2 But by the time of Hidalgo only 75K Spanishspeaking people in the Americas 3 The Gold Rush in 1849 brought many Anglos to the Southwest as soon as the war between the US and Mexico ended 4 Using laws taxes and banking practices Mexicans are deprived of their property Joaquin Murrieta 18491851 Sonoran miner who worked in CA Anglo miners raped and killed his wife and drove him from his gold claim and then whipped him for falsely accusing him stealing a horse He became a legendary gure the quotRobin Hood of the El Doradoquot The CA government offered a reward for him of 5000 dollars dead or alive Because his last name was uncommon anyone with the last name Joaquin was in danger In 1853 it is said that he was surprised and shot by mounted rangers near Stockton and his head was preserved and displayed for many years many say that had the wrong person His story inspired Rodolfo quotquotCorlqquot Gonzales to write quotMy name is Joaquinquot the rst work of poetry to be published by Chicanos for Chicanos and became the forerunner of the Chicano cultural renaissance Like Gregorio Cortez and others Joaquin has entered into folklore as symbol of Mexican American resistance to colonization and oppression Hispanophobia fear distrust aversion or discrimination of Hispanic people culture and thelanguage 1 Violent ghts and murders between Mexicans and Anglos were all too common 2 The lynching of Mexican Americans have long been overlooked because of classi cation 3 Some authors estimate that from 18501930 the number of killings of Mexicans Americans in the SW exceeded the number of African Americans Pull 19101945 1910 Revolution cause the rst of many major waves of immigration by Mexican citizens into the US 1 Shortages of workers during the WWs increased the need for Mexican immigrants other Asians were excluded by 1934 2 Like the Asians they did the same jobs factory domestic service etc 3 1924 immigrantion act the exclusion did not apply to those in the western hemisphere which included Mexicans So Mexicans moved northward by the when jobs are plentiful But great depression hits the US 1933 and 1935 Repatriation Act Braceros program august 4 1942 for temporary contract laborers from mexico to the US 8 Initially began with 50 K then to 75K mostly for railroad work The Railroad program of cially ends in 1945 but many people say it unof cially continued until 1964 Treatment in the US 1 Mexican immigrants and Americanborn Chicanos were poorly paid just like other immigrants of color 2 Although Mexicans labor used to undermine the labor demands of other immigrants 3 Among the most famous are the Oxnard Strike 1903 Japanese join with the Mexicans for better labor conditions 4 Movement to assimilate Mexican Americans a Like most Asians they were segregated in schools and public places b But by 1920 there was a movement in CA and TX to forcibly assimilate Mexicans by not permitting people to use their language by renaming people c quotKill an Indian to save manquot also used for Mexicans Violence against Mexican Americans 1 Mexicans and Mexican Americans were particularly hard hit by Depression 2 Sleepy Lagoon a August 1942 LA many barrio gangs oldest and best known are Pachucos FP P P an k Two groups of chicanos had ght over a girl It occurred in a gravel pit on the outskirts of the city In the morning the dead body ofJose diaz a young man was found on a dirt road nearby Newmen called the gravel pit the quotsleepy lagoonquot because it had a mud puddle in it An orgy of sensational headlnes followed celebrating the boy39s death 24 mexican and Mexican Americans boys were arrested with basically no reason 12 boys were convicted of 2nCI degree murder Finally two years later all were freed when the court of appeals reversed the sentences unanimously for lack of evidence Sleepy lagoon still remembered as an example of the use of stereotypes to oppress innocent people Amid the headlines of hysteria quotZoot Suit Hoodlums and Pachuco Gangstersquot the LAPD raided the barrios blockaded the main streets searched every passing car and passerby 600 Chicanos were tkane into custody in a 2 day sweep Justi ed the move by of cially philosophizing that the Chicano quotdesire to kill or at least let bloodquot was an inborn characteristic 3 Zoot Suits Riots June 1943 a C Q a st ght broke out on a downtown street between some Chinaos and US Navy Men 14 patrolmen led by a lieutenant set up an impromptu group of vigilantes to quotclean upquot the Mexicans Night after night 1005 of restless and beached sailors of the US Navy bored and frustrated by the inaction in the war against Japan seized upon the nearest available dark skinned enemy The white rioters poured into the barrios in convoys of Taxicabs attacking every brown boy they found on the streets bars every where No sailor was ever arrested Zoot suit victims were stripped beaten and humiliated Although the Pachucos may be gang members at this time the Pachucos were not aggressor but the defenders of the Barrios They were the resistance ghters who defended the reputation of Mexican Americans Even thoug the Pachusco are not the agressors it is called the zoot suit riots it should be called the quotUS navy riotsquot Union Organizing unions are association many Chicanos participated in AES 150 T17 Jewish Americans I Jewish Diaspora linked to history of the religion story of Moses who left Egypt 11th and 20th centuries a time marked by crusades and reconquest an antiSemitism developed that culminated in massacres in Western Europe In 1245 Lateran Council provided legal basis for rejection and Jews were henceforth required to wear skullcap as distinguish mark Numerous Jewish religious academies closed and Jews were banished from the kingdoms of France and England In 1290 Edward I of England with the support of the church expelled Jews and con scated their property Jewish people could not return to England until the 17th century When they were expelled they moved to France and Germany But France is extremely hostile as well and by 1394 Jews were expelled Expulsion ofJews remained in many French provinces until the French Revolution With the hostility in France many went further south to Spain Sephardim name of these immigrants Polish Settlements 1 Many regions forbidden to Jews from 13001500 2 Jews persecuted by Christians in Western Europe found refuge in Polan 3 Rulers like Casimir III the Great granted Jewish people many rights Until the 17th century Jews in Poland and Lithuania were ne Sephardim Spanish First US Wave 1 Earliest Jews to America are Sephardic 2 1492 Jews expelled from Spain 3 Part of the community moved to Portugal and ginally ended up in northern Europe but most took reguce around the mediterranion Many were welcomed by the ottoman Empire Otherwen to Safed in Galilee They went from Portugal to Germany then to the US Fifty years afterJamestown already Sephardic Jaws in New World and Canada Pu h1600518305 1 Sephardic Jews present in New England as early as 1654 2 Majority of the people were in orida 3 In Spanish territories Jews were present early on during Spanish colonization Pull 1 Brown University UPenn accepted jewish students 2 Constitutional Convention 1787 declared that there should be no religious criteria for holding office in the US P P P Ashkenazim German are those of German origin who moved toward central Europe Poland would become the heart of Ashkenazi Judaism 1 After 1650 the massacres perpetuated by the Cossacks led a ight back to Western Europe England and America 2 Russia prohibited Jews from going farther East than Kiev 3 But with the partition and annexation of Poland in 1795 Russia inherited the largest Jewish community in the world at the time Jews were con ned to a belt of territory running from the Baltic to the Baltic Sea quotRussian Pale of Settlementquot Russian Tsars After 1825 under Nicholas l the situation of the Jews in Russia was really bad He ordered male children be taken from their parents at the age of 12 and forced to become soldiers for the Russian Military 7 Blood Libel Rumor of Ritual Murder there were rumors aboutJewish being ritual murdered in Ukraine in 1909 8 Rumors of ritual muder followed the Hews well past Tsar Nicholas39 era owe H 9 Situation did improve under Tsar Alexander II 18551881 the conscription ofJewish children was abolished Military service was reduced from 25 years to 6 years Because he is a softie he is eventually killed 10Russian Progoms program to eradicate expel Jews unless convert In 1905 they became the official technique of the government to get rid of the Jews a Laws of 1882 banned Jews from any new settlement b Yet the economic role ofJews remained important in the 19th century in Russia Romania and to a lesser extent hungary Push 2nCI Wave 1 Religious persecution 2 Programs and persecutions of all sorts as well as economic conditions in Europe Community in the US In those 3 decased almost 2 million Jews settled in the US By 1917 the year the nation enter WWI the American Jewish community number some 34 million Yet there were some tension between 1St and 2nCI wave Jewish communities Generally Ashkenazi wealthier than Sephardic Jews Types of immigrants Overall they were a highly selective grou Ukraine dominated came with family and skils Like many Asian immigrants also used rotating credit system Often called quotheroic generationquot More human capital 80 percent of men and 63 percent of women were literature 19081912 Even though they did not have training in the professions 23 of the Jews who did specify an occupation described themselves as quotskilled workersquot But the biggest difference is that they came as settlers 6 Barred Zone Act 1917 and National Origins Quota Act 1924 slowed down the number ofJewish arrivals 7 BiggestJewish settlement was in Lower East Side of NYC by 1905 8 Place called the quotghettoquot an Italian term for the areas of European cities where Jewish people were restricted to 9 Jewish garment workers a Some became very succefful Hart Schaffner Marx german Jewish 10Sweatshops a To outbid competitors contractors would have to promice many clothes in a certain amount of time for as low a pric as possible This led to bad work conditions b Bad work conditons lead to strikes led by women c Triangle Shirtwaist Company strikes start in 19105 and the factory caught on re in 1911 800 workers were trapped in the building Many jumped out of the building and died 146 bodies found along wet sidewalks 19091920 Union strikes continued for better conditions 11valeagues a Quotas at ivy leagues until the 19605 but at least some could be accepted b They excelled and this made people mad 12They gained popularity through Hollywood P PWN Antimiscengenation laws After the civil war discimirtaion continued in forms ofJim Crow laws Accusation of African American harassing white women By 18805 all Southern states had laws against interracial marriages to protect white women AES 150 T18 The Great Migration Antimiscengenation laws A After the civil war discimirtaion continued in forms ofJim Crow laws Accusation of African American harassing white women By 1880s all Southern states had laws against interracial marriages to protect white women Birth of a Nation by DW Grif th 1 Was about the KKK and it depicted Blacks as rapists and blames them for the hatred of white folks because they put on airs were belligerent and abusing kind white people 2 There was only one natural response lynching 3 After the movie lynching of African Americans dramatically rose Push 1 Jim Crow practices laws and institutions which legalized methods of segregation and discrimination against African Americans in the South 2 Lynching 3 Poverty 4 Lack of Political Rights Pull 1 Promise of the north job opportunities and civil rights Types of migrants 1 One person from each family goes to the North 2 People came from all over the South and most went to New York City Philadelphia Boston Baltimore and other New England areas 3 But once in the North found that Jim Crow also existed there By River By Rail movie that interviewed a young man who survived a potential lynching at the age of 16 Those ready to lynch him included those he worked for and greeted daily but on day the he was to be lynched no one speaks out for him Scottsboro Boys 1 Great Depression 19305 poor people would ride in railroad freight cars trying to get a to a town that might have work In 1931 two white women were rising the trains along with two groups of men one white and another black 2 A ght broke out between the two groups of men The blacks won and threw the whites out of the train The whites reported to the local sheriff the train was stopped in Scottsboro Alabama Everyone on board was arrested 3 Victoria Price 19 was in serious trouble because her friends Ruby Bates 17 was a minor They were traveling because they were prostitutes 4 To avoid getting in trouble by the law they claimed that they were gang raped by 12 Black men on a Memphis bound train 5 Only 9 Blacks on youth train They were arrested and charged with crime 6 12 days later the trial took place at Scottsboro Alabama a Prosecutor commented quotguilty or not guilty let s get rid of these niggersquot b Scottsboro Boys nearly lynched by mob of 100 outside jail After 3 days all 9 men were found guilty Theodore Dreiser and Lincoln Steffens writers who published the case by writing articles about how they were falsely convicted a Clarence Darrow took up the case but walked out because of issues with the Communist Party c November 1932 US Supreme Court ordered second trial because men had been inadequately defended in court 7 Second trial begins in Decatur before Judge Jame Horton 8 Ruby Bates testi ed at 2nCI trail that the rape story was invented by Victoria Price and recanted But the men were once again found guilty Judge Horton postpones the trials of the other Scottsboro boys because of dangerously high local tensions 9 The Scottsboro cases are removed from Judge Horton39s jurisdiction and transferred to another court 10At the third trial the men are convicted and sentenced to death Judge Horton fails at getting re elected after this incident 11Apri 1 1935 The US Supreme Court overturns the convictions of Norris and Patterson because African Americans were excluded from sitting on the juries in their trials 124th trial in 1936 resulted in four men being acquitted 13Meanwhile Ozzie Powell is hot in the head by the SheriffJay Sandlin while attacked Deputy Sheriff Edgar Blalock 14Four more released in 19405 but last prisoner Andy Wright had to wait until 1950 to gain freedom 19 years after arrest 159 men nally pardoned in 1976 Only one man Clarence Norris was still alive 161977 Alabama rejects proposal to compensate Norris with 10000 dollars for prison time Harlem Renaissance Like all immigrants of color Africans Americans were forced into segregated areas This area was Harlem a place to be a cultural renaissance for Blacks Differences of opinion between many writers 1 WEB DuBois 2 Booker T Washington 3 Langston Hughes v Zora Neale Hurston v Jean Toomer What is the role of the Negro artist and the racial mountain a Challenge quoturge within the race toward whiteness the desire to pour racial individuality into the old of American standardization and to be as little Negro and as much American as possiblequot b What must African Americans write about being African American c Hughes Africans must writes about being African Americans especially as they are evolving in the New Harlem d Toomer Southern rural roots of Blacks must be included but more than anything else he is an American poet and should not be restricted to the wording of quotBlack poetquot e Hurston Agrees with Toomer but adds that for her racial issues are clouded by sexism 4 Harlem Renaissance Success or Failure a Takaki The promise of Harlem fails because even though it has the intellectual and musical and other cultural allure and some celebrities likes Hughes Hurston DuBois etc it remained essentially a slum and the situation worsens because of the Great Depression Revisionist view it became a symbol and point of reference for everyone to recall The name more than the place became synonymous with new vitality Black urbanity and Black militancy A racial focal point for Blacks the world over it remained for time a race capital Stood for urban pluralism Urban setting was important for blacks to truly appreciate the variety of black life The race consciousness required that shared experience H Blacks in Seattle Northwest 2 great waves late 18005 and during WWII Jim Crow in North People go further West to Chicago and then Paci c West Oregon was unfriendly with quotBlack Laws so they go to Columbia River Washington and Caligornia had quotproblemsquot with Native Americans Mexicans and Asians So they were just adding on to the list 1 2 U l Not many came because of little opportunities 1885 manuel lopes a sailor from Massachusetts became rst black in Seattle a b Opened a food joint and a barber shop William Grose freed Southerners seeking freedom also opened a food joint and barbershop Grose39s Home location became the border of the Black community in Seattle Central District Blacks could vote testify in court and serve on juries attend schools with whites in Washington state But still de facto segregation North border of Central District is East Madison on the city39s NE fringe attracted Black professionals South border is Yesler jackson for the working class Second Wave Migration World War II 1 Pull a b HO C d Second wave generate far more animosity than earlier waves Shortage of workers at the defense industry many African American soldier stationed at nearby military outposts applied Presence contributed to diversi cation ofjobs for African Americans in West coast No longer were blacks relegated to service sector But this changed occurred with problems stility Despite shortage of labor some unions protested the hiring of Blacks After EC 8802 desegregation of workplace issued by FDR many would not comply As Blacks joined the workforce the greater interaction between Blacks and whites created tension quotWhites onlyquot signs started appearing more increasingly overt segregation in the West 3 Settlement a After the War chronic housing shortages th In LA Blacks went to areas vacated by Japanese Americans during interment In Seattle White owners took over many Japanese hotels and forbade Blacks from renting The only place Blacks could rent at were areas about Central District Duwamish bend and Yesler Terrace rst desegregated public housing in nation also opened up housing Quotas used to ensure a balance of racs but not enough availability Criticism about quotsocial engineeringquot but Seattle Housing Authority continued expanding public housing by converting former military housing into public housing Leads to second African American neighborhood Rainier Valley and South Seattle and wave AES 150 T19 World War II and Japanese American Internment PreWorld War II Among early Asian immigrants only quotelitequot persons allowed into US Only major power in Asia was Japan Growing tension between Japan and the West because of its greater military strength 1931 Manchurian IncidentMukden Incident Japan invaded Manchuria League of Nations formed Lytton commission in 1931 to try to determine the causes of the Mukden Manchurian Incident Condemned Japan for invading Chine Japan withdrew from League of Nations called them hypocrites because double standard for the West Marco Polo Bridge incident 1 Japan39s Militarism 1937 claiming to search for a missing soldier the Japanese Army attacked the Marco polo Bridge Lugouqiao a key access Beijing The Double Seventh Incident signaled the beginning of the Japanese invasion of northern China 2 1940 Tripartite Agreement between Italy Germany and Japan Munson Report 1941 1 1941 a special representative of the State Department named Curtis Munson was told by the President Roosevelt to write a report about the loyalty ofJapanese Americans in California and Hawaii 2 The intelligence was to investigate especially in those two states because most of the Japanese Americans were living there 3 Used the 1940 Census info to locate Japanese Americans 4 The nal conclusion of this report was that the Japanese Americans were perfectly loyal to the US Report kept secret until many years after WWII Day of Infamy December 7 1941 internment begins NEXT DAY A Causes for Interment 1 Justifications Military necessity For their own protection Why arrest the Japanese when they could have arrested the Anglos 2 Racial prejudice yellow peril economic jealousy 3 War hysteria need for a scapegoat 4 Lack of leadership under FDR FBI Navy disagreed Edmund Murrow Water Lippmann Earl Warren concurred B Who interment 1 Fishermen 2 Buddhist 3 Immigrants 4 Anyone who talks socialist C EC 9066 1 February 19 1942 order 2 Only directed West CoastJapanese Americans 120000 23 were US citizens 3 Sent to assembly centers stayed an average of few weeks to 3 months 4 Sent to permanent relocation camps D Permanent Camps 1 People stayed around 3 years 2 3 4 After the war people given 100 dollars and bus fare to return to an often hostile homecoming Locations Yopaz UT Crystal City TX Jerome ARK Manzanar S CA Poston AZ Kooskis ID Kooskia ID located in the Rocky Mountains was little known labor camp a Between 19431945 some 265 males interness lived at the camp the rst of its type camp the rst of its type and helped build scenic US highway 12 All male most recent immigrants from Japan Peru who were not US citizens E Coram Nobus Cases 1 2 3 4 F En 1 Coram Nobus judicial review of a judgment based on factual error not known to the court at the time the judgment was delivered Fred Korematsu 19192005 questioned curfew because he had a white gf Men Yasui 19161986 Oregon Gordon Hirabayashi 19181942 Washington do v US 1945 Endo won her Supreme Court challenge to her imprisonment After waiting two years for her appeal to be heard she was declared a loyal citizen and as such must be free to live where she please except West Coast this decision happened on the same day as the Korematsu decision she was let of primarily because she was assimilated G Loyalty Test 1 2 3 4 5 Nono Boys Questions a Loyalty to the japanese b 442nCI regimental combat unit praised for their performance during the war but racism when they got home Consequences for internment a Loss of property b Generation gap jACL rise to leadership c Forced assimilation shame wartime relocation authoratice directive be 110 percent American d Dispersal of community e Silence and selfblame Third generation investigates internment and the government under Ford s administration apologizes and has to provide reparations Post WWII 19 46 camps closed 1960705 silence 1970805 sanseis 1986 Personal justice Denied 1986 US apology 1988 redress 1 2 3 Chinese Boycott ofjapanese goods Ally of the US 1944 granted right to naturalization B Filipinos 1 2 3 4 5 Recruited to serve for US armed forces Bataan Death March survivors Outside ofJapan Germany and Italy Manila is the second most devastated city in the world US will only repair Philippines infrastructure if US is allowed to have same rights as Filipinos Continuous US military presence largest US RampR rest and relaxation until Mt Pinatubo explodes in the 19905 C Impact on Asian Americans 1 2 International and Domestic Politics a Post WWII immigrants Assimilation period 19421964 war brides from Philippines Japan China Korea end of antimiscegenation laws in CA 19448 US ends laws against intermarriage in 1967 b LuceCeller Act 1946 Filipinos and Asian Indians can become US citizens c Cold War 1949 impact on Asian Communist Chinese win civil war Nationalist Chinese take over Taiwan massacre of Taiwanese tension between China and US d Korean War 1950 quotThe Forgotten Warquot North Korean Army supported by China and USSR crosses the 18th parallel Economics Americas is World39s strongest country Atomic bomb Space war Russia Sputnik Changes in Education no longer 3 now it s math and sciences Tracking of Asian Americans Leads to new immigrations laws i McCarranWalter Act 1952 limits Asia Paci c Triangle to 10 percent of 1920 census 176Japanese year 130 year Chinese and everyone else has a minimum of 100year favors people with needed skills meaning professionals Duncp Social Changes Civil Rights Movements a The civil rights movement was a struggle by African Americans in 1950 to 19605 to achieve civil rights equal to those of whites Sometime called second reconstruction The right to be free of racial discrimination Movement sought to get rid of the Jim Crow lads Altered relations between the federal government and the states as the fed gov was forced to enfore its law and protect the rights of African American citizens f The civil rights movement spurred reemergence ofjudiciary including the Supreme Court in role as protector of African Americans g Perez v Sharp 1948 Andrea Perez and Sylvester Davis met in an industry at LA They applied for a marriage license but they were denied because LA had banned interracial marriage ever since the 18505 They were both Catholics and wanted to marry in a mass at a Catholic Church The laws is reversed and they are allowed to be married DQ00 Loving v Virginia 1967 Richard loving was white and Mildred Jeter was black and soon after getting married in 1958 they were arrested and banished from their home state of Virginia They spent nine years together in exile They write to Bobby Kenned and the ACLU and they wnn Gorwth of Asian American and Paci c Islander American community new immigrants nad 2nCI generation Asian Americans and Paci c Islander Americans Immmigration Act of 1965 Using war brides people immigrated to the US Open Housing Laws Chinatown and college towns
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