Test 1 Study Guide/ Cheat Sheet
Test 1 Study Guide/ Cheat Sheet 100-05
University of Hawaii Maui College
Popular in Human Biology
Popular in Biology
This 1 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Awai on Sunday March 1, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 100-05 at San Francisco State University taught by Heather Murdock in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 425 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 03/01/15
Traits of living organisms 5 Main Traits 1 Living things take in amp use energy amp materials metabolism break down materialsnutrients to make energy Living things sense amp respond to changes in their surroundings Living things reproduce amp grow based on information don t need a partner asexual reproduction need partner sexual Living things consist of one amp more cells Living things maintain the internal steady state called homeostasis to stay the same ie body temperature ph in a certain range Being able to adapt to an environmentenvironmental changes evolution constantly evolving Darwin natural selection 5 Kingdoms know some traits 1 Bacteria Unicellular 1 cell Some of them cancould photosynthesize Once they produced 02 in atmosphere other organisms evolved Decomposersproducers Is the only one that has prokaryotic cells 2 Protista Unicellular or multicellular ie paramecium amoeba algae Often lives in pondlake water Producer Fungus Unicellular amp multicellular Decomposers ie mushrooms multicellular yeast unicellular cannot photosynthesize 4 Plants Evolved from algae some of the protistas Make their own food ALL species of plants can photosynthesize Producers ALL have cell walls made of cellulose 5 Animals No animals can photosynthesize Consumers Do not have a cell wall just cell membrane Unicellular most multicellular Cellular Respiration Happening in all of our cells to make energy from glucose 0 Energy ATP 0 C6H1206 02 n co2 H20 ATP 39 With oxygen its called aerobic 39 By products C02 is toxic if we have to much in blood so we need to get rid of it we exhale We need 02 so we also inhale If your cells run out of 02 you can use anaerobic w out 02 cellular respiration but you don t make as much ATP amp you also make a different by product called Lactic Acid this is toxic amp our body breaks it down 4 Main Tissue Types 1 Epithilial on outside of body top of skin and on inside of body lining tubules amp organs Makes our glands 2 types 39 Endocrine glands secrete hormones 39 Exocrine glands do have ducts to deliver secretions where they need to go Mammary milk sweat tears oil mucus 2 Connective tissues ligaments bone to bone tendons bones to muscle or muscle to muscle cartilage skin to bones orjoints blood bone fat lymph 3 Muscle 3 types skeletal smooth cardiac 4 Nervous neurons glial cells Vitamin D We need sunlight to trigger the production Vitamin D help absorb calcium we need for many things like muscle nerves bones clotting fetal development milk production Sun boosts serotonin fell good neurotransmitter Energy know the photosynthesis equation The sun is the ultimate source of energy Photosynthesis when you use the energy from the sun to create sugar glucose C02 H20 l sun s energy C6H1206 02 glucose 02 is a by product we need Chlorophyll is pigment in chloroplasts that do photosynthesis Immune System Responses 1 Barrier keep pathogens out or if they get in to get them out quickly a Ex Tightly packed skin cells hair on eyebrows eyelashes nose etc saliva has antibacterial chemicals b If something gets in we can expel coughing sneezing water eyes vomiting diarrhea 2 Non Speci c immune system uses WBC to get rid of pathogens a Ex Macrophages Nk cells most cells Speci c immune Response WBC antibodies to target speci c pathogens Cell Cell smallest unit of life Tissue group of cells working together Organ group of tissue working together Organ systems group of organs working together Organism Species can reproduce together amp make fertile off spring Popuation same species living together Community different sp living together Ecosystem living organisms non living factors H20 soil temperature 2 reaction 1 Dehydration synthesis To build molecules by taking away water 2 Hydrolysis To break apart by adding water H20 Our main elements in our body H O C N We39re mostly H20 70 amp 4 main organic molecules all have carbon 4 main organic molecules 1 Carbohydrates Glucose 2 Lipids 3 Proteins Nucleic Acid DNA RNA ATP Lipids 4 main types 1 Fats triglycerides Function for fats they are a good energy storage when we run out of carbs cushioningprotection insulation 2 Phospholipids make up cell amp organelle membranes 3 Sterols Steroids Make cholesterol l makes bile helps digest lipids in digestive system Cholesterol also makes lipid hormones Lipid hormones examples Testosterone Estrogen Progesterone 4 Waxes In ear for protection 3 Types of Bonds Covalent Bond Share electrons in outer valence shells to become stable Example CH4 Ionic Bond Ions charged elements come together in a weak bond due to opposite attracting Example Na Cl Hydrogen Bond Hydrogen holding elements together wear bonds Example DNA hydrogen bonds they are weak hold the two strands of double helix together Carbohydrates buiding block are glucose cellulose Ultimate source of energy ATP We make ATP by cellular respiration in the mitochondria of all our cells Examples monosaccharide monomers are basic 1 sugar units ie Glucose C6H1206 Fructose Examples disaccharide 2 sugars linked together ie Sucrose glucose amp fructose Polysaccharide many sugars linked together that we use for energy or Different proteins 1 Enzymes They help reactions speed them up 2 Regulatory Proteins Regulate our cells activities hormones Ex Insulin moves glucose into cells to use or store 3 Transport protein Helps move things around in bodies Ex Hemoglobin amp create channels in cell membranes
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