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exam study guide WFS 462
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dani on Monday March 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to WFS 462 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Avery in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 622 views. For similar materials see Herpetology in Wildlife Studies at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 03/02/15
0 Anatomy 12215 0 Pond forms of amphibians will have larger gills with more surface area Less oxygen available than in streams 0 Development amphibians mostly Most fro gs have external fertilization Internal fertilization in all caecilians reptiles and most salamanders Direct b o What is a larva orn looking like mini adults vs indirect larval Reptiles direct o More yolk in egg to sustain animal longer Amphibians can be either Meso vs macrolecithal eggs 0 Meso only permits indirect development 0 Macro permits direct development Protective barriers o Externally deposited embryos need more pretention I Gelatinous masses in ponds 0 May protect from UV radiation and desiccation Protection from predation 0 Both meso and micro predators Early stage after hatching that differs in appearance to adult form In egg embryo Direct development juvenile at birth Free living embryos Aquatic l Hatching 0 Most feed during this period but some live off stored yolk Many are aquatic Undergo a serious transformation to become adult 0 Anurans tadpole to frog arvae 0 Thin heavily vascularized skin 0 Pharyngeal slits and gills o Gills persist in lower forms of anurans caecilians and salamanders I Gills replaced in frogs Lidless eyes Cartilaginous skeletons Lateral lines Poorly understood across all groups Some have hatching glands that help dissolve gelatin capsule Tadpole morphology Oral disk Spiracle Hind limb bud O O Reptiles 0 Location of mouth parts surface feeding vs suctorial o Operculum limbs emerge here Eggshell imposes limits 0 Cannot survive submerged in water Water absorption through shell allows the embryo to increase weight from original ovum weight 0 Water availability affects rate of development and size of hatchlings Nest sites MUST be chosen carefully o Substrate for buried eggs is very important 0 Must permit gas exchange 0 Soil permeability o Friability ability to crumble Temperature is critical 0 Cold can slow development resulting in suboptimal emergence time 0 Can also be true for amphibians 0 Warm results in increased metabolism 0 Depletion of yolk Metamorphosis does not occur in reptiles o Hatch as miniature adult Hatching 0 Extract calcium during development 0 Makes shell weaker 0 Some turtles have delayed emergence Growth 0 Influenced by quantity and quality of food 0 Temperature influence 0 Metabolism speeds 0 Sex determination o Grow faster in warm slower in cold to a certain degree 0 Food shortage influence 0 Estivation 0 Low activity status to preserve nutrients o Ectotherms can exist better in harsher environments than endotherms o Ectotherms exhibit close to indeterminate growth Age at sexual maturity VARIES o 4 months 7 years 0 2 months 40 or more years 0 Not solely due to size 0 Larger individuals can have larger clutch sizes 0 Smaller individuals may need to have young faster prey species Metamorphosis Thyroxine TH causes this process 0 Crowding 0 Reduced food 0 Reduced oxygen 0 Drying of water bodies 0 Predation o Ecdysis shedding skin I Amphibians o Tend to shed once per week I Crocodilians and turtles 0 Cell growth is continuous and skin is shed continuously nonshelled portions 0 Turtles can retain or shed scutes seasonally I Lepidosaurs reptiles with overlapping scales 0 Shed patches to entire piece 0 Growth and shedding phase 0 Renewal lasts about 14 days 0 Coloration I Amphibians o Pigment cells 0 Chromatophores I Melanophores lighten or darken the colors I Iridophores stacked purines blues and greens I Xanthophores pteridine pigments yellow orange red 0 Color largely determined by pigment in xanthophores and reflectivity in iridophores o ANATOMY USED IN CLASS Nasolabial groove groove that runs from nostril down to lip Costal grooves flanking sides Dorsolateral fold ridge that runs down either side of back 000 Parotiod glands frogs 2515 Breeding and life histories 0 Sexual reproduction variation in the next generation 0 Why is it adaptive I Creates new combinations that didn t previously exist I Natural selection acts upon the variation created by sexual reproduction I Organisms are unable to predict how environments will change 0 Diversity of reproductive modes Many ways in which amphibians and reptiles will augment reproductive output Internal vs external Oviparity and vivipa rity 000 Not all reproduce sexually o Parthenogenesis 0 Not found in mammals o All female I Offspring arise from unfertilized clutches I Will only reproduce if stimulated by another female 0 Early tetrapods 0 First amphibians were external fertilizers 0 Internal allowed freedom from standing water 0 Environment stimulates gonadotropins which stimulate gamete formation sex genes 0 Reproductive behaviors 0 Vocal chemical visual and tactile cues o What role do these play I Draws attention to oneself I Advertise fitness I Defending resourcesterritorial 0 At time of mating males always have mature gametes I Not always true for females Amplexus the behavior where male frogs grasp the female during reproduction Frogs are most diverse group of amphibians I Mostly external fertilization 0 Many other species have internal fertilization 0 Benefits of internal fertilization 0 Complex mating rituals I Passes on fitness and health I More control of mate choice 0 Offspring control 0 Offspring development 0 ntromittent organs 0 Hemipenes usually barbed in ways that make it difficult to remove them 0 Ascaphus one of the few species of frog with internal fertilization o Salamanders I Deposit spermatophore and then guide female to packet 0 Female picks up spermatophore and fertilization occurs 0 Nesting amphibians 0 Species with constructed nests are limited to humid environments I Foam I Basin I Underwater etc o In North America limited to preexisting structures I Vernal pools no predators but everything is temporary 0 High mortality in larval stage 0 Nesting reptiles 0 Most oviparous reptiles construct nests I High mortality in egg stage I Water still key moist soil required o Crocodylians build above ground nests I Turtles dig nests into ground I Many squamates will lay eggs in damp soil I Some snakes incubate eggs shivering thermogenesis I Other reptiles will thermoregulate their bodies throughout the winter 0 Biophysical environment I High temperature low incubation period and quick development 0 Lower offspring quality and reduced hatching success I Low temperature high incubation period and slow development I Optimal range of conditions but there is some plasticity Sex determination 0 Genetic vs environmental temperature I Turtles crocodylians tuataras and some squamates have temperature sex determination o Turtle high temp is female low is male Reproductive seasonality 0 Major determinants for amphibians I Water I Temperature Breeding not synchronous for all species Most temperate amphibians reproduce once annually I Some biennial every other year Almost all temperate zone reptiles reproduce seasonally When male and female gonadal and hormonal cycles coincide I Called associated I Does not always occur particularly in snakes o Males may develop faster 0 Females may not have resources needed for egg production Unisexual reproduction o Reproduction without swapping of genetic material 0 Hybridogenesis I Where two species cross and half genome is passed 0 Results in all female 0 Kleptogenesis I Polyploidy 0 Multiple sets of chromosomes 0 Mole salamanders 21215 Evolutionary traps o Maladaptation resource that an organism finds equally or more attractive than normal resources even though there may be a reduced fitness value I Mismatch between behavior and goal Why are animals duped 0 An option or a preference for an option increases in attractiveness relative to its fitness value I Humans can alter environmental cues making an option attractive 0 Windows reflect more polarized light than water I Humans can reduce the fitness benefit associated 0 Types of traps 0 Equal preference I Poor quality habitat whose preference value is indistinguishable from other higher quality habitats 0 Severe I Can draw animals away from highfitness habitats I Lead to rapid population decline EXAM REVIEW Ambystoma looks very fatty big fat rolls over body Plethodontidae are long and more slender 0 Long and robust spring or red salamander o Fragile looking Plethodon slimy etc Bullfrogs versus green frogs 0 Bull don t have dorsolateral folds 0 Green has dorsolateral folds Terms to know Metatarsal tubercule spade in spadefoot frog 0 ntercalary cartilage frogs toe cartilage o Eardrum o Mouth 0 Tympanum frogs o Dorsolateral folds frogs o Sacral hump o Cranial crest o Paratoid gland o Habitus o Costal groovefold salamanders o Adpressed bending the leg up and out of the way to count grooves underneath salamanders o Vent o Gular fold o Ventralcaudal scales 0 Anal plate singledivided o Preanal and femoral pores 0 Bridge 0 How to tell gender in snakes 0 Proper scale counting o Turtle scutes 0 Scale types
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