General Biology 2 Final exam prep
General Biology 2 Final exam prep BIOL1081
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by William Sebastian on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL1081 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Brian Kinkle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Biology 1082 Supplemental Instruction Spring 2016 Mock Final Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following statements about evolution 6. The Isthmus of Panama cut off gene flow between is false? Atlantic and Pacific populations of a species of fish. a. Scientists have not been able to observe evolution The cessation of gene flow led to the accumulation of in action. genetic differences between the populations, which b. Evolutionary theory can be applied to solve led to reproductive isolation. Now Atlantic and practical problems. Pacific populations of this fish are separate species c. Biologists have accumulated a large body of that cannot interbreed, even if they were again to evidence about the evolutionary changes that have come into contact with each other. The process occurred in the past. described is that of d. Biologists have accumulated a large body of a. sympatric speciation. b. parapatric speciation. evidence about how evolutionary changes occur. c. allopatric speciation. d. reinforcement. 2. Given a population that contains genetic variation, 7. Considering the overall human population of the what is the correct sequence of the following events, U.S. mainland at the time when the slave trade under the influence of natural selection? brought large numbers of people from equatorial 1. Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring than Africa, what was primarily acting to change the do poorly adapted individuals. frequency of the sickle-cell allele in the overall U.S. 2. A change occurs in the environment. population? 3. Genetic frequencies within the population change. a. Natural selection 4. Poorly adapted individuals have decreased b. Gene flow survivorship. c. Genetic drift a. 2 → 4 → 1 → 3 d. Founder effect b. 4 → 2 → 1 → 3 c. 4 → 2 → 3 → 1 8. What does the biological species concept use as the d. 2 → 4 → 3 → 1 primary criterion for determining species boundaries? a. Geographic isolation 3. Which of the following is a true statement b. Niche differences concerning genetic variation? c. Morphological similarity a. It is created by the direct action of natural selection. d. Gene flow b. It arises in response to changes in the environment. c. It must be present in a population before natural 9. When selection acts to eliminate one extreme from selection can act upon the population. an array of phenotypes it is called d. It tends to be reduced by the processes involved a. stabilizing selection. b. disruptive selection. when diploid organisms produce gametes. c. directional selection. d. artificial selection. 4. As adaptions for flight, the wings of bats and the 10. Features that increase the likelihood of survival wings of birds are an example of and reproduction by an organism in a particular a. synapomorphy. b. evolutionary reversal. environment are called c. monophyly. d. convergent evolution. a. genes. b. mutations. c. adaptations. d. selection. 5. The common ancestor of humans and the other “great apes” walked on all fours, while humans are 9. Which of the following would weaken speciation bipeds. Bipedalism is thus the _______ trait. between two populations? a. ancestral b. homoplasic a. Increased gene flow between them c. monophyletic d. derived b. Temporal differences in flower blooming c. Behavioral differences in courtship d. Geographical separation 10. A biological species is defined as 16. A botanist discovers a new species of plant in a a. a group of organisms that look very similar tropical rain forest. After observing its anatomy and b. an actual or potentially interbreeding natural life cycle, he notes the following characteristics: population which is reproductively isolated from xylem with tracheids, separate gametophyte and other such groups sporophyte generations with the sporophyte dominant, c. a group of organisms with the identical genotype and no seeds. This plant is probably most closely d. a population of organisms, natural or artificial, that related to is geographically isolated from other populations a. mosses. b. ferns. 11. The origin of a new plant species by c. gymnosperms. hybridization, coupled with accidents during nuclear d. flowering plants. division, is an example of a. allopatric speciation. 17. Water is conducted in ___ tissue, and b. sympatric speciation. carbohydrates and nutrients are transported in ____ c. autopolyploidy. tissue. d. habitat selection. a. xylem; phloem b. phloem; xylem c. parenchyma; phloem d. parenchyma; xylem 12. The common ancestors of birds and mammals were very early reptiles, which almost certainly 18. Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water possessed three-chambered hearts (two atria, one and minerals taken up from the soil? ventricle). Birds and mammals, however, are alike in a. Taproots having four-chambered hearts (two atria, two b. Root hairs ventricles). The four-chambered hearts of birds and c. Storage roots mammals are best described as d. Sections of the root that have cork cambium a. structural homologies. b. vestigial structures. 19. CO e2ters the inner spaces of the leaf through the c. homoplasies resulting from parallel evolution. a. cuticle. d. the result of shared ancestry. b. epidermal trichomes. c. stomata. 13. Which eukaryotic kingdom includes members that d. phloem. are the result of endosymbiosis that included an ancient proteobacterium and an ancient 20. All of the following are primary functions of cyanobacterium? flowers except a. Plantae a. pollen production. b. Fungi b. photosynthesis. c. Animalia c. meiosis. d. Protista d. sexual reproduction. 14. In a comparison of birds and mammals, having 21. The process of moving water through a plant by four limbs is transpiration works because water molecules stick to a. a shared ancestral character. each other with b. useful for distinguishing birds from mammals. a. turgor pressure. b. osmosis. c. an example of analogy rather than homology. c. adhesion. d. hydrogen bonds. d. a character useful for sorting bird species. 22. Which of these characteristics does not promote 15. The following are all plant adaptations to life on outcrossing in flowering plants? land, except a. self-incompatibility a. the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis b. dioecism b. cuticles. c. physical separation of flower parts c. vascular tissue. d. apomixis d. stomata. 23. The progression that leads to the death of a plant 31. Endothermy is known as a. is a characteristic of animals that have a fairly a. outcrossing. b. dichogamy. constant body temperature. c. abscission. d. senescence. b. is a term equivalent to cold-blooded. c. is a characteristic of mammals but not of birds. 24. Which of the following is a synapomorphy of d. is seen only in insects and in certain predatory animals? fishes. a. multicellularity b. specific extracellular molecules, such as collagen c. presence of tissues d. heterotrophy 25. Cephalization is most commonly associated with a. spherical symmetry. b. radial symmetry. c. sessile animals. d. bilateral symmetry. 26. During cleavage, the cytoplasm of new cells in a developing frog embryo a. comes from the egg cytoplasm. b. is synthesized by the blastomeres. c. does not contain any yolk. d. is the vegetal pole. 27. Cells move to new positions as an embryo establishes its three germ tissue layers during a. determination. b. cleavage. 32. The thin horizontal arrows in the figure above c. fertilization. show that d. gastrulation. a. the warmer arterial blood can bypass the legs as needed, when the legs are too cold to function well. 28. The vertebrate mesoderm is the origin of the b. the warmer venous blood transfers heat to the a. nervous system. cooler arterial blood. b. epidermis. c. the warmer arterial blood transfers heat to the c. lining of the gut. cooler venous blood. d. muscles and bones d. the goose's legs get progressively warmer as the blood moves away from the abdomen to the feet. 29. Which of the following cells develops into a human embryo? 33. Aquatic _______ are in a double bind, because a. Trophoblast b. Extraembryonic membrane their demand for oxygen increases as the temperature c. Inner cell mass d. Cumulus of their environment increases, but the oxygen content of water declines with increasing water temperatures. 30. In response to a 10°C rise in environmental a. insects b. ectotherms temperature, an endotherm’s body temperature will c. endotherms d. plants a. rise at a constant rate. b. fall at a constant rate. 34. Humans have difficulty breathing at high c. rise to a point, then become stable. elevations because _______ than at low elevations. d. remain relatively constant. a. O2makes up a lower percentage of the air b. the temperature is lower c. the barometric pressure is higher d. the partial pressure of O2is lower 35. Which of the following adaptations is not seen in 42. Secondary immune responses upon a second fish gills? exposure to a pathogen are due to the activation of a. A countercurrent exchange system a. memory cells. b. Bidirectional ventilation of the gills b. macrophages. c. Morphological features that increase the surface c. B cells. area available for gas exchange d. T cells. d. Morphological features that decrease the path length for diffusion of the respiratory gases 43. What is the difference between glia and neurons? a. Glia include parts of multiple neurons. 36. Organisms with a circulating body fluid that is b. A neuron is only the soma, or body, of a glial cell. distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the c. Glia carry information away from the brain, body's cells are likely to have whereas neurons carry information to the brain. a. an open circulatory system. d. Glia are cells that nourish and support the neurons. b. a closed circulatory system. c. branched tracheae. 44. The resting potential of a neuron is produced by d. hemolymph. a. voltage-gated channels in the membrane. b. chemically gated channels in the membrane. 37. Countercurrent exchange helps to maximize c. potassium channels in the membrane that are a. endocytosis. permanently open. b. blood pressure. d. the concentration difference in Na across the c. diffusion. membrane. d. osmosis. 45. Self-propagation and refractory periods are typical 38. To osmoregulate, most terrestrial birds and of mammals must a. action potentials. a. excrete water, conserve salts b. excitatory postsynaptic potentials. b. excrete water, excrete salts c. threshold potentials. c. excrete salts d. conserve water d. resting potentials. 46. Calculation, contemplation, and cognition are 39. During filtration, which of the following does not human activities associated with increased activity in enter Bowman’s capsule from the bloodstream? the a. Water b. Glucose a. hypothalamus. c. Ions d. Plasma proteins b. cerebrum. 40. A key part of the humoral immune response is c. cerebellum. d. spinal cord. a. the attack of cytotoxic T cells on infected host cells. b the production of antibodies by plasma cells. 47. Tastes and smells are distinct kinds of c. perforation of infected host cells by perforin. environmental information in that d. the attack of phagocytes on living pathogens. a. neural projections from taste receptors reach different parts of the brain than the neural projections 41. Antigens are a. proteins embedded in B cell membranes. from olfactory receptors. b. the single area of the cerebral cortex that receives b. proteins that consist of two light and two heavy smell and taste signals can distinguish tastes and polypeptide chains. smells by the pattern of action potentials received. c. foreign molecules that trigger the generation of c. tastant molecules are airborne, whereas odorant antibodies. molecules are dissolved in fluids. d. proteins released during an inflammatory response. d. distinguishing tastant molecules requires learning, whereas smell discrimination is an innate process. E) odorants bind to receptor proteins, but none of the tastant stimuli bind to receptors. 48. The movement of muscle is due to the 55. A population of rabbits, introduced to an island, a. polymerization and depolymerization of tubulin. has rapid growth for a few years; then growth slows b. making and breaking of cross-bridges between and levels off because actin and myosin. a. births exceed deaths c. contractions of microtubules. b. environmental resistance declines d. changes in conformation of dynein molecules. c. immigration is reduced d. the carrying capacity has been reached 49. The nervous system that regulates activity in smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands of the 56. Metapopulations are important because they body is referred to as the _____________ system. a. prevent populations from growing exponentially a. antagonistic b. autonomic b. help prevent extinction of a species c. sympathetic d. parasympathetic c. ensure a balance between birth and death rates d. favor r-selected species 50. What is the physiological basis for the auditory system’s ability to distinguish different sound 57. In an ecosystem, which statement reflects the frequencies? relationship between energy and nutrients? a. The three bones of the middle ear respond a. Energy cycles and nutrients cycle differentially. b. Energy flows and nutrients cycle b. The loops of the semicircular canals respond c. Energy cycles and nutrients flow differentially. d. Energy flows and nutrients flow c. Different sections of the basilar membrane respond differentially. 58. Primary succession can occur on all of the d. Different parts of the eardrum (tympanic following areas except membrane) respond differently a. rocky slopes b. lava flows c. burned forests d. sand dunes 51. The point of connection between two communicating neurons is called 59. Competition between members of two different a. the axon hillock. b. the dendrite. species is c. the synapse. d. the glia. a. most intense when the species have similar niche preferences 52. The contraction of skeletal muscles is based on b. increased by character displacement a. actin filaments coiling up to become shorter. c. least intense between species with similar niche b. myosin filaments coiling up to become shorter. preferences c. actin and myosin filaments both coiling up to d. unaffected by their niches become shorter. d. myosin cross-bridges binding to actin and then 60. Animals defend themselves against predators by flexing. all of the following except a. warning coloration 53. Which nitrogenous waste requires hardly any b. cryptic coloration water for its excretion? c. chemical defenses such as poisons and stings a. Amino acids b. Urea d. parasitism c. Uric acid d. Ammonia 61. If secondary consumers are the highest trophic 54. Compared to wetland mammals, water level in a community, how many trophic levels are in conservation in mammals of arid regions is enhanced the community (not counting decomposers)? by having more a. Two a. juxtamedullary nephrons. b. Three b. Bowman's capsules. c. Four c. ureters. d. Three if it is an aquatic community, four if it is a d. urinary bladders. terrestrial community 62. The introduction of a large predatory fish into a 67. Which of the following is an example of Batesian lake will lead to declines in the populations of smaller mimicry? fish; this decrease in the smaller fish will lead to an a. An insect that resembles a twig increase in the plankton on which they feed. This b. A butterfly that resembles a leaf phenomenon is called c. A nonvenomous snake that looks like a venomous a. character displacement. snake b. keystone exchange. d. A snapping turtle that uses its tongue to mimic a c. trophic cascade. worm, thus attracting fish d. heterotrophic succession. 68. Consider the food chain: grass → grasshopper → 63. The recent increase in atmospheric CO 2 mouse → snake → hawk. How much of the chemical concentration is mainly a result of an increase in energy fixed by photosynthesis of the grass (100%) is a. the biosphere’s biomass. available to the hawk? B. the absorption of infrared radiation escaping from a. 0.01% b. 0.1% earth. c. 1% d. 10% c. the burning of fossil fuels and wood. d. cellular respiration by the exploding human 69. In ecosystems, why is the term cycling used to population. describe material transfer, whereas the term flow is used for energy exchange? 64. A population is correctly defined as having which a. Materials are repeatedly used, but energy flows of the following characteristics? through and out of ecosystems. I. Inhabiting the same general area b. Both material and energy are recycled and are then II. Belonging to the same species transferred to other ecosystems as in a flow. III. Possessing a constant and uniform density and c. Materials are cycled into ecosystems from other dispersion ecosystems, but energy constantly flows within the a. I only ecosystem. b. III only d. Both material and energy flow in a never-ending c. I and II only stream within an ecosystem. d. II and III only 70. According to most conservation biologists, the 65. Uniform spacing patterns in plants such as the single greatest threat to global biodiversity is creosote bush are most often associated with a. chemical pollution of water and air. a. chance. b. stratospheric ozone depletion. b. the random distribution of seeds. c. overexploitation of certain species. c. competitive interaction between individuals of the d. alteration or destruction of the physical habitat. same population. d. the concentration of nutrients within the population's range. 66. Logistic growth of a population is represented by dN/dt = Version A a. rN b. rN rN K c. rN (K + N) () − d. rN K
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