Study Guide for Midterm
Study Guide for Midterm 101
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by tiffany.sakamoto Notetaker on Monday March 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at Washington State University taught by Mandy Clayson Anaya in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/02/15
Sociology 101 Study Guide for Midterm Lecture Notes 0 Social communication and sustaining relationships Sociology scienti c study of social world 0 Collect data and test out hypotheses Train people to be skeptical of social actions 0 Study family political labor market social networks religion gender medicine relationships affect health environment human interactions affect on environment crime 0 Focus on social factors of actions Sociological perspective of sociology Psychology vs Sociology Psychology focuses on mind sociology focuses on social relationships affect on people s actions 0 Imagination ability to think differently about things than the way we usually think about them creative new perspective Sociological imagination different perspective that analyzes the social factors affecting one s actions or thoughts Coined in 1950 by C Wright Mills 0 Individualism focus is on the individual and their actions 0 What are you doing here Why are you in school 0 Reasons job successful life experience and knowledge 0 41 in 2012 from 1824 yrs enrolled in college Hernando Washington 19705 Commited murder in Chicago Victim Sarah Golda 0 First intentions for robbing but ended up raping and killing her 0 No consequences for rape sister and murder brother no understanding of serious consequences of his actions 0 Social factors lack of law enforcement Social fact idea that has been tested is accepted by society 0 Emile Durkhein French social theorist Ferdinand Tonnies German Social theorist o Gemeinshchaft intimate relationships end to themselves Gesellschaft impersonal associations personal gain and means to an end 0 Relationship type de nes rules Manifest function intended or obvious consequence Ex going to a football game Latent function unintended or accidental consequence 0 Ex getting too drunk and going to the hospital Inconvenient fact something that contradicts something that you think is true in the social world 0 Max Weber German Ethnocentrism when one thinks their culture is the best Cultural relativism observing others in their own culture Na39ive observer a person that has a awed logic l awed conclusions Fallacies of presumption Hasty generalization Base conclusion on little informationexperience False bifurcation this or that argument 0 False cause 0 Timing cause before effect 0 Association relationship between cause and effect 0 No nonspurious factors third factor in uencing both cause and effect 0 Relevance fallacies Appeal to one someone that does not have relevant authority to the desired topic 0 Appeal to many going along with the crowd Appeal to select few belong to a special group preys on desire to feel special 0 Appeal to tradition following tradition customs Fallacies of wrong level 0 Move back and forth between units of analysis go from individual to group of individual 0 Ex juror vs jury o What is the unit of analysis Functionalism Outlined by Talcott Parsons 193019705 0 Society is made up of interrelated parts 0 Economy 0 Religion 0 Government 0 Families 0 All of these work together for society s survival Con ict Theory Originated from Karl Marx 18405 reemerged 19705 0 Con ict between Haves and Have Nots There has to be resource desire Symbolic Interactionism 19305 Herbert Blummer Give meaning to everyday interactions 0 Little Mermaid Fork used for eating but Ariel uses it as a brush 0 Depending on the meaning we respond different ways 0 Learn interpretation from experiences with others Variables in uenced by or in uences something else vary Hypothesis specifies the relationship you think exists between variables X Y Ex Different jobs based on education Independent variables 0 Cause lst Ex Age gender race Dependent variables 0 Effect 2nd Operationalize list attributes of variable that can be measured or observed Exhaustive each person can t into one category Mutually exclusive categories or attributes don t overlap General or specify 0 Education years of schooling degrees earned Directionality direct of relationship between variables 0 Positive vary in same direction or DD 0 Negative vary in opposite direction or DD 0 Curvilinear different variables result in curve Determines type what kind of question are you trying to answer Quantitative Research 0 How many Counts and statistics Qualitative Research 0 Why something happening 0 Stories and personal accounts 0 Meaning Survey questionnaire to get information Observational research 0 Complete participant not aware of research 0 Complete observer 0 Participant observer researcher that participates in experiment 0 Hawthorne effect social desirability l looking good for experiment Ethnography stay for a long time forget about researcher Unobtrusive research 0 Looking at artifacts and media 0 Garbage what people leave behind Experiments 0 Lab setting and try to control environment 0 Random assignment 0 Games to observe participants actions Triangulation multiple kinds of research to enhance the argument Culture is big and everywhere Material Culture artifacts are objects that are given meaning by humans Durable artifacts something that lasts overtime Ephemeral artifacts meals matches Nonmaterial Culture symbols are something that represents something else 2 or more people agree on the meaning Language words gesture grammar and syntax 5 functions of language Organizes the way we think about the world different perceptions o Allows experience to be cumulative learn from others Allows complex goaloriented behavior Identi es your place in society geographic location in society or social standing in society 0 A woman without her man is nothing A woman without her man is nothing l grammar has different meaning Norms rules for behavior Folkway casual or gentle norms Mores important rules should be doing greater reaction from society Taboos so deeply held that even thought of breaking upsets people cannilbalism Sanctions responses for breaking or keeping norms Formal sanctions organizations Informal sanctions individuals 0 Positive good response for keeping or going beyond expectations 0 Negative breaking norm Formal Making honor roll Jail Sentence Medal of Honor Parking Ticket Informal Thank you note Being ignored Applause Booing Dirty Look Values ideas about what is good and bad 0 Change in culture future culture action Cultural beliefs ideas about what is real amp what is not real 0 Action by humans creating culture Different societies speci c geographic area have different culture Once problem is solved in an acceptable way we typically keep solving it the same way Reify regard something that s human made as natural or inevitable 0 Observe something that seems natural due to repetition Institutions sets of ideas about how societal problems should be handled Cultural Diffusion take aspects from other society s cultures and blendingadopting them into ours 0 Meaning doesn t always transfer Cultural leveling similar to each other ex social media 0 Different categories of culture Microcosm smaller group that epitomizes the larger society 0 Ex girl scouts l society pays taxes girl scouts pay dues Subcultures distinct values norms artifacts etc culture that set them apart from society 0 Ex Nunnery special clothing different customs Counterculture distinct cultural aspects but these are at odds with larger society 0 Ex Ku Klux Klan l don t believe in beliefs but ppl in that association do ldioculture any group that interacts overtime develops own culture 0 Group interact in speci c experience 0 Aggregate same place same time no interaction Ex marching band 0 Functions of culture Simpli es life patterns how we do things doing the norms Promotes solidarityunity group identity 0 Dysfunction of culture 0 Culture shock removed from own culture don t know how to handle new culture 0 Ethnocentrism thinking one culture is better than others Humor 0 Creating friendship amp promoting solidarity ingroup or out group 0 Deal with social anxiety to deal with bad events 0 Form of social control Culturally standardized unreason unreason l different unique strange Culture or Biology sleep eat drink sex both False bifurcation Both in uence one s actions and thoughts Social structure a set of relatively stable relationships connecting different statuses position we occupy in society in a group 0 Example I am a student I am a person stressing about midterms I am female I achieved status do something to acquireearn the status can be negative 0 Ex convicted criminal college graduate marriedpartner Ascribed status put on you by society typically at birth without you doing anything 0 Ex age race gender Situational status hold status based on current situationevent Ex customer OOOO Transitional status serve as bridges to more permanent statuses Ex engaged student 0 Status symbols objects that give away our position or status in society 0 Ex wedding ring l engaged backpackbooks student 0 Every statuses have a role 0 Role what is expected of amp by person occupying a status 0 Rights expect of other people Obligations others expect of you 0 Role can vary depending on culture Tricky situations for roles 0 Role strain so much required by 1 role that it is dif cult to ful ll obligations Status inconsistency 2 statuses are inconsistent with social expectations 0 Ex female mechanic male makeup rep 14 yr old professor Ascribed status con icts with achieved status 0 Role con ict can t ful ll the obligations of 2 roles at the same time 0 Ex single parent fulltime employee and fulltime student 0 Master status most important status to society 0 Cut across all other statuses Lens through which all other statuses are judged judge differently according to gender 0 Movie Questions Stanford Prison Experiment 0 How did the statuses and accompanying roles affect the individuals in the experiment o The individuals were not fully conscious of their actions and were just following the role they were given 0 The prisoners had mental breakdowns What made individuals feel they were not personally respons e 0 They didn t feel responsible because they believed that was the behavior that was associated with their roles o Roles give us scripts to follow Status vs role status is the position that one occupies and a role is what one does in that position Roles in uence our behavior To prevent status inconsistency role con ict and role strain Choose statuses that don t con ict each other Abandon a status not always an easy choice 0 Role distancing remove themselves from status as much as possible but still under that status if you can t completely abandon it not top priority 0 Comply most with the parts of role that have biggest consequence Role segregation try to separate roles apart from each other so they don t con ict Establishedpatterned networks of relationships connecting statuses within the group Diagram social structure of your family 0 Names Byron Joy Taylor and Sebastian Status Byron Dad Joy Mom Taylor Younger sister Sebastian Dog 0 Role Byron Authority nancial provider Joy Authority house chores nancial provider Taylor friendship support Sebastian provide happiness Microsociology sociology of small scale interactions Macrosociology sociology of large scale processes Society totality of individuals and their relationship in a given geography De nite geographic territory Recruitment of members typically originates from sexual reproduction Comprehensive culture and social structures to meet the desires of people Fairly politically independent may sometimes rely on other societies for help Long life meet all the needs of society Institution a solution to a societal problem Set of ideas about how to solve a problem about how it ought to be done Ought to be done not all about efficiency but the values that society holds Ex how to build a house a blueprint for the structure of the hosue blueprint is an institution since it s a set of ideas to build a house Societal Needs Food and water Shelter Reproductionl family Communication socialize memebers family education Medicall medicine limits disease Heiarchy selecting occupations labor market Control members justice system law Defense against enemies military Creating new knowledgel science philosophy Providing goods and services economy Promote unity religion 0 Answer questions about purpose religion Nature of Institutions 0 Generally unplanned and develop gradually 0 Try different things work continue doing it habitualized Over generations habit becomes accepted habitualizedlj institutionalized 0 Slow changing inherently conservative Change ideas of family not typical parents and child but unmarried couples having kids gay marriage married couples without kids Institutions are interdependent connected to each other 0 Famiy women stays home changed to women working lchange of diversity in economy change of law to protect women from sexual harassment at work 0 Bare little resemblance to institutions in another society Respond to societal needs 0 Set expectations 0 Guide individuals as they set up new structures 0 Standard to judge existing social structures Socialization process of becoming culturally competent o Feral children children that were away from society and try to adjust to social customs 0 Anna 2ncl child locked in attic room no nuture age 6 she was rescued could not walk or talk only socially progressed to 25 year old died at age 10 o Isabelle away from human interaction acted like wild animal when rescued at age 6 socially trained her to her age group 0 Difference Isabelle had one social interaction with mother and her mother was able to nurture her Anna had no interaction and no nurturing 0 Victor walked like dog and acted like an animal Jean Marc Itard said he could socialize him Victor never ate with utensils never communicate with other people not fully socially competent o Feral children show the importance of socialization Psychological theories Freud believed in biological natural urges subconsciousgenetic drives Kolberg amp Pigget people go through stages of learning nal stages you are done learning around 18 years old Sociological Theories Charles H Cooley 18641929 believed that social environment effected the social competence rulesinteractions of an individual Self concepts 0 Interaction self and society 0 Self is made up of what we choose to take from society own decisions beliefs values Famous quote quotSelf and society are twin bornquot 0 Need society to make one s self Looking Glass Self SelfJudgment 0 Imagine how others see us 0 Imagine judgments of others based on actions 0 Experience shame or pride based on judgment 0 Execute or revise actions Not all can correctly self judge themselves Paranoid when one makes negative judgments about themselves poor selfimage Pronoid when one always thinks their actions are positive even when society thinks otherwise positive selfimage Cooley suggests that socialization is life liong and ongoing o Constantly moving through different statuses and must be culturally competent for those different statuses 0 Ex student l manager job have to transition from being a student to a good boss 0 George Mead 18631931 believed that the self contained two phases l amp Me O O O O O O I phase subject reactions Me phase predicts how others will see us Ex Dad doesn t want to buy his kid candy tantrum I phase quotI want to smack my kidquot Me phase quotbut how would that make me lookquot I phase again quotOk I won t smack my kid but I ll do something elsequot This dialog of l and Me phase is called feedback loop amp Me phase creates own personalities If there was no Me phase the individual would be impulsive acting but not thinking about actions If there was no I phase the individual would just follow social expectations Mead Concept of learning social competence O Gaining self parents provide instruction serve as role models reinforce appropriate conduct all these things are consistent Play imitate signi cant others understand the roles of certain statuses appreciate themselves as objects Games rules standardized impersonal roles personality does not matter for role just have to understand the role Generalized other point of view shared by others understanding of peoples reactions generalized other becomes Me phase 0 Robert K Merton developed the self ful lling prophecy O O O Idea of prediction being made prediction false not aware Individual accepts the prediction as true even when false Individual acts in a way that makes prediction come true Ex experiment was done students were labeled dumb students believe that they were dumb at the end their test scores were lower student believes false prediction 0 Agents of Socialization 0 Family 0 School 0 Peer Group friends 0 Media 0 Work Notes from Readings 0 Chapter 1 The promise O O O The Promise by C Wright Mills discusses the analysis of one s behavior by looking at the their social environment The history and the life of an individual must be understood to reason the causes of their social customs and morals War breaks out insurance salesman becomes rocket launcher store clerk turns to radar man Sociological imagination allows the comprehension of historical environment affecting external career of variety of individuals and their social positions Individual can understand their own experience and gauge their own fate only locating their role in their period Sociological imagination selfconsciousness Troubles occur within individual s character and range of immediate relations with others personal troubles lssues involve matters that transcend these local environments of individual public issues of social structure 0 Chapter 2 How history and sociology can help today s families 0 0 Teen Parent con icts main problem is teens not being prepared for adulthood by parents Common dilemma with teenagers is quotrolelessnessquot in modern society Teenagers once had productive jobs but now are forced to go to school till 18 years old Increase age of economic maturation while age of physical maturation decreases Puberty earlier as time progresses Job market limits teenagers to start working preventing teenagers from earning their independence Result easier to obtain illegal substance than getting a job Teenager adult con ict are effected by social and economic structure 0 Male Female Con icts male more dominant than women Boys brought up to be independent and powerful evolving in aggression Girls rewarded for obedient behavior l obedient to husband no job so dependent on husbands Chapter 4 Men as success objects and women as sex objects 0 O 0000 Studies prove that men highly focus on sexuality and physical attractiveness in a mate greater than women Women tend to mainly focus on psychological and personality characteristics longevity and commitment in a relationship Financial security is important for women Women place greater emotional investment than men Men have more dominant due to courting process Likes attract likes Overall experiment hypothesis Women sex objects Men success objects Experiment proves hypothesis right Men attracted to stereotypical feminine traits such as appearance Women attracted to masculine traits such as nancial and commitment Stereotyping sex roes Chapter 5 Miscounting race Explaining whites misperceptions of racial group size 0 O O Overestimation of black population 50 white50 black in US population but 75 of US population is white Group size may in uence racial attitude Lack of interaction between racial groups causes ignorance and hostility towards one another This attitude can be changed when there is a non competitive environment where social interaction between racial groups is accepted and legal both parties have equal status Whites overestimation of nonwhite populations due to Decrease of social status of racial group when whites interaction of different racial group that are socially stigmatized Lack of physicalsocial interaction creates threat for white privilege Experiment done on the concept of mainly white populations perception on nonwhite population Media portrays blacks with a negative image that makes them a threat to society bad stereotyping Conclusion 1 Exposure to racial minorities in media speci cally on the negative perception of blacks 2 Blacks making demands for racial justice 3 belief that demographic changes make whites minority Chapter 6 Doing the right thing 0 Ethical behavior and immoral behavior different Ethics is rules that bene t society and not an individual 0 Sociological term for professional Practitioners study for years to acquire technical knowledge and skills Knowledge they possess involves traditions and secrets that are not shared by outsiders Their knowledge is useful to others that can bene t from it Work of professional cannot by judged by outsider o Misuse of occupation l Nazi physicians during WWII experimented on humans killed many jews l Nuremberg Code made to protect human research subjects Questions the ethics of social experiments on humans 0 Laud Humphrey s study Humprey made observations about homosexual men Sneaked around to interview these men but they didn t know they were part of an experiment which was not ethical Chapter 7 If Hitler asked you to electrocute a stranger would you Probably 0 Stanley Milgram was a social psychologist that planned to prove that Germans are different 0 Produced the Shirer thesis which is that Germans have a basic character aw that obeys authority without question 0 Measured obedience in laboratory experiment 0 The experiment has the person play a game and if they get it wrong they get shocked As they progress the shock gets more painful Object is to nd at which shock level does the learner disobey Obedience of the multiple learners is greater than assumed 0 Obedience is so strong because its natural to follow someone that has greater authority 0 Without obedience to a relevant ruling authority there could not be a civil society Chapter 8 Queer Customs O Society is a group of people who interact more with each other than other outside groups Culture is the speci c way of life to a certain group of people Storage of overall learning of group Culture is meant for meeting the survival needs of a group of people There are various differences in cultures Ex nose plugs are attractive in Egyptians but no by modern French All cultures deal with sexual instinct Marriage could be economic Homosexuality Selectivity is part of differentiating culture Resistance to change Culture is learned by individuals from belonging to a speci c group Permits individuals to live together in organized society 0 Giving readymade solutions 0 Predict behavior 0 Setting expectations of moral behavior 0 Chapter 9 Body ritual among the nacirema O O O 0 Professor Linton visited the Nacirema people to learn of their unique customs The Nacirema believe their nation was created by Notgnihsaw Has a market economy of agriculture due to rich habitat Main belief that human body is ugly and must do ritual and ceremonies to rid these characteristics Shrine is built for these rituals Many charms and magical potions made by medicine men are placed in the shrine Nacirema have fascination for mouth and is a major in uence on social realtionships Daily ritual called mouthrite cleansing of mouth Nacirema is a culture based on mainly magic ridden people 0 Chapter 10 Act your age 0 O O 0 As people get older they will have to ful ll different roles in their lifetime Gender identi cation is associated within social groups Age is not shaped by social in uences but formed with experiences of interactions in context of larger social forces Gender accomplishment Gender is feature of social situations not role or identity Age is also accomplishment Sense of gaining knowledge to maintain different rolds and identities Accomplishing age is met by certain characteristics according to age categories Not all people act their age
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