HDFS 3400 Midterm Study Guide Chapters 1-9
HDFS 3400 Midterm Study Guide Chapters 1-9 3440
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Date Created: 03/02/15
Human Sexuality Midterm Review Chapters 19 Chapter 1 Sexual intelligence involves selfunderstanding interpersonal sexual skills scientific knowledge and consideration of the cultural context of sexuality Psychosocial refers to a combination of psychological and social factors 0 Psychological factors emotions attitudes motivations 0 Social conditioning the process by which we learn our social group s expectations and norms United States 0 Educational level and socioeconomic status are crucial in in uencing sexual attitudes and behaviors 0 Differences between groups are generalities not universal truths 0 However in spite of the intragroup differences when research looks at patterns some intergroup differences emerge o Acculturation replacing traditional beliefs and behavior patterns with those of the dominant culture 0 Race and ethnicity are rarely nonoverlapping classifications 0 Sexual attitudes behaviors and beliefs about sexuality and gender often vary widely even within the same religious group Islamic Middle East 0 15 of the worlds population is Muslim o The Qur an allows a man to have up to 4 wives 0 Muslim fundamentalists are following patriarchal traditions not the Qur an in their practices towards women ex Female oppression female genitals to be cut 0 Since 1980s Open Door policy China s government has eased control over individuals lifestyle choices 0 In 2005 70 of residents in Beijing reported to have had sexual relations before marriage 0 Young men both single and married have increased their contact with sex workers which make them and the additional women they have sex with at risk for HIV Augustine declared that lust was the original sin of Adam and Eve I Also believed female subordination was intrinsic to God s creation so any intercourse other than the man on top was quotunnaturalquot Thomas Aquinas maintained that human sexual organs were designed for procreation and that any other acts were against God s will 0 Two contradictory images of women were crystallized Virgin Mary and the evil temptress Eve The Victorian Era o The sexes had highly defined roles Madonna whore dichotomy 0 Upper and middle class women were valued for their delicacy and ladylike manners I Consequently constrained by restrictive devices corsets hoops bustles 0 Women s duties centered on fulfilling their families spiritual needs and providing a comfortable home Victorians encouraged selfrestraint However prostitution ourished Men were allowed these vices and women were not Celia Mosher conducted the only known research about the sexuality of women of that era The Beginning of the 20th Century 0 Sigmund Freud believed sexuality was innate in women and men 0 Havelock Ellis the loverights of womenquot including masturbation and homosexuality as healthy as long as no one was harmed 0 Historical events and technology brought new sexual perspectives and possibilities automobiles appers etc o A return to more restrained behavior came with the Great Depression 2011 a CNN Poll reported that support for marriage equality broke the 50 barrier for the first time APA removed homosexuality from its diagnostic category of mental disorders 75 of music videos have sexual content Typically portray man as sexually aggressive and woman as sexually submissive O 0000 Chapter 2 The Goals of Sexology Goals similar to scientists in other disciplines understanding predicting controlling or in uencing the events of the subject matter Nonexperimental Research Methods Case Studies Surveys Questionnaires and Interviews Direct Observation A problem in a sex survey research has to do with the accuracy of a subject s response The tendency to provide socially desirable responses can involve people who consciously or unconsciously conceal certain about their sexual histories because they view them as abnormal foolish or painful to remember Demographic bias a kind of sampling bias in which certain segments of society such as White middle class white collar workers are disproportionately represented in a study population The Kinsey Report 0 Findings that sexual behavior is in uenced by educational level and that heterosexuality or homosexuality is often not an allornone proposition The outbreak ofAIDS in the 1980s occurred at a time when the US public health community was ill informed about the contemporary sexual practices of the citizenry Exposure to sexually violent media can increase tolerance for sexually aggressive behavior greater acceptance of the myth that women want to be raped reduced sensitivity to rape victims desensitization to violence against women and an increased probability of committing rape Electronic Devices for Measuring Sexual Arousal The penile strain gauge is a exible loop that looks something like a rubber band with a wire attached The vaginal photoplethysmograph is a device designed to measure the increased vaginal blood volume The clitoral photoplethysmograph assesses clitoral blood volume and has recently been shown to be a sensitive tool for measuring genital arousal in women The vaginal myograph and rectal myograph are implements inserted into the vagina or rectum that measures muscular activity in the pelvic area Computerized Assessment of Sexual Behavior A Self Administered Questionnaire provides an alternative survey method that can overcome difficulties by providing a more private and potentially less threatening means of reporting sensitive behavior Two method for computer interviews keys on a keyboard or audio Digital divide Internet users are still not representative of the general US population Internet users tend to be younger better educated and more af uent that nonusers Chapter 3 The Vulva The Mons Venerispads of fatty tissue between the pubic bone and the skin The Labia Maj ora the outer lips of the vulva part covered with pubic hair The Labia Minora the inner lips of the vulva Prepuce the foreskin or fold of skin over the clitoris Genital Alteration piercing body art labiaplasty The Clitorisa highly sensitive structure of the female external genitals the only function of which is sexual pleasure The Vestibule the area of the vulva inside the labia minora The Urethral Opening tube through which urine passes from the bladder The Introitus the opening to the vagina located between the urinary opening and the anus The Hymen tissue that partially covers the vaginal opening The Perineum area between the vagina and anus if the female and the scrotum and anus of the male Underlying Structures Cevernous bodies the structure in the shaft of the clitoris that engorge with blood during sexual arousal Vesibular Bulbs two bulbs one on each side of the vaginal opening that engorge with blood during sexual arousal Bartholin s gland two small glands slightly inside the vaginal opening that secrete a few drips of uid during sexual arousal Internal Structures The Vagina a stretchable canal in the female that opens at the vulva and extends about 35 inches into the pelvis o Speculum instrument used to open the vaginal walls during a gynecological exam 0 The Gradenberg Spot GSpot glands and ducts in the anterior wall of the vagina Some women experience sexual pleasure arousal orgasm and an ejaculation of uids from the spot The Cervix small end of the uterus located at the back of the vagina The Uterus pear shaped organ inside the female pelvis within which the fetus develops o Perimetrium thin membrane covering the outside of the uterus o Myometrium the smooth muscle layer of the uterine wall 0 Endometrium the tissue that lines the inside of the uterine wall The Fallopian Tubestwo tubes extending from the sides of the uterus in which the egg and sperm travel The Ovaries female gonads that produce ova and sex hormones Menstruation the sloughing off of built up uterine lining that takes place if contraception has not occurred Menarche initial onset of menstrual periods in a young women Menstrual phase the phase of the menstrual cycle during which the ovarian follicles mature Secretory Phase the phase of the menstrual cycle during which the corpus luteum develops and secretes progesterone Amenorrhea the absence of menstruation Menopause Physiological changes that occur during the transition period from fertility to infertility in both sexes Health Concerns Urinary Tract Infection caused by bacteria entering the urethral opening The Breast Secondary sex characteristics the physical characteristics other than genitals that indicate sexual maturity such as body hair breasts and deepened voice Mammary glands glands in the female breast that produce milk Chapter 4 The Penis a male sexual organ consisting of internal root and the external shaft and glans Consists of nerves blood vessels fibrous tissue 3 parallel cylinders of spongy tissue Root the portion of the penis that extends internally into the pelvic category Shaft the length of the penis between the glans and the body Glans the head of the penis it is richly endowed with nerve endings Cavernous bodies the structure in the shaft of the penis that engorge with blood during sexual arousal Spongy body a cylinder that forms a bulb at the base of the penis extends up into the penile shaft and forms the penile glans Foreskin a covering of skin over the penile glans Corona the rim of the penile glans Frenulum a highly sensitive thin strip of skin that connects the glans to the shaft on the underside of the penis The Scrotum the pouch of skin of the external male genitals that encloses the testes Testis male gonad inside the scrotum that produces sperm and sex hormones Spermatic cord a cord attached to the testis that contains the vas deferens sperm carrying tube blood vessels nerves and cremasteric muscle fibers The Testes Two major functions secrete sex hormones and produce sperm Cryptorchidism a condition in which the testes fail to descend from the abdominal cavity to the scrotal sac The Seminiferous Tubules thin coiled structures in the testes in which sperm are produced 0 Interstitial cells cells located between the seminiferous tubules that are the major sources of androgen in males Epididymis the structure along the back of each testis in which sperm maturation occurs C shaped The Vas Deferens a spermcarrying tube that begins at the testis and ends at the urethra The Seminal Vesicles small glands adjacent to the terminals of the vas deferens that secrete an alkaline uid conductive to sperm motility that constitutes the greatest portion of the volume of seminal uid released during ejaculation The Prostate Gland a gland located at the base of the bladder that produces about 30 of the seminal uid released during ejaculation The Cowper s Glands bulbourethral glands two peasized glands located alongside the base of the urethra in the male that secrete an alkaline uid during sexual arousal Semen or seminal uidA viscous uid ejaculated through the penis that contains sperm and uids from the prostate seminal vesicles and the Cowper s glands Male Sexual Functions Erection the process by which the penis or clitoris engorges with blood and increases in size Ejaculation the process by which semen is expelled from he body through the penis 0 Emission phase the first stage of a male orgasm in which the seminal uid is gathered in the urethral bulb Expulsion phase the second stage of male orgasm during which the semen is expelled from the penis by muscular contractions Retrograde ejaculation the process by which semen is expelled into the bladder instead of out of the penis Nocturnal emission involuntary ejaculation during sleep also known as a wet dream Circumcision surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis O O O Practiced for religious ritual or health reasons About 80 of men in the US are circumcised Health benefits area under if not routinely cleaned can harbor a variety of infection causing organisms decreases incidence of UTIs penile cancer and genital wart infections Strong evidence provides increased protection against HIV Health Risks hemorrhage infections mutilation shock and psychological trauma Phimosis a condition characterized by an extremely tight penile foreskin Urology the medical specialty dealing with reproductive health and genital diseases of the male and urinary tract diseases in both sexes Prostatis when the prostate becomes enlarged and in amed often as a result of an infectious agent 0 O Affects about 10 of men of all ages but most often occurs in their 40s Symptoms pain in pelvic area lower abdominal ache backache aching testes urgent need to urinate frequently burning sensation when urinating cloudy discharge painful erections and ejaculations and reduced sexual interest Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia as men grow older the prostate gland tends to increase in size Prostate Cancer 0 Second most frequently diagnoses cancer after skin cancer and second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer for males 0 240000 men each year are diagnosed 0 About 34000 die from the cancer each year Chapter 5 Sex biological maleness and femaleness 0 Genetic sex determined by our sex chromosomes 0 Anatomical sex physical characteristics Gender the psychological and sociocultural characteristics associated with oursex Gender Assumptions assumptions about how people are likely to behave based on their maleness or femaleness Gender Identity how one psychologically perceives oneself as either male or female Gender Role a collection of attitudes and behaviors that a specific culture considers normal and appropriate for people of a particular biological sex Sometimes called sex roles o Masculine or feminine Chromosomal Sex 0 Autosomes the 22 pairs of human chromosomes that do not significantly in uence sex differentiation 0 Sex chromosomes a single set of chromosomes that in uence biological sex determination 0 Because of Meiosis mature reproductive cells only contain half the usual complement of chromosomes 0 SRY single gene that plays a crucial role in the development of gonads o DSS double DSS results in feminization of an otherwise chromosomally normal male fetus Gonadal Sex 0 Ovaries female and testes male 0 Differentiation begins about 6 weeks after conception Hormonal Sex 0 Estrogens A class of hormones that produce female secondary sex characteristics and affect the menstrual cycle 0 Progestational compounds a class of hormones including progesterone that are produced by the ovaries o Androgens A class of hormones that promote the development of male genitals and secondary sex characteristics and in uence sexual motivation in both sexes These hormones are produced by the adrenal glands in males and females and by the testes in males testosterone Wolffian ducts stimulated to develop into the vas deferens seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts Mullerian ducts develops into the fallopian tubes uterus and inner third of the vagina Sex Differentiations of the Brain Female hypothalamus develops receptor cells that are sensitive to estrogen in the bloodstream During puberty it directs the pituitary land to release hormones in cyclic fashion initiating the menstrual cycle Males the presence of testosterone prevents these cells from developing sensitivity to estrogen Also directs a relatively steady production of sex hormone Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis contains androgen and estrogen receptors and appears to exert a significant in uence on human sex differences and human sexual functioning One central area is much larger in men than women and a posterior region is more than twice as large in men as in women Pseudohermaphrodites ambiguous internal and external reproductive anatomy but gonads match their chromosomal sex Sex Chromosome Disorders Turner s Syndrome normal female genitals but internal reproductive structures do not fully develop Klinefelter s Syndrome two X chromosomes one Y undersized external genitals sterile Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome A condition resulting from a genetic defect that causes chromosomally normal males to be insensitive to the action of testosterone and other androgens These individuals develop female external genitals of normal appearance Fetally Androgenized Females A chromosomally normal XX female who as a result of excessive exposure to androgens during prenatal sex differentiation develops external genitalia resembling those of a male DHTdeficient males A chromosomally normal XY male who develops external genitalia resembling those of a female as a result of a genetic defect that prevents the prenatal conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone DHT Transsexual A person whose gender identity is opposite to his or her biological sex Gender Dysphoria Unhappiness with one s biological sex or gender role Two types of male to female transsexuals Those with a homosexual orientation who are exclusively attracted to men Autogynephilia propensity to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of oneself as a female not male Males who love women and want to become what they lovequot Androphilic attracted to males men who crossdress and assume a female role either to attract men or to entertain Gynephilic attracted to females men who may have urges to become female but are reasonably content to live in a male role that may include being married to a woman and frequently crossdressing socializing as a woman Gynephilic attracted to females women who manifest masculine qualities but never seek sex reassignment Androgyny A blending of typical male and female behaviors in one individual Chapter 6 Sexual response in humans are in uenced by many factors Our brain s capacity to create images and fantasies Our emotions Various sensory processes Hormones The level of intimacy between two people The Brain and Sexual Arousal Cerebral cortex the outer layer of the brain s cerebrum that controls higher mental processes Limbic system a subcortical brain system composed of several interrelated structures that in uence the sexual behavior of humans and other animals Key structures in the limbic system 0 Cingulate gyrus o Amygdala o Hippocampus 0 Parts of the hypothalamus Investigators have begun to use functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI technology to record brain activity during sexual arousal Evidence indicates that electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus in human subjects produces sexual arousal sometimes an orgasm When certain parts of the hypothalamus are surgically destroyed the sexual behavior of both males and females of several species can be dramatically reduced Dopamine A neurotransmitter that facilitates sexual arousal and activity Serotonin A neurotransmitter that inhibits sexual arousal and activity Male ejaculation causes a release of serotonin in both the MPOA and the lateral hypothalamus Erogenous zones Areas of the body that are particularly responsive to sexual stimulation Primary Erogenous Zones Areas of the body that contain dense concentrations of nerve endings o The genitals Buttocks Anus Perineum Breasts nipples Inner thighs Armpits Navel Neck Ears ear lobes Mouth Secondary Erogenous Zones Areas of the body that have become erotically sensitive through learning and experience Pheromones certain odors produced by the body that relate to the reproductive functions females Two anatomically distinct sites in the human nose may be involved in pheromonal receptivity Vomeronasal organ Olfactory epithelium Estratetranol an estrogen like chemical found in female urine Androdtadienone a derivative of testosterone found in men s sweat Aphrodisiac A substance that allegedly arouses sexual desire and increases the capacity for sexual activity Anaphrodisiac A substance that inhibits sexual desire and behavior Steroid Hormones the sex hormone and the hormones of the adrenal cortex Neuropeptide Hormones Chemicals produced in the brain that in uence sexuality and other behavioral functions Oxytocin A neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus that in uences sexual response and interpersonal attraction Testosterone in the body comes in two forms attached and bound Men 95 bound 5 free Women 9799 bound 13 free Sexual Responses Kaplan s ThreeStage Model 0 Three stages desire excitement and orgasm Master and Iohnson s FourPhase Model 0 Vasocongestion the engorgement of blood vessels in particular body parts in response to sexual arousal 0 Men are the only ones with a refractory period Mytonia Muscle tension 0 Excitement Phase Masters and Iohnson s term for the first phase of the sexual response cycle in which engorgement of the sexual organs and increases in muscle tension heart rate and blood pressure occur 0 Sex Flush A pink or red rash that can appear on the chest or breast during sexual arousal o Plateau Phase Masters and Iohnson s term for the second phase of the sexual response cycle in which muscle tension heart rate blood pressure and vasocongestion increase 0 Resolution Phase The fourth phase of the sexual response cycle as outlined by Masters and Johnson in which the sexual system returns to their nonexcited state 0 Refractory Period The period of time following orgasm in the male during which he cannot experience another orgasm O The Sexual Response Cycle of Older Women Excitement Phase 0 May take several minutes compared to 1030 seconds previously 0 Some report decreased sexual desire and sensitivity of the clitoris Plateau Phase lesser degree than before Orgasm Phase 0 Older women remain capable of multiple orgasms and may continue to experience them 0 Need a longer period of stimulation Resolution Phase 0 Occurs more rapidly in postmenopausal women The Sexual Response of Older Men Excitement Phase 0 May require several minutes to become stimulated o Erections may be less firm Plateau Phase not as much myotonia greater ejaculatory control Orgasm Phase I May note a decline in intensity Resolution Phase more rapidly in older men Chapter 7 TypesofLove Passionate Love Compassionate Love Sternber s Triangular Theory of Love 0 O Passion the motivational component of Sternberg s triangular love theory Intimacy The emotional component of Sternberg s triangular love theory Commitment The thinking component of Sternberg s triangular love theory Lee s Styles of Loving O 0 Chapter 8 Romantic style eros emphasis on physical and visual love Gameplaying style ludus many sexual conquests with little or no commitment Possessive style mania often characterized by turmoil and jealousy Compassionate style storge slow to develop affection and commitment but tend to experience relationships that endure Altruistic style agape sel ess and caring desire to give with the expectation of reciprocity Pragmatic style pragma select lovers based on rational practical criteria Approach love in a business like fashion Complete Celibacy An expression of sexuality in which an individual does not engage in either masturbation or interpersonal sexual contact Partial Celibacy An expression of sexuality in which an individual does not engage in interpersonal sexual contact but continues to engage in masturbation Male Female Similarities and Differences in Sexual Fantasy 0 0 Men s fantasies are more active and focus on a woman s bodies and on what they what to do to it whereas women s fantasies are more passive and focus more on men s interest in their bodies Men s sexual fantasies focus more on explicit sexual acts nude bodies and physical gratification whereas women use more emotional context and romance in their sexual fantasies Similarly a more recent study of reactions to types of erotic stories found that women reported arousal to both suggestive and explicit erotic stories whereas men experienced a significant increase in arousal only to explicit erotic stories Men are more likely to fantasize about multiple partners and group sex than are women Men are more likely to have dominance fantasies whereas women are more likely to have submission fantasies Masturbation Stimulation of one s own genitals to create sexual pleasure Purposes of Masturbation O 0 Most common reason is to relieve sexual tension Also valuable as a means of selfexploration 0 Some people find that masturbation helps them get to sleep at night 0 Masturbation is often considered inappropriate when a person has a sexual partner or is married 0 53 of women and 45 of men have used vibrators in solo or partnered sexual activities and that vibrator use among women and men is associated with positive sexual function The Maltz Hierarchy o The three positive levels of sexual interaction are built on mutual choice caring respect and safety 0 Level 1 Positive Role Fulfillment socialrole behavior religious or cultural duty sex for reproduction 0 Level 2 Making Love pleasure focused mutuality experimentation 0 Level 3 Authentic Sexual Intimacy emotional openness and closeness feelings of ecstasy 0 Level 1 Impersonal Interaction Lack of responsibility for birth control sexually transmitted infections or wellbeing of self and other 0 Level 2 Abusive Interaction Sexual dominance and coercion 0 Level 3 Violent Interaction Sex used to expressed hostility rape Cunnilingus Oral Stimulation of the vulva Fellatio Oral Stimulation of the penis Chapter 9 Sexual orientation Sexual attraction to one s own sex homosexual to the other sex heterosexual or to both sexes bisexual or lack of sexual interest in either sex asexual Hetero exibility individuals who are primarily heterosexual and have some degree of sexual interest and or experience with the same sex Homo exibility Individuals who are primarily homosexual and have some degree of sexual interest in and or experience with the other sex Sexual Fluidity Variability in same sex and other sex attraction and involvement at different times and in different situations throughout the life span Asexuality a lack of sexuality to either sex Bisexuality sexual attraction to both men and women Performative Bisexuality o Heterosexualidentified women who interact sexually with other women for the purpose of pleasing and arousing men 0 Women are motivated to perform as bisexual in order to appear sexy and desirable to men Gender Nonconformity A lack of conformity to stereotypical masculine and feminine behaviors The Unitarian Universalist Association the United Church of Christ and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America are the only Christian denominations that officially sanction the blessing of gay and lesbian unions Curing the illness of homosexuality o Castration o Lobotomy o Psychotherapy drugs hormones hypnosis shock treatments and aversion therapy GayAffirmative Therapytherapy to help homosexual clients cope with negative societal attitudes Conversion therapy sexual reorientation therapy Therapy to help homosexual men and women change their sexual orientation Lawrence vs Texas ruling overturned laws in five states that banned same sex sex and in another nine states that banned sodomy between partners of any sexual orientation 1996 DOMA Defense of Marriage Act denied federal recognition of same sex marriages that were made legal in individual states and it gave states the right not to recognize such marriages performed in other states About 22 of all samesex couples in the US have formalized their relationship under state laws of various types Three different generations of lesbians o Lesbians who became adults before the gay rights era began in the 1970s 0 Lesbians who became adults during the gay rights era between 1970 and 1985 o Lesbians who became adults after 1985 All social classes occupations races religions and political persuasions are represented among homosexual people
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