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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Danielle Thomas

Exam 2 Study Guide BIOSC 0160

Danielle Thomas
GPA 3.6

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Detailed material from exam 2
Foundations of Biology 2
Dr. Hale
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Danielle Thomas on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOSC 0160 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Hale in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biology 2 in Biology at University of Pittsburgh.


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Date Created: 04/24/16
▯ Ch. 25: Evolution by Natural Selection ▯ ▯ Population: individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time Homology: similarity that exists in species due to a common ancestor  Genetic homology: similarity in DNA/RNA/amino acid sequences  Developmental homology: show vestigial traits in embryos o Vestigial traits: reduced or incompletely developed structure that has no function but is similar to a functioning structure in a closely related organism  Coccyx in humans  primate tails  Structural homology: similarities in adult morphology o Arms/hands in mammals/birds ▯ Artificial selection: deliberate manipulation of the genetic composition of a population by only allowing certain individuals to reproduce ▯ Natural selection: individuals with certain characteristics produce more offspring than individuals without those characteristics  4 Postulates o 1. Individuals in pop. do not all look alike o 2. Some trait differences are heritable o 3. Resources are finite creating a “struggle for existence” o 4. Some variants in the pop. will survive and reproduce better than others  Leads to change in frequency of alleles  Individuals do not change  only the population does  Acclimatization: change in individual’s phenotype due to a change in the natural environment, no alleles changed  not passed to offspring ▯ Fitness: ability of an individual to produce surviving, fertile offspring relative to the population ▯ Adaptation: heritable trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment relative to other individuals lacking the trait ▯ Evolution: change in allele frequency over time  Does not “want” to change or “get better” over time  Processes that can cause evolution o 1. Natural Selection o 2. Genetic drift: allele frequencies change randomly o 3. Gene flow: individuals leave one population, breed and join another, introduces new alleles to the population o 4. Mutation: modifies allele frequencies by making new alleles  How do we know evolution is occurring? o Evolving pop. – allele frequencies change from one generation to the next o Not evolving pop. – allele frequencies will stay the same over time Hardy-Weinberg Hypothesis: null hypothesis for the study of evolutionary processes, tests whether evolution is occurring  Gene pool: all alleles go into a pool and randomly combine to form offspring  Allele frequencies: P+Q=1 o # copies allele of interest / total # alleles in population  Genotype frequencies: P^2+2PQ+Q^2=1 o # individuals with genotype / total # individuals in population  When a pop. meets the HWE model – no evolution o Allele frequencies will not change over time, allele frequencies will predict genotypic frequencies  When a pop. does not meet HWE model – evolution o Allele frequencies will not predict genotypic frequencies o Due to nonrandom mating or evolutionary processes  Assumptions o Random mating o No natural selection o No genetic drift o No gene flow o No mutation  5 ways to violate HWE model o 1. Nonrandom mating: probability that two individuals will mate is not the same for all possible pairs  Inbreeding: mating between relatives  Changes genotypic frequencies, not allele frequencies  Increases homozygosity  can reduce fitness  Sexual selection: females actively choose their mate  Changes allele frequency and genotypic freq.  Intersexual selection: selection of an individual of one gender for mating by an individual of the other gender  Intrasexual selection: competition within one gender to obtain a mate  Happens on males more than females  females invest more in their offspring than males so they are more picky o 2. Natural selection: certain alleles are associated with favored phenotypes, they increase in frequency and result in evolution  Genetic variation: number and relative frequencies of alleles present in a population  Quantitative traits: controlled by multiple genes & has continuous variation  makes bell curve  Directional Selection: changes the average value of the trait  Decreases genetic diversity  Selection for an extreme phenotype  Stabilizing selection: reduces variation, no change in average value of a trait  Reduce both extreme phenotypes, selection for average phenotype


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