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UF / Political Science / POS 2001 / What is the most common form of government?

What is the most common form of government?

What is the most common form of government?


School: University of Florida
Department: Political Science
Course: Comparative Politics
Professor: Sebastian elischer
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: comaparative and Politics
Cost: 50
Description: this review contains every single case, chapter, and reading you need to know for the final; it has several important charts from the book and all the important terms and concepts
Uploaded: 04/24/2016
59 Pages 44 Views 11 Unlocks



What is the most common form of government?


Development &  important facts

Political Regime &  institutions

first contact w/ muslim  

British demolished slavery in  1807 which started ethnic  conflict because it helped econ  in 1960, gained independence  creating now know first republic  1979 second republic and now  presidential system  

zoning - a PDP system of  presidential rotation; the party  would alternate every 2 terms in  nominating the candidate from  Nigeria’s north and south

most prominent form of  

governance - patrimonialism  (personal rule by authoritarian  leaders shored up by economic  privileges) constitution  modified after US constitution  presidential system  

federal division of power  single executive - president -  very powerful

when did the french revolution start?

Don't forget about the age old question of Violent crimes, property crimes, and public order crimes are categories of what?

long history of empire-accounts for  pride in origins - a lot of political and  religious tolerance  

1906 first constitution  

very affected by world wars - 1/4  pop killed- UK controlled area & oil  reserves so animosity towards brits  & west  

white revolution, pivotal event that  modernized state  

tension between republicanism &  theocracy - even in constitution  former persia - they are persian  NOT arab and speak farsi not arabic

theocracy — paris with  


head of state - supreme leader  head of government - president  (directly elected but little power -  technically in charge of foreign  policy but not military so like??)  Qur’an institution  We also discuss several other topics like What is the physical attractiveness stereotype?
If you want to learn more check out Robbery is what type of crime?

constitution based on sharia law

In liberalism what is the role of the state in the economy?

Legislature Nation Assembly  

lower - house of representatives  

upper- senate

Juiciary supreme court is main chief  judicial body


guardian council (12 individuals, 6  year phases) - power to review all  legislation passed by mails,  appointed by SL upper house  Majilis - directly elected, limited  power, dominated by clerics  traditionally  

God is sovereign  

chief justice and supreme court and  revolutionary courts  We also discuss several other topics like What is a civil right?

electoral system SMD plurality some element of democratic  participation  

guardian council oversees  

mix of MMD & SMD for legislative  

election (MMD unique to Iran)  

presidential vote = 2 round runoff

party system 2 main political parties —  all progressive congress -  

opposition political party  

people’s democratic party -  

dominant party

society north vs south = muslim vs  christian  

lots of interest groups - not just  

ethnically motivated  

ethnically heterogenous  

high fertility rates - young pop  

most unpatriotic people - don’t  

believe in the state  


quota system - very corrupt

political economy resource curse (oil is main  export)  

de facto single party system since  other political parties have been  banned since 80s  

no institutionalized paties

local government highly centralized -  unitary- little local power  

severe restrictions to the press  revolutionary guard controlled by SL  increasingly independent  Don't forget about the age old question of What is an asset?

Basij - morality force , increasingly  militarized  

heterogenous - 60% Persian  young REPUBLICANISM

resource trap — mercantilistic  autarky - desire for economic  indeendence from other countries

France Germany


Development &  important facts

Political Regime &  institutions



electoral system

party system


political economy2

absolute monarchy - between feudal monarchies  and constitutional governments of the modern ear  french revolution (1789-1799) - establishing  nationalism and patriotism

5th Republic - codifies in the constitution of 1958  semi-presidential — head of state - president (directly elected and doesn’t directly govern, they  appoint PM) — head of government- PM  the 1958 constitution creates potential conflict  between a directly elected president & a  legislature dominated by the opposition  PM can be removed with a motion of censure requires a majority of lower house  If you want to learn more check out What are glasnost and perestroika?

president can call national referenda  

parliament= lower house: assemblee’ nationale  and upper house: se’nat — unitary division of  power — blocked vote - limits legislature’s ability  to amend legislation which forces the legislature to  accept bills in their entirety & allows amendment  only if they are approved by gov.

single member or single district majority —  electoral system  

majoritarian rather than proportional —two rounds  of voting for presidential and lower house elections

console consitutioneel - judicial system based on  continental european code law - laws derived from  detailed legal codes rather than from precedent - can only interpret the code AND 5th republic  created a constitution council (9) to settle  constitutional disputes

4 party-2 bloc —rally for the republic (RPR),  Union for a popular movement (UMP) - right  french communist party (PCF), French socialist  party (PS)- left— PS dominant of french left

their interest groups and associations remain  weaker than many in advanced democracies  powerful labor unions — mostly ethnically and  religiously homogenous - although not historically  true great separation of church and state  aging population

social democracy - strong state involvement, mix  of capitalism and socialism  

1871- Germany unified - second reich  went broke after world war I - 1914 — Weimar  republic  

1933- Hitler (elected) rises to power establishing  third reich — enabling act passed - nazi party can  makes their own laws even if they violate the  constitution holds referenda (democratic)-passed  1961- Berlin wall (east/west) — cold war  getting rid of fascism  

parliamentary system — head of government -  chancellor (head of largest party usually) and  head of state - president (generally ceremonial)  federal division of power  

states have relatively little power - no power to  raise taxes — can only control so much without  that ability  

basic law

parliament = lower house - bunestag (federal  diet) represents people (can remove president  and more powerful upper house - bunesrat  (federal council) represents state; veto power but  not when the law doesn’t directly affect the state

federal constitutional court and federal court of  justice - judiciary uses both common and code  law

LITERALLY mixed SMD and PR electoral system  (two column on german ballot - one uses SMD  and one PR)- overhang and threshold  if SMD out numbers PR, over hang= more votes

strong parties - strong ideology and well  disciplined — green party values: gay rights/ women rights - post modern and post material  multi party

indifferent toward politics due to “nazi experience”  because of Hitler, they don’t identify w/ their  nation - proud of economic systems & region BUT  NOT nationalism — post modern values -  homogenous - aging population ( importance in  social welfare) neocorpitism- business labor &  state collaborate to make economic policies  (strong influence of business in gov)

social democracy  

codetermination - 50% of seat on their board  have to go to members of union - unions are very  powerful, & have to pay more for their labor  because they want to have benefits; can’t be as  competitive on the international stage.  

United Kingdom United States Japan


Development &  important facts

Political Regime  & institutions

world’s oldest democracy,  includes England, Scotland,  Wales, and North Ireland,  physical separation from  Europe  

held referenda

no written constitution but  there is the magna Carta, &  bill of rights & other  


unitary regime,  

Head of state: the queen  Head of government: prime  minister  


16th C settlement - colonial rule -  revolution,  

Civil war - important for slavery and  centralization of state  


federal system,  

significance of constitution- oldest written  one still used, bill of rights, separation of  powers  

high freedom, low equality  

presidential system  

cultural influence from Tang Dynasty  Tokugawa - unified  

Meiji revolution - ending feudal authority  Taisho democracy- liberal political  proponents- short-lived  


unitary division of power  

the iron triangle : bureaucrats,  politicians, and big business  

constitution in 1889 but the modern one  is similar to that of the US - 1947 — it is  a paradox because it is written very  democratically but in reality is very  elitist  

Legislature no checks & balances  between branches ~ vote of  

no confidence  

bicameral - lower house =  

commons (more power) &  

upper house - lords  

parliamentary - executive  

chosen out of legislative body

Juiciary common law  

active judge - compares  

cases because there is no  


bicameral- upper house - senate & lower  house - house of representatives  head of state and government - president

judicial review  

federal judges - lifetime appointments  supreme court is active body

Diet (twisted diet = upper & lower  house are run by 2 different parties) —  lower house - house of representatives  & upper house - house of councillors  constitution reaches emperor’s role - its  merely symbolic  

head of gov - prime minister (rotate  quickly) & head of state- emperor  

supreme court - supposed to be  independent but actually is not  unitary system  

electoral system SMD SMD mixed - SMD & PR

party system multi party system - Labour -  support working class, more  

liberal, welfare state  

conservative- moderate state  

of welfare  

liberal democrats- in between  

the two

society homogenous- lot of white folk,  some people from former  


ethnic and national identity:  

bid difference between rich  

and poor, cultures, and  


two party system — democrats - origin  “common man,” shift toward social  welfare, labor unions, civil rights &  equality & Republicans - origin anti slavery. economic and moral  

conservative, favor individual freedom  over collective equality

“melting pot” - heterogeneous state  idea of populism - common man will have  a say in politics/common man will decide  instead of elite expert

somewhat one party dominant system  (1.5) — liberal democratic party (LDP)  is dominant and conservative , no  defined ideology, fractional division  democratic party of japan - centrist,  doesn’t have set ideology just against  LDP

homogenous - 98.5% ethnically same -  important effect on idea of nation-state  civil society fair weak  

trade unions are excluded from power  emphasis on group conformity and  social hierarchy

political  economy

neoliberal - more free market  south England is more  wealthy than north

liberal/ neo-liberal mercantilist- want to keep others out/  protect their industries BUT they’re  

sometimes weak and lack innovation  

because they don’t have to compete  

with everyone else

legitimacy traditional & legal-rational rational-legal rational-legal


Brazil Mexico Russia


Development  & important  facts


Regime &  


Portuguese colony; smaller  

indigenous population, need cheap  labor force - african slaves  

established racial hierarchy early on &  class divides b/c sugar economy  nice transition to independence 1822  bureaucratic authoritarianism, violent,  export-led industrialization - 1964

presidential system - president has  power to initiate legislation and main  power is ability to appoint members to  bureaucracy  

rule by decree - b/c legislature so  fragmented — powers weekend by  fragmented legislature  

federal system - robust federalism states enjoy very strong power

Spanish conquered- iron fist/brutal/corrupt  Mexican-American war - U.S. claimed half  of their territory b/c they were very  fragmented  

Mexican Revolution - struggle between  middle class and radical social reformers  attempting to seize power  

presidential system - 1 president  federal system  

relatively - big land// small  population  

asymmetric federalism - power  distributed unequally among the  country

semi-presidential system but  represents more of a presidential  system  

constitution gives a lot of power to  the president  

president and prime minister  federal division of power

Legislature congresso ancionalL lower - camera  dos deputados, upper - senado  


Juiciary supremo tribunal federal and tribunal  superior electoral - farily powerful & a  

lot of independence at national level  

but a lot of corruption on local levels -  

civil law system  

congreso de la union: lower house -  camera de diputados - federal chamber of  deputies upper house - camera de  senadores - senate

chief judicial body: supremo corte de  justicia de la nación - national supreme  court of justice — corrupt system  

- bicameral - lower house - state  duma, and upper house - federation  council  

Duma is more powerful and can  hold a vote of no confidence, but  still, president can ignore it  

constitutional court

electoral  system

PR- open list - more choice,voting  more for candidate than party=  candidates don’t have to follow party  lines- weak parties - closed list -  options limited closed party lists  mandatory voting - high turnout

 mixed system — a lot of divided rule  president - 6 year term but only be  elected once; don’t really know your job  very well because positions are  constantly shifting - ineffective .

mixed - PR for lower house

party system highly fragmented and weak party  discipline  

open list prevents hierarchy  

multi party

society argued that rural areas are over  represented  

civil society is vibrant  

local gov bases on robust federalism -  

more devolved power than in most  

other federal systems - local gov  

receive large federal tax revenues

PRI - party revolucionario institutional -  party dominated ~ bad guys- erosion of  power can be attributed to economic  crisis in 80s, no access to funds that they  used to co-opt people before  

well-disciplined parties - 3 main  multi party

civil society is weak - because of lack of  trust and faith in government  

kind of multi- have yet to see the  institutionalization of political parties  with clear ideologies and political  platforms  

United Russia is main party now  but used to be communist party of  Russian federation  

pretty weak civil society - not many  groups  

ethnically homogenous - 80%  russian

political  economy

moved from mercantilist to more  liberal systems  

struggling now with high gov debt and  high inflation and unemployment  


high inequality  

they are in a restructuring phase  ISI , EOI, and TSA 

political economy - PRI used import  substitution - economic nationalism- later  saw this wasn’t working, developed free  trade and good relations with the US -  began practicing more neoliberal political  economies — capitalistic , lack of trust w/  federal ov.

resource curse - natural gases but  prior to the breakup of the USSR  they had communist political  economy  

shock therapy - a process of rapid  marketization

Ch.1 Intro

essentials (black book)  

inductive - from studying a case to generating a hypothesis

deductive- start with a theory and then the comparative approach

correlation/causation - correlation does not mean causation - just because their is a  relationship between 2 events does not mean one is cause and other is the effect -  could be a third party

challenges comparatists face- few cases, so many variables, variables endogenous -  cause and effect

behavioral revolution of polio science - machiavelli and Aristotle

Aristotle was the first westerner to separate the study of politics from that of philosophy  and Machiavelli made it possible for a comparative approach to emerge

qualitative- carry out intensive study of cases through archival research,interviews -  good because such intensive study requires deeper grasp of political context but bad  because the result is often only description rather than comparative analysis

quantitative- gather numerical data for statistical analysis - look for patterns, test ideas.  good because they can look at a number of cases and can control variables more easily  + its more “scientific” and bad because data could be skewed or incomplete, research is  driven by what is available rather than vice versa  

rational choice theory - game theory to study the rules and games by which politics is  played an how human beings act on their preferences

formal/informal institutions

freedom vs equality - driving factor of political system

essential readings  

Research Traditions & Theory in comp poli: An intro by Linchbach &  Zuckerman

Aristotle role in making politics among the sciences


students examine a case to reveal what it tells us about the bid picture  

Hobbes/Smith/Pareto — rational choice: rationalists study how actors employ reason to  satisfy their interests// comparative experiment  

Montesquieu/Weber/Mosca - culturalists: study rules that constitute individual and group  identity // interpretative understanding  

Marx/ Weber - structuralists: explore relations among actors in an institutional context//  historical dynamics of social types

The science in social science By King, Keohane, and Verba  

quantitative vs. qualitative - only stylistic difference

what is “scientific research “ in social science

the goal is inference 

scientific procedures are public

conclusions are uncertain

content is the method

Ch.2 States

black book  

define state - the organization that maintains a monopoly of violence over a territory state needs sovereignty  

regime - the fundamental rules and norms of politics - embodies long-term goals that  guide the state with regard to individual freedom and collective equality, where power should reside, and how power should be used.

government - the leadership that runs the state







state vs regime vs gov - graphics — governments are relatively less  





institutionalized than regimes and states. governments may come and go, while  






regimes and states usually have more staying power








consensus - social contract between rulers and ruled — individuals band  




together to protect themselves and create common rules; leadership  

chosen from among people. security through cooperation - democratic rule


correction - rise of the state and institutions created inequality and harmed social  balance — individuals are brought together by a ruler, who imposes authority and  monopolizes power. security through domination — authoritarian rule

legitimacy types: 

traditional - built by habit and custom over time, doing things because they have  always been that way, stressing history; strongly institutionalized — Monarch (Queen  Elizabeth 11)

Charismatic - built on force of ideas and the presence of the leader; weakly  institutionalized — revolutionary hero (Vladimir Lenin)

Rational-Legal - built on rules and procedures and the offices that create and enforce  those rules; strongly institutionalized — elected executive (Obama)

centralization vs decentralization - comparing states, how much power does a state  have, and where does that power reside —devolution- a greater tendency toward  decentralization; viewed as a way to increase state legitimacy by moving political power  closer to the people, a concern  

as states have grown larger  and more complex over time — This is the process by which a  


High Autonomy Low Autonomy

unitary state “sends down”  power to regional or local  government 

federalism - significant powers  

High Capacity state able to fulfill basic  tasks with a min of public  

intervention; power highly  

centralized; strong state

state able to fulfill basic  tasks, but public plays a  direct role in determining  policy and is able to limit  state power and scope of  activity

devolved to the local level by  constitution, not easily taken  away — US

unitary states - most or all  power resides with the central  government — Britain&Japan

autonomy - ability to act free  from direct public interference  

capacity - ability of states to  get things done



Low Capacity


too high a level a capacity  and autonomy may  

prevent or undermine  democracy

state is able to function  with a min of public  

interference or direct  control, but its capacity to  fulfill basic tasks is limited

state in ineffectual, limiting  development, and slow  development may provoke  public unrest  

state may be unable to  develop new policies or  respond to new challenges  owing to the power of  organized opposition

state lacks the ability to fulfill  basic tasks and is subject to  direct public control and  interference - power highly  decentralized among state  and non state actors; weak  state

too low a level of capacity  and autonomy may lead to  internal state failure

essential readings  

The necessity of Politics by Fukuyama

increasing democratization 1970-2010

liberal democracy is more than majority of people voting - its an institution that practices  checks and balances

broad assumption that everyone would become democratic

another concern - failure to deliver basic human rights/services

in global economic growth, financial crisis are inevitable

political decay occurs when political systems fail to adjust to changing circumstances difficulties increasing/maintaining political institutions, powerful gov.  Politics as a vocation By Max Weber

associates state w/ force

monopoly of legitimate use of force 

types of legitimacy  

authority of eternal yesterday - traditional

gift of grace - charismatic

virtue of legality - rational legal

in past, obedience came from fear, somewhat still accurate

War & The state on Africa By Herbst

most assume Africa will become strong - may not be the case

underdevelopment in Africa is a lack of war - causes state to raise taxes and requires  citizens to have a sense of nationalism, allows states become stronger and have a  higher sense of togetherness

war is important to state formation - show in Europe

studying military is different than warfare because it effects economic policies,  administrative structures

believes Africa will not be like Europe and war


The New Nature of Nation-State failure by Rotberg defining a failed state

internal violence not controlled by the state (uprisings, rebels, revolts)

limited geographic state control means that state does no have unique coercive  power in much of the state’s territory (warlords, local militia, private armies,  criminal organizations)

limited or nonexistent extract capacity (taxes)

limited or nonexistent ability to provide core services to citizens (safety, roads  and infrastructure, education, health)

Causes and consequences

failed states are created

evolve from weak states

usually the result of human actions (corruption, demagoguery, failure to  institutionalize)

some environmental/social contributors can include disparate terrain  (regional isolation) and violent or unresolved ethnic/religious cleavages


failed states can lead to ‘collapsed’ states - complete chaos

create environments where lawlessness can flourish (terrorists, pirates,  drug cartels)

associated costs expand well beyond the borders of the failed state  (regional instability)

Ch.3 - Society, Ethnicity, & Ideology

black book  

ethnic identity - specific attributes and societal institutions that make one group of  people culturally different from others - often based on customs, lang, religion, or other  factors, not inherently political  

ascription - an identity assigned at birth, largely fixed


national identity - binds people through common political aspirations - i.e. sovereignty -  a sense of belonging to a nation and a belief in its political aspirations, inherently  political

nationalism - pride in one’s people - association with the collective  patriotism - pride in one’s state

citizenship - an individual’s or group’s relation to the state; the individual swears  allegiance to the state, and the state in turn provides certain benefits or rights - purely  political and thus more easily changes than ethnic identity or national identity

nation state - a sovereign state encompassing one dominant nation that it claims to  embody and represent  

ethnic conflict - struggle between groups to achieve economic/political goals at other  groups’ expense (superiority) - more about resources  

attitudes - speeds/methods/pace of change

radicals - seek revolutionary change, violently if necessary

liberals - seek evolutionary change

conservatives- seek little or no change of system

reactionaries - seek to restore previous order, violently if necessary  ideologies- set of political values regarding the fundamental goals of politics  

 liberalism - individual political and economic freedom; weak state with low  autonomy - controlled by people; higher inequality  

communism - low individual political freedom, belief that struggle over resources  breed inequality, high equality as the goal, strong state with high autonomy -  state should intervene directly in people’s lives

social democracy- seeks to balance individual freedom and collective equality -  clearly favor equality; role for relatively strong state to manage this, more  common in Europe- “welfare states”

fascism- low individual political freedom, but also inequality - based on  superiority of some over many - cultural and racial hierarchy, high autonomy and  capacity to direct nation and vanquish enemies  


anarchism - high focus on individual freedom and emphasizes equality, belief  that states are the problem, not the solution - believe states try to suppress  people and it creates more injustices than anything

fundamentalism - ideology that seeks to unite religion with the state to make  faith the sovereign authority

culture- content of institutions that help define society

Political Economic Systems


social democracy



role of the state in  the economy

little; minimal  

welfare state

some state  


regulation; large  welfare state

total state  


extensive welfare  state

much state  

ownership or  

direction; small  

welfare state

role of the market


important but no  sacrosanct



state capacity and  autonomy



very high


importance of  






how is policy  






possible flaws






UK, US, former  

British colonies

Europe (Germany,  Sweden)

Cuba, Soviet Union,  North Korea

Japan, South Korea

essential readings  

Ethnicity, insurgency, and civil war by Fearon & Laiton

focuses on the many and lengthy civil wars between 1945-1999

the data used in the reading is based on 3 wisdoms concerning political conflict before  & after cold war

1) the rebalance of the civil war in the 1990s was NOT due to the end of the cold  war and associated changes in the international system

there was a gradual accumulation of civil wars after WWII


2) it’s not true that an increased ethnic/religious diversity by itself makes a  country more prone to civil war

3)there is little evidence that one can predict a civil war based on where ethnic/ political grievances are strong  

insurgency - technology of military conflict characterized by small, lightly armed bands  practicing guerrilla warfare in rural areas - favored by weak central gov.

rebels hide from gov. by using foreign base camps, financial support, and training others  in favor of insurgency

insurgency only needs a small # of rebels under right conditions to be a success so civil  war requires only a small # w/ intense grievances to start

while they believe “objective grievance” is more a predictors than econ variable - they  think per captia income matters b/c they proxy for state administrative , military, & police

states in international system have more constant risk of violent civil conflict over time  and are harder to end

many attempts to connect rebellion w/ econ inequality and few have argued the real  source of rebellion was often ethnic nationalism  

insurgents are relatively weak compared to the gov. they’re fighting so rebels must be  able to hide from gov. forces  

conditions that favor insurgency

rough terrain, poorly served by roads

distance from centers of state power

availability of foreign , cross border sanctuaries

local pop that can be induced not to denounce them

KEY to not denounce active rebels is local knowledge - use for threat

a higher per captia should be associated w/ a lower risk of civil war onset b/c it’s a proxy  for state’s police/military/etc.

political & military tech of insurgency favored when rebels have  

a newly indep. state - military new  

poltical instability at center


regime mixing democratic w/ autocratic features - state incapacity

large country pop

territorial base separated from state center

foreigners willing to supply weapons/money/training

land supporting high value. low weight goods

state whose revenue derives mostly from oil exports

PREVENTION: international/non-gov organizations should develop programs to  improve legal accountability w/ in developing world militaries/police and make aid to gov  fighting civil war conditional on the state w/ counter insurgency practices  

Ethnic diversity & economy performance by Alesina & Ferrara

this piece mainly discusses trade-offs between the benefits of “diversity” and cost of  heterogeneity of preference in a diverse multiethnic society

diversity = increase productivity — diversity=lowers utility from public good consumption interaction between diversity and income level = positive

suggests ethnic diversity is beneficial at higher levels of development b/c richer  societies have developed institutional features, allowing to cope w/ conflict better

ethno-linguistic group - identified by language only in some cases, in others, by land/  skin color/ physical attributes  

fractionalization & diversity - generic; not refer to particular type of identifying  characteristics of the group

diverse society - non-homogenous place

fractionalization - directly related to specific # and size of groups - more factionalized =  probability that 2 randomly drawn individuals belonging to same group is lower

goal: highlight economy forces underlying relationship between ethnic diversity and  economy performance

potential benefits of heterogeneity: variety in production

cons: inability to agree on common public good & public policies

easterly and levine argue more racially fragmented countries grow less & that this is a  factor that determines Africa’s poor econ performance  


2 indices of groups: speak same lang but diff ethnicity based on looks, & lang spoken

overall, effect of income seems a more precise measure than effect of democracy BUT  there is a high correlation between democracy and GDP

CONCLUSION: they proposed a model where public good provisions was lower in  fragmented societies while productivity may be positively related to variety  

Nationalism by Eric Hobsbawm  

after 1830, there’s a spilt in favoring revolution  

Hobsbawm - nationalism always linked to middle class rising and spread of literacy  

great proponents of middle class nationalism was the educated classes - progress of  schools measures that of nationalism

striking progress- # of pupils in France doubled and increased rappelling but total #  remained small  

although great ties between nationalism and education/literacy in general, the test of  nationality was still religion  

Economic vs Cultural Differences: forms of ethnic diversity and public goods  provision by Baldwin and Huber

the core goal is to explore the relationship between the ability of the state to provide  public goods to citizen and the existence/level of inequality between different group

Standard measures of “ethnic diversity”

ethnic-linguistc fractionalization (ELF) - group based

cultural fractionalization (CF) - lang based

Between group Inequality (BGI)

goods based

extent to which there is a proportional distribution of wealth  

use of proxies for wealth (in Africa)

level of diversity within a state is not linked to level of group inequality within the state

low and high group inequality can occur in both highly plural and only semi-plural  states


some variation based on which measure of diversity used (ELF or CF) group inequality weakens the state

reduces the ability of the state to provide needed public goods

this effect is strongest in states that are less developed

weaker states are more susceptible to violence

**diversity does not cause violence NOR weak states

Ch.4 Political Economy

black book  

political economy - how politics and economics are related and ow each affects the  balance between equality and freedom

market - interaction between forces of supply and demand - creates values for goods &  services - decentralized; they are the medium which buyers & sellers exchange goods

social expenditures - “welfare”- state provision of public benefits, redistribution power  places in the hands of the state; free market economy - reattribute wealth; as many  people as possible get equality

GDP - total production in a country irrespective of who owns it; its limits because it does  not take into account costs of living in different countries  

Gini index - measures relative wealth and inequality within the state (perfect equality =  0 and inequality = 100)

PPP Purchasing power parity— look at GDP in terms of buying power, attempts to  estimate the buying power of income in each country by comparing similar costs

HDI human development index— emphasis on poverty/development over inequality,  not only looks at the total amount of wealth in a society and its distribution but also gives  equal weight to income, health, and educational indicators  

ELF- ethno-lingustic fractionalization  

hyperinflation - inflation of more than 50% a month for 2 months in a row -government  prints money to cover basic expenditures

deflation - too many goods chasing too few dollars


central bank role - an institution that controls how much money is flowing through the  economy as well as how much it costs to borrow money in that economy  

arguments for and against trade regulation:

FOR TRADE REGULATION- to generate state revenue, to foster local industry,  to protect local jobs, and to keep wealth in the country

AGAINST- to promote competition, to keep the costs of goods low, to stimulate  domestic innovation in areas of comparative advantage

features of diff types of political economic systems

essential readings  

Inquiry into the nature & causes of wealth of Nations by Adam smith  Smith praises division of labor

sometimes a single job/procedure is broken into a division of labour - each person  carries a certain operation & combined it get’s the job done

this separation is furthest in countries which enjoy the highest degree of industry  and improvement  

this increase work - 1) increase of dexterity in every workman 2) saving time thats  commonly lost in passing from one species of work to another 3) invention of great # of  machines which facilitate and abridge labour and enable one man to do work of many

no regulation of commerce can increase the quantity of industry in any society beyond  what its capital can maintain  

value of product correlates w/ employer profit - most thing done for sake of profit  

sometimes one country is so good at producing something , the rest of the world  knowns and can’t compete

institutions by Douglass North  

defines institutions as humanly devised constraints that structure political, economic,  and social interactions  

ESSAY: elaborates role of institutions in the performance of economic and illustrate his  analysis from economic history  


encourage cooperation  

growth lot long distance trade problems

1) agency - merchant would sen relative w/ cargo to negotiate sale and obtain  return cargo

2) contract negotiation and enforcement in alien parts also protections of goods  from pirates. etc.

expansion of market entails specialized producers ~ beginnings of hierarchal producing  organization ~ increase labor force ~ urbanization of society  

suq - where widespread and impersonal exchange and high costs of transacting exist central features of suq

high measurement costs

continuous effort at clientization

intensive bargaining at every margin

Ch. 5 Democratic Regimes

black book  

Democracy - political power exercised either directly or indirectly through participation  (i.e. voting), competition (i.e. parties), and liberty (i.e. freedom of speech)

Liberal democracy specifically references a political system promoting those 3 liberalism (ideology) emphasizes individual rights and freedoms

some have social democratic regimes - emphasize welfare/equality Liberal democracy derives from ancient Greece and Rome (direct vs representative) Greece - founded concept of public participation & popular sovereignty  Rome- republicanism-emphasizes separation of powers & rep of public both fell — 13th C England arose with Magna Carta- liberty; no one above law Direct Democracy - public participates directly in gov. & policy making (Athens)


Indirect Democracy -public participates indirectly through its elected representatives;  the prevalent form of democracy in the modern age

theories of emergence of democracy 

many saw a correlation between democratization and modernization with a central  importance on the middle class but this was proven false

others believed it lies in the role of those in power 

overall poverty is a problem for democracy - people who have little, have little to fight for another view- importance of the political power of society itself

civil society- organized life outside the state (Tocqueville- “art of association”)  created by people to help define their own interests

where civil society can exist, democratization is more likely

international community providing foreign investment, globalization,& trade ultimately  pushing democratization forward. this pressure causes elites to favor democracy. civil  society is strengthened by shared ideas across borders

Institutions of the democratic state 

executive branch - most important office in any country; carries out laws of a state

divides into 2: head of state- represents the people, articulating goals of the  regimes & foreign policy; head of gov- everyday tasks of running state

legislature - body where national politics is considered and debated ~ lawmaking

bicameral (2) - upper chamber serves as check for lower chamber, and usually  serves longer terms AND unicameral (1) - smaller countries

constitutional power is key to maintaining what we call rule of law - sovereignty of law  over the people & elected officials  

most have some form of constitutional court - charges w/ ensuring that legislation is  compatible with the constitution

as constitutions define more rights - higher need for judiciaries to rule on them

Judicial review forms: concrete review - courts can consider the constitutionality of  legislation when a specific court cases triggers this question AND abstract review - a  constitutional court may rule on legislation without a specific court case


parliamentary systems - prime ministers & their cabinets come from legislature & the  legislature is the instrument that elects/removes the prime minister from office - divided  head of state and gov. (majority of power in head of gov) their is a tight relationship  between executive & legislature so they don’t check & balance each other’s power

vote of no confidence- parliaments can dismiss PM but it brings down gov.

presidential system- president elected directly by public for fixed term and has control  over the cabinet and legislative process - head of gov & state are fused to president.

main diff: president and legislature serves for fixed terms

separation of powers - checks and balances - divided gov.

semi-presidential system- hybrid. tends to reflect the old distinction between “reign”  and “rule” that existed under monarchies. most of the power in the president while the  PM plays a supporting role (France) . directly elected president & indirectly elected PM  share power. president manages foreign policy & sets policy & PM executes it.


benefits: PM has confidence that he/she can get legislation passes. PM more  easily removed by legislature through vote of no confidence

drawbacks: public doesn’t directly select PM and may feel that it has less control  over the executive and the passing of legislation.  


benefits: president is directly elected and can draw on national mandate to create  and enact legislation

drawbacks: president and legislature may be controlled by diff parties, leading to  divided gov. office does not allow for power sharing, and president may not be  easily removed from office except through elections.


benefits: directly elected president and indirectly elected PM share power and  responsibilities, creating both a public mandate and an indirectly elected office  that may be supported by a coalition of parties

drawbacks: conflict possible between PM and president over powers political parties are inevitable


all democracies divide their populations geographically into a # of electoral district or  constituencies - each a geographic area that an elected official represents

PR- voters cast ballots for a party not a candidate and the percentage of votes a party  receives in a district determines how many of that district’s seats the party will gain

SMD- most votes wins

mixed electoral system - combines the 2 -both have their advantages/disadvantages MMDs - multimember district, more than 1 legislative seat is contested in each district referendum - giving public the option of voting directly on particular policy issues  initiative - citizens may collect signatures to put a question to a national vote

civil rights refers to the promotion of equality whereas civil liberties refer to the  promotion of freedom  

essential readings  

What Democracy is… and is not by Schmitter & Karl

one major theme of essay: democracy does not consist of a single unique set of  institutions. there are many types and their diverse practices produce a similarly varied  set of effects - identifying modern procedures for democracy  

a regime is the various patterns which need to be known/practiced by all to work  properly — preferred mechanism of institution is written body of laws

democracies depend of presence of rulers 

public realm encompasses the making of collective norma and choices that are  binding on the society an backed by state coercion  

liberal democracy advocates circumscribing the public realm as narrowly  as possible  

all regimes have rulers and a public realm, but only to the extent that they are  democratic do they have citizens 

criteria for citizenship: used to be very difficult, now fairly standard

competition VERY IMPORTANT PART OF DEMOCRACY has not always been  essential - since The Federalist Papers it has become widely accepted that comp  


among factions is a necessary evil in democracies that operate on a more than  local scale

democracy have UNCERTAINTY - which is supposed to be a good thing because if you  knew that would indicate corruption 

most popular definition of democracy equates it with regular elections  electoralism - the fallacy in thinking the mere presence of elections= democracy another image of democracy - majority rule

cooperation has always been central; must cooperate in order to compete representatives do most of the real work in modern democracies s making a democracy possible: (by Robert Dahl)

control over gov decision about policy is vested in elected officials  elected officials are chosen in frequent elections where coercion is uncommon most adults have right to vote in election of officials

most adults have right to run for elective offices

citizens can express themselves without punishment on political matters citizens can seek alternative sources of info  

citizens can form independent associations (political parties and interest groups) authors agree with this list but propose 2 additional reasons:

popularly elected officials must be able to exercise their constitutional powers  without being subjected to overriding opposition from unelected officials  

the polity must be self-governing - act independently of constraints imposed by  some other overarching political system


not necessarily more efficient (economically or politically)

not necessarily more orderly, consensual, stable, or governable (again often less  because of inclusion)

need not bring economic development (modernization theory)


 How democracies differ

consensus— citizens may not agree on goals of political action or role of state

participation - citizens may not take an active and = part in politics (but must be  legal to do so)

access — ruers may not weigh = the preferences of all who come before them,  but citizenship implies that individuals should have = opportunity to express  

responsiveness — rulers may not always follow the course of action preferred by  the citizenry; must be held accountable for their actions  

majority rule — positions may not be allocated or rules may not be decided sole  on basis of assembling the most votes

parliamentary sovereignty— legislature amy not be the only body that can make  rules or even the one with final authority in deciding which laws are binding

party government — rulers may not be nominated, promotes, and discipline in  their activities by well organized and coherent political parties

pluralism — political process may not be based on multiplicity of overlapping,  voluntaristic, and autonomous private groups

federalism — territorial division of authority may not involve multiple levels and  local autonomies

presidentialism - chief executive officer may not be a single person and they may  not be directly elected by the citizenry as a whole

checks and balances — not necessary that the different branches of government  by systematically pitted against one another

Constitutional choices for new democracies by Lijphart people moving towards democratization should adopt PR-parliamentary 

focuses on choices between plurality elections & PR and between parliamentary &  presidential forms of gov.

author believes electoral system is a vital element in democratic constitutional design  

the type of electoral system used is related to development of country’s party system,  type of executive, and relationship between executive and legislature


plurality - likely 2 party system, 1 party gov., and executives dominant to  legislature

PR - likely multi-party, very fragmented coalition gov., and more = executive legislature power relations

the relationships are mutual

if democratic political engineers desire too promote either the majoritarian  cluster of characteristics or consensus cluster, the most practical way to  do so is by choosing the appropriate electoral system

variations among PR systems - extreme and moderate

4 basic types of democracy

Presidential Parliamentary 

Plurality United States UK, India, Jamaica, Malaysia  Philippines Old Commonwealth 

PR Latin America Western Europe latin american proves the combo pf presidential and PR an unattractive option

Europe adopted PR for 2 reasons: there was a problem of ethnic and religious  minorities AND the dynamic of the democratization process

main purpose of PR is to facilitate minority representation - so it outperforms plurality another democratic goal is political equality- more likely to prevail in economic equality

parliamentary-PR is better for accommodating ethnic differences and has a slight edge  in economic policy making 

The rise of state-nations By Stepan, Linz, & Yadav

nation-state- has only one cultural nation or its various nations are not politically  articulates — encourages assimilation — mainstream culture in place

state-nation- has multiple nations — more diverse culturally  

3 categories of states:

states that have strong cultural diversity (Canada, Spain, and Belgium) 23

states that are culturally quite diverse but whose diversity is nowhere organized  by territorially based (US & Switzerland)

states that are more culturally homogenous (Japan, Portugal, and Scandinavia)

“nation-state” policies stand for a political-institutional approach that tries to make the  political boundaries of the state and the presumes cultural boundaries of the nation  match

“state-nation” policies stand for a political-institutional approach that respects and  protects multiple by complementary sociocultural identities  

in democratic societies, “state-nation” often take form of federalism (and often  asymmetrical federalism)

can be asymmetrical federal or unitary state

both individual rights and collective recognition needed


polity-wide and “centric-regional” parties and careers

politically integrates but not culturally assimilated populations

cultural nationalists in power mobilizing against secessionist nationalists a pattern of multiple but complementary identities  

they argue that some state-nation policies can be of use in unitary states that are not  notion-states  


Nation - state State- Nation

preexisting conditions

sense of belonging  or “we-ness”

there is general attachment to one major cultural  civilizational tradition/ this cultural identity  corresponds to existing state boundaries with  minor exceptions

there is attachment to more than one  cultural civilizational tradition within the  existing boundaries. however, these  attachments do not preclude identification  with a common state

State policy

cultural policies

there are homogenizing attempts to foster one  core cultural identity, particularly one official  language. multiplicity of cultures is not  

recognized. the goal is unity in oneness

there is recognition and support of more  than one cultural identity within a frame of  some common polity-wide symbols. the  goal is unity in diversity


territorial division of  power

the state is unitary or, if a federation, it is mono  national and symmetrical

normally a federal system, and it is often  asymmetrical. the state can be unitary if  aggressive nation-state policies are not  pursued and de facto multilingualism is  accepted. federates are possible


ethnocultural or  

territorial clevages

such splits are not too salient

such splits are salient, but are recognized  as such and democratically managed

autonomist or  

secessionist parties

autonomist parties are normally not “coalition  able” secessionist parties are outlawed or  marginalized in democratic electoral politics

autonomist parties can govern in federal  units and are “coalition able” at the center.  nonviolent secessionist parties can  sometimes participate in democratic  political processes

citizen orientation

political identity

citizens feel that they belong to the state and to  the same cultural nation at the same time

many citizens have multiple but  

complementary identities

obedience and  


citizens believe in obedience to the state and  loyalty to the nation

citizens feel obedience to the state and  identification with its institutions; none of  this is based on a single national identity

Ch. 6 Nondemocratic Regimes

essentials (black book)  

nondemocratic regimes - those in which a political regime is controlled by a small  group of individuals who exercise power over the state w/o being constitutionally  responsible to the public

public has little or no role in selecting leaders

individual freedom is restricted

not accountable to the people - can still be legitimate  


Totalitarian Regimes seek to control all aspects of the state, society, and economy.  use violence as a tool for remaking institutions

have a strong ideological goal

“no middle class, no democracy”

modernization can occasionally lead to nondemocratic rule  

elites are less willing to share power when they fear losing their economic opportunities  in the process

longevity of non democracy may be due to the fact that rivals for power seek control  specifically so that they can enrich themselves

resource trap - when natural resources are abundant and might be a great source of  wealth, but the country is underdeveloped or nondemocratic

the existence of natural resources is a barrier to modernization and democracy

recourses in the ground give leaders the wealth necessary to run the state  without taxation — they can effectively ignore their political demands

natural resources tend to stunt development of a modern economy and  middle class, since neither is of concern to those in power

many authoritarian systems are characterized by the absence of civil society  

populism carries the view that elites & institutions don’t fully represent the will of the  people & a new movement, free from ideology & often led by a charismatic leader, can  usher in a new order

international influence can contribute to nondemocratic rule, mostly through occupation nondemocratic means of control:

coercion: public obedience is enforced through violence and surveillance

co-optation: members of the public are brought into a beneficial relationship with  the state and gov, often through corporatism or clientelism — no violence/ best  way to maintain autocratic rule

most structured form - neocorporatism where business , labor, and the  state bargain over economic policy


personality cult: the public is encourages to obey the leader based on his or her  extraordinary qualities and compelling ideas - attempt to generate a  charismatic form of authority  

corporatism - emerges as a method by which nondemocratic regimes  attempted to solidify their control over the public by creating or sanctioning  a limited number of organizations to represent the interests of the public  and restricting those not set up or approved by the state — gives public a  limited influence in policy-making process

clientelism - the state co-opts members of the public by providing specific  benefits to a person in return for public support

kleptocracy - (rule by theft) where this in power seek only to drain the state  of assets and resources.

patrimonialism - supporters within the state benefit directly from their alliance with the  ruler

monarchies and personal rule - rule by a single leader with no clear regime or rules  constraining that leadership

monarchies are decreasing but reman powerful in parts of the middle east

personal rule remains common in Africa and is typically coupled to patrimonial regimes  that are enriched through control over natural resources or trade

military rule - armed forces seize control of state promising to return it to gov once  stability is restores. political parties and civil liberties are restricted and use of coercion  is common.  

bureaucratic authoritarianism - a regimes where state bureaucracy and military  share a belief that a technocratic leadership, focused on rational, objective, and  technical expertise, can solve the problems of the country

one party rule - rule by one political party that bans or excludes the other groups from  power. large party membership help mobilize support and maintain public control, often  in return for political or economic benefit

theocracy- “rule by God”; holy texts serve as foundation for regime and politics

illiberal regimes (hybrid) - rule by an elected leadership through procedures of  questionable democratic legitimacy  


essential readings  

Modern nondemocratic by Linz & Stephan  

need to move beyond simple two part dichotomy (totalitarian and authoritarian)

specific polities vary in the paths available for transition & the finished tasks the new  democracy must face before it is consolidated — this is to show how and why much of  such variation can be explained by prior regimes type

analysts often interested in finding distinction between democratic, authoritarian and  toleration regimes  

Linz argues that although authoritarian regime is nondemocratic, it is fundamentally  different from totalitarian regime on pluralism (extent to which allowed -politically/ economically/socially), ideology (extent which it is an important or central component of  the regime), leadership (extent to which it is centralized, unitary, predictable, and/or  constrained), and mobilization (extent to which regime needs to or decides to engage in  activist and/or citizen mobilization)

defines authoritarian: limited political pluralism, without elaborate ideology, but  distinctive mentalities, without extensive political mobilization except at some  points in their development, and in which a leader or occasionally a small group  exercises power within formally ill-defines limits but actually quite predictable  ones

sultanism - extreme form of patrimonialism - highly personalistic (cult of personality) -  generally weakly institutionalized

importance of authoritarian regime

most knowledge of opinion come from article on Spain by Linz

research shows more than 90% of nondemocratic regimes are authoritarian  

REVISED TYPOLOGY - democratic, authoritarian, totalitarian, post-totalitarian, and  sultayistic (see table 6.1 for descriptions on each - page pg.270)

The rule of law vs the big man by Diamond

governance in Africa is in a state of transition

author believed democratization is starting to lose momentum in Africa of the largest 6 countries, only south Africa is liberal democracy


one positive trend: growth of civil society — “building from the bottom up”

problem is african leaders are not generally to be found among these coalitions for  reform because they calculate that their own interests lie not in reform, but in building or  reinforcing monopolies or power and wealth

principles pressure is needed from international actors, trying substantial flows of  developments in governance

neo-patrimonialism is biggest problem

purpose is to produce private goods to those with access to power

The rise of competitive authoritarianism By Levisky & Way

stop thinking of cases - such as Africa and former soviet union - in terms of transitions to  democracy and to begin thinking about the specific types of regimes they actually are

importance in hybrid regimes - they have proliferated in recent decades - may not be  simply transitional stage, but rather an end point (new types of regimes)

focus on “competitive authoritarianism” —democratic institutions are the means for  obtaining political authority BUT incumbents violate such rules so often that regime fails  to meet min standards for democracy.  

rules may exist but people aren’t abiding by them

four arenas of democratic contestation 

electoral arena- election with contestation occur, but with tampering, bias, undue  pressure, obstructions, etc.

legislative arena- executive conflicts w/ legislature, tries to intimidate, but cannot  easily simply shit it down or ignore it

judicial arena- formal independence and incomplete control by executive can  lead to effective constraints on executive power

the media- availability of opposition outlets, oppressed, but not eradicated, can  be influential intimidating executive repression

paths to competitive authoritarianism 

decay of previous full authoritarian regime- gradual emergence of competitive  elements within authoritarian regime


collapse of previous authoritarian regime- emergence of competitive authoritarian  in its place

decay of previous democratic regime- gradual emergence of nondemocratic  constraints on democratic practices

Ch. 7 Political Violence

essentials (black book)  

politically motivated violence outside state control

why political violence?

institutional explanations - existing institutions may encourage violence or constrain  human action, creating a violent backlash ( explain impact of fixed organizations and  patterns) — presidentialism  

ideational explanations- focuses more of the rationale behind the violence; ideas may  justify or promote the use of violence, not only the content of ideas matters but also their  relation to the domestic political status quo — fundamentalism  

individual explanations - centers on those who carry the violence; personal motivations  that lead people to contemplate and carry out violence towards political ends - 2 paths  of study: 1) emphasizes psychological factors- conditions that draw individuals toward  violence & 2)sees political violence as a rational act, carried out by those who believe it  to be an effective political tool. — humiliation


revolution - a public seizure of the state in order to overturn the existing government and  regime.

involves pubic participation - the PUBLIC plays a role in seizing power people want to gain control of state - not simply removing those in power not all violent, but hard to avoid- dramatic change, mostly positive connotations  

relative deprivation model - revolutions are less function of specific  conditions than of the gap between actual conditions and public  


terrorism - use of violence by non state actors against civilians to achieve a political goal 30

emphasizes that targets of violence are civilians

contrary - guerrilla war involves non state combatants who largely accept  traditional rules of war and target the state rather than civilians 

state-sponsored terrorism - states do sometimes sponsor non state terrorist groups as a means to extend their power by proxy, using terrorism as an

instrument of foreign policy.

nihilism - a belief that all institutions and values are  essentially meaningless

Actor state non state

state war guerrilla war t









civilians terrorism(domestic)

war crimes

terrorism and revolution were initially linked together  

as a single process (origin: French revolution)

some leaders (Maximilian de Robespierre) needed terror for revolution  

guerrilla war typically accepts their opponents are legitimate actors and want to  be seen the same

religious violence - as ideology has waned, religion has reemerges in the public realm. conditions that religion becomes a source of political violence?

hostility to modernity

modern world not only actively marginalizes, humiliates and denigrates the  views of the believers but also seeks to exterminate the believers outright

religion as a source of political violence is often connected to messianic,  apocalyptic, and utopian beliefs.



may foster terrorism, but the state can repress domestic terrorists; the state is  unhindered by civil liberties

result: limits terrorism but may be redirected outside of the country toward more  vulnerable targets

lower risk of terrorism


participatory institutions and civil liberties are likely to undercut public support for  terrorism  

result: domestic terrorism less likely, but country may be a target of international  terrorism generates in nondemocratic regimes

moderate risk of terrorism

illiberal/ transitional

weak state capacity instability, and limited democratic institutions may generate  both opportunities and motivation for terrorism

result: terrorism more likely due to domestic and/or international support higher risk of terrorism  

essential readings  

France, Russia, China: a structural analysis of social revolutions  by Skocpol

Focus on social revolutions

role of modernization (causes social revolutions) - as they modernize - increasing  number of peasants with grievances, forced to confront problems of  modernization abroad  

revolution from below - based largely on peasant/worker revolts

revolution as distinct from rebellions and insurrections - revolutions result in  regime change (paradigm shift)

structural approach to social revolutions

desire to develop a generalizable explanation for when they happen 32

agrarian bureaucracy as a system

“agricultural society in which social control rests on a division of labor and a  coordination of effort between a semi bureaucratic state and a landed upper  class”

key economic importance of peasants- while still seeing as the potential source  of revolution

segmented leadership with distance between central administration and landed  elite (State reliance on landed elite)

it is through the combination of structural transformation and massive class upheavals  that sets social revolutions apart from other revolutions/movements.  

A theoretical subject - set of phenomena which one can develop testable  generalizations that hold for all instances of the subject and some can apply to those  instances alone

social revolutions can be treated a s a “theoretical subject”

to test such hypotheses about social revolutions, one can use the comparative method Skocpol uses the following contrasting cases for her study:

1)instances of nonsocial revolutionary modernization (Japan, Germany, & Russia  up to 1904)

2) instances of abortive social revolutions (Russia in 1905 and Prussia/Germany  in 1848)

these help in understanding what rendered French, Chinese and Russian revolutions  successful social revolutions

all these social revolutions happened during earlier world-historical phases of  modernization and in a grain bureaucratic societies situated within international field  dominated by more economically modern nations abroad

was a conjuncture of 3 developments

1)collapse or incapacitation of central administrative and military machineries 2) widespread peasant rebellions

3) marginal elite political movements


each social revolution “accomplished” the extreme rationalization and centralization of  state institutions and removal of a traditional landed upper class from intermediate  quasi-political supervision of the peasantry and the elimination of the economic power of  a landed upper class

understand the revolutions of 2011: weakness & residence in middle easter  autocracies by goldstone

Arab Spring threatened Sultanism  

the wave of revolutions in middle east mimics that of Europe in 1848 with rising food  prices and high unemployment rate which fuel protests

on the contrary, the author argues the right analogy lied in the revolutions of 2011 which  fought for somethings different: “sultanistic” dictatorships

highly vulnerable because strategies to stay in power made them not resilient  the only revolution to succeed so far in middle east have been against modern sultans  for a revolution to succeed:

government must appear extremely unjust - viewed as threat to country’s future elites (military)must be alienated from the state and non longer willing to defend it a broad based social mobilization  

international powers must refuse to step it  

sultanistic regimes arise when a national leader expands his personal power at the  expense of formal institutions, these dictators appeal to no ideology an have no purpose  other than maintaining their personal authority

these dictators are generally wealthy which helps buy loyalty

they seek resources — economic development

relationships with foreign countries - stability in exchange for aid and investment

new sultans control military elites by keeping them divided - he monopolizes contact  between the commands/civilians/military/ and foreign countries

they use a combination of controlling elections, surveillance , media control, and  intimidation to keep citizens disconnected and passive

but such power that is too concentrated can be difficult to hold on to 34

Ch.8 Developed Countries

essentials (black book)  

true definition: countries that have institutionalized democracy and a high level of  economic development and prosperity.

we often use “first world” “second world” etc to refer to economically developed  countries but many countries do not fit into these categories

more developed countries tend to have a higher HDI rank and less GDP contributed by  agriculture, economic development is based on industry and services.

developed countries (institutionally liberal) differ in reconciling freedom and equality particularly political economy  

liberal economic systems - individual freedom over collective equality, limiting  role of the state in regulating the market and providing public goods

social democratic systems do the opposite

mercantilist systems focus on development than either freedom or equality all united by common democratic and economic institutions

role of freedom: all developed democracies are institutionalized liberal democracies -  sharing a belief in participation, competition, and liberty

they differ in their view on things like abortions, prostitution, drugs, etc.

judicial systems sometimes rely on vigorous constitutional courts that give them a  lot of power or courts that play a conservative role, restricted by the existing  forms of abstract and concrete review

political participation varies: more developed countries use referenda and  initiative to some degree, some only at local level, and some not at all

politics are shaped by electoral systems used: most developed countries use  some form of PR but some (like us) use some form of SMD plurality or majority.  

role of executive differs

freedom is the only basic guarantee in developed countries


similar approach to freedom that emphasized capitalism -private property and  free markets — basic standard of living are higher

differ in distribution of wealth

participation competition liberties

standards of voter eligibility differ

different methods & levels of  funding are used for political  parties and campaigns

distictions exist in the regulation,  allowance, or prohibition of  actives like abortion, etc.

referendsa and initiatives are  used in varying degrees

separation of powers varies  greatly & is based on the relative  strength of different branches of  government

different degrees of individual  privacy are protected from state  and corporate intrusion

some states automatically  register all eligible voters

voting is compulsory in some  nations but voluntary in most

many argue developed countries are currently undergoing significant social,political and  economic changes which would mean existing modern institutions may give way to new  ones as these countries transform from modernity to something else — postmodern

integration - process where states pool their sovereignty, surrendering some individual  powers in exchange for political, economic, or societal benefits

best example = European Union

these leaders believed that if their countries were bound together through  economic, societal, and political institutions they would reject war against  one another as irrational

devolution- process of devolving/ “sending down”- political power=lower levels of gov.  

as these state like institutions have gained power over time, many people no longer say  EU is an intergovernmental system like UN, whose member countries cooperate on  issues by may not be bound by the organization’s resolutions

EU is called a supranational system - sovereignty is share between the member states  and the EU

for most europeans the challenge of reconciling freedom and equality has  become as much an international task as a domestic one  

the second long-term project for the EU has been its ongoing expansion.  36

with this addition of members, some of them are poorer and bring up the concern  about whether richer an poorer states will cooperate and share resources when  times are tough

the possibility of Turkish membership brought many questions - where exactly does  Europe end? and what would it mean to have a state with an overwhelmingly Muslim  population alongside a community of states with mostly Christian population?

means of devolution - transfer of policy-making responsibility to lower levels of  government, creation of new political institutions at lower levels of gov., transfer of funds  and powers to tax to lower levels of government affording g them more control over how  resources are distributed.  

postmodern values center on what have been called “quality of life” or “post materialist”  issues, which usually involve concerns other than material gain like environment, health,  and leisure and well as personal equality and diversity.

also a shift towards postindustrial economies

most profits are made & most of the people are employed in the service sector development of social expenditures to reduce inequality & provide public goods they are becoming increasingly expensive

essential readings  

Income & Democracy By Acemoglu

one of the most notable empirical regularities in political economy is the relationship  between income per capita and democracy

Barro says “increases in various measures of the standard of living forecast a gradual  rise in democracy”

“on contrary, democracies that arise without prior economic development tend  not to last”

richer countries tend to be democratic but no relationship over past 100 years stat association between democracy & income — influential in modernization theory

Lipset suggested democracy was created by process of modernization which involved  changes in the factors of industrialization, urbanization, wealth, and education


existing work, based on cross-country relationship, does not establish causation

1) issue of reverse causality- maybe democracy causes income rather than other  way around

2) potential for omitted variable bias

the major course of potential bias is a regression of democracy on income per capita is  country specific , historical factors influencing both political and economic development

their 1st result — once fixed effects are introduced, the positive relationship between  income and democracy disappear

use fixed effect regressions for relationship  

HYPOTHESIS: the positive cross-sectional relationship and the 500 year correlation  between changes in income and democracy are caused by the fact that countries have  embarked on divergent development paths at some critical junctures during the past  500 years

conquered or granted? a history of suffrage extensions by Prezworski

when first established, representative governments were not what we would call a  democracy today

political rights were restricted to wealthy males

suffrage was subsequently extended to poorer males and women

newly emerging countries tended to immediately grant rights more broadly classical explanation of extensions — “reform to preserve”

Coney and Temini argued

1) being excluded is a source of deprivation of some kind

2) at some time, the excluded threaten to revolt  

3) even if sharing political rights may have consequences that are costly for the  incumbent elite, the elite prefers to bear these costs rather than risk a revolution  

4)once admitted, the new citizens use their rights within the system, abandoning  the insurrectionary strategy — they become integrated


Acemoglu and Robinson add that - when the elite is confronted by a revolutionary  threat, they would be better off making economic concessions than ricking that  revolution would damage their property

what precipitates extensions are exogenous changes in the evaluation of public goos by  the incumbent elite

extending suffrage changes political equilibrium to a redistribution is curtailed in  favor of providing public goods

the number of parties by Duverger

only individual investigation of the circumstance in each country can determine the real  origins of the 2 party system

one important factor — electoral system

simple-majority single-ballot system favors the two-party system

dualist countries use the simple-majority vote

American procedure corresponds to simple majority single ballot; the absence of a  second ballot constitutes in face one of the historical reasons for the emergence of the 2  party system

elimination of 3rd parties is a result of 2 factors working together:

the mechanical factor - “under representation” of the third (weakest party)

the psychological factor - the electors realize that their votes are wasted if they  continue to give them to the 3rd party: whence their natural tendency to transfer  their vote to the less evil of its two adversaries in order to prevent the success of  the greater evil

Ch.9 Communism & Post-Communism

black book  

Communism- ideology that seeks to create human equality by eliminating private  property and market forces.

traced back to German philosopher Karl Marx (1818-83)


observation: human beings impart value to the objects they create by  investing their own time and labor into them; This value can be greater  than the cost of creating the object

Terms in Marxist theory 

Surplus value of labor— value invested in man-made good that can be used by  someone else. exploitation results when someone extracts the surplus value from  another

Base — economic system of a society, made up of technology (means of production)  and class relations between people (relations of production)

Superstructure — all noneconomic institutions in a society. these values derive from  the base and serve to legitimize the current system of exploitation

False consciousness - failure to understand the nature of one’s exploitation; buying  into the superstructure

Dialectical materialism — process of historical change not evolutionary but  revolutionary. existing base & superstructure come into conflict with new technological  innovations, creating more opposition to existing order. culminate in revolution,  overthrowing old base & superstructure

dictatorship of the proletariat — temporary period after capitalism has been  overthrown during which vestiges of the old base & superstructure are eradicated

proletariat- working class

bourgeoisie - property-owning class

Communism — final stage of history after capitalism and dictatorship of the proletariat  destroys remaining vestiges. state & politics disappear, society & economy based on  equality & cooperation

vanguard of the proletariat - Lenin’s term for a small revolutionary movement that  could seize power on behalf of people, who mack lack consciousness to rise up

Marx’s Phases of Human History  


Capitalist Democracy

Dictatorship of the proletariat


Communist utopia

because Marx left no blueprint about how communism should rise after revolution, the  institutions created varied widely and many were based on forms first built in Soviet  Union; their regimes became somewhat totalitarian in an attempt to change all basic  human institutions  

nomenklatura — politically sensitive jobs in state, society, or economy staffed by  people chosen by the Communist Party

party approval often required party membership

Figures in Communism 

Lenin (Vladimir) — applied Marxist thought to Russia, successful revolution in 1917-  said revolution would only occur in struggling countries

Stalin — succeeded Lenin as leader of Soviet Union; rapid industrialization of country,  argues socialism could be built within just a single country, extended communism to  eastern Europe after WWII

Mao Zedong — led the Chinese Communist Party, had communism focus on peasantry  instead of working class, unleashed cultural revolution in 1966 to weaken party and  increase his own power

Deng Xiaoping - fought against Zedong during WWII; named general secretary of CCP  in 1956, became country leader after Zedong’s death

Fidel Castro- led cuban revolution in 1956; continues to defend cuban socialism  despite collapse of soviet union

Mikhail Gorbachev — general secretary of soviet union in 1985, initiated perestroika  (econ restructuring) and glasnost (political liberalization) ultimately led to dissolution of  soviet union  

Politburo and Central Committee acted as a kind of cabinet and legislature, shaping  national policy and confirming decisions of party leadership

Stalin used terror to intimidate

Mao unleashed cultural revolution, his targets included the party-state - he believed  grew conservative and was restricting his power — his slogan “ bombard the party  headquarters”


Communist political system 

central planning - replaces market with state bureaucracy, decided what to be  produced, in what amount, for what price

market and property are wholly absorbed by the state

individual property rights, individual profit, unemployment, competition between forms,  and bankruptcy are eliminated

most of nation’s mean of production are nationalized

economy functions as a single large firm whose sole employees are the public

state provides extensive public goods and social services, including universal systems  of public education, health care, and retirement  

Societal Institution under Communism  


Religion religion, “the opiate of the  masses,” will disappear

Gender Roles men and women will be  economically socially, and  

politically equal

Sexuality repressive institutions like  marriage will be replaces by “an  

openly legalized system of free  


Nationalism nationalism, exposed as part of  the elite’s “divide and conquer”  

strategy, will be eliminated

Collapse of Communism  

was suppressed but not  eliminated

opportunities for women  increased, but women were still  expected to fulfill traditional  duties in the home

many communist countries  remained very sexually  


though discouraged from doing  so, people clung to old national  and ethnic identities

reemergence of Cold war struggles w/ US and Soviet Union in 50s/60s period of detente - peaceful coexistence — lasting less than a decade SU invaded Afganistan in 1979 to prop up failing communist regime Reagan elected president of US in 1980 and sourced relation between 2 countries growing economic stagnation made it hard for SU to fight against US


this is when Gorbachev initiated twin policies of glasnost which encourages public  debate with the hope that a frank discussion of the system’s shortcomings would help  foster chance and increase legitimacy of regime AND perestroika which was actual  institutional reforms in the economy and political system

most dangerous moment for a bad government is when it begins to reform itself in 1989 civil society rapidly reasserted itself across eastern Europe

by 1991, SU was in turmoil: limited reforms has increased public’s appetite for greater  change

post-communism, outside eastern Europe and SU, democracy is slow to spread

in an attempt to reestablish separation between state and economy; their is a need for  privatization (transfer of state-held property into private hands) and marketization (re creation of market forces of supply and demand)

transition from communism to capitalism requires redefinition of property

some advocate rapid market reforms that would free prices and bring an end to central  planning and state subsidies for businesses virtually overnight — shock therapy  

might trigger high rates of inflation

essential readings  

Manifesto of the Communist Party by Marx and Engels

communism is already acknowledged by all european powers to be itself a power

it is high time that communists should openly, in the face of the whole world,  publish their views, their aims, their tendencies and meet this nursery tale of the  specter of communism with a manifesto of the party itself

Communists of various nationalities gathered in London and sketches the following  manifesto


the history of all societies is the history of the class struggles - constant opposition modern industry has established the world market - discovery of america paved the way

such market gave immense development to commerce, navigation,  communication


modern bourgeois is the product of a long course of development, of series of  revolutions in the modes of production and exchange

each step of development of bourgeois corresponded with political advance in  that class

they played a revolutionary part - put an end to all feudal, patriarchal idyllic relations PROLETARIANS & COMMUNISTS

no interest in proletariat as a whole - no principle to shape proletarian movement communists distinguished from other working-class parties by this only:

in national struggles of proletarians of different countries, they point out and bring  to the from the common interests of the entire proletariats, independently of all  nationality

in various stages of development which the struggle of the working class against  the bourgeoisie has to pass through, they always and everywhere represent the  interests of the movement as a whole

immediate aim of communists: formation of the proletariat into a class, overthrow of the  bourgeois supremacy, conquest of political power by the proletariat

theory — abolition of private property

Conclusions: Democratizing Elections, International Diffusion, and US  Democracy Assistance by Bunce and Wolchik

why do authoritarian leaders lose elections? 

regimes that combine authoritarian w/ electoral competition have proliferated  over the course of the global wave of democratization

important- dynamics of elections  

elections have a habit of foreshadowing important changes in politics

incumbents have more resources than their opponents in mixed regimes,  electoral turnover in such political settings are rare

purpose: address the puzzle of electoral turnover in mixed regimes by comparing 2 sets  of elections that took place in post communist Europe and eurasia from 1998-2008


first set — 6 elections that had similar and surprising outcome of producing a  victory for the opposition over the authoritarian incumbent or his designated  successor

second set — 5 elections that produced continuity in authoritarian rule the comparisons are so interesting because of the similarities in regimes & elections

located in new states - formed in early 90s as result of collapse of communist  party

featured united opposition - most were rigged and prompted large-scale post  election popular protests

diffusion - transfer of ideas  


while it is true that all failures to dislodge authoritarian leaders took place in relatively  authoritarian regimes, it is also the case that many opposition victories were registered  in regimes that were just as authoritarian

there was an overlap with respect to trends in such areas as economic performance &  frequency of governmental turnover and anti-regime protests

they argue that structural and institutional parameters on political change are  surprisingly elastic in mixed regimes

liberalization of politics in the years leading up to the elections had NO relationship to  the success of electoral challenges mounted by the opposition  

failed to find the expected role for unity of the opposition, electoral fraud, or popular  protests following the election

The return of Authoritarian Great Powers by Gat

today’s global liberal democratic order faces 2 challenges

radical isalm - not significant threat because they are disorganized

rise of nondemocratic great powers- china & Russia, b/c of their authoritarian  capitalist character

the liberal democratic cam defeats its authoritarian, fascist, and communist rivals within  2 world wars and the cold war

in determining what accounted for this decisive outcome we find:


possible advantage in democracies’ international conduct

liberal democracy’s supposedly inherent economic advantage is far less clear than is  often assumed

they defeated Germany and japan because they were medium sized countries with  limited resource bases  

they defeated communism because of structural factors

if it weren’t for america, liberal democracy wouldn’t have prevailed in the first place

Ch.10 Developing Countries

black book  

middle income countries - newly industrializing countries; developing countries last have  recently experienced dramatic rates of economic growth and democratization

lower income countries - less developed countries; countries that have slid into poverty,  violence, and civil conflict in the past decades  

empires- single political authorities that have under their sovereignty a large number of  external regions or territories and different peoples. (lands and peoples are not seen as  integral part of the country)

imperialism- system whereby a state extends its power to directly control territory,  resources, and people beyond its borders

driven by economic, strategic and religious motives and often leads to…

colonialism- physical occupation of a foreign territory through military forces,  businesses, or settlers

many of the countries that became subject to modern imperialism already had highly  developed economic, political, and societal institutions,  

they lacked centralized military power  

Europeans started a process of imperial expansion in the 1500s

believed Christianity and western culture needed to be brought to rest of world 46

borders drawn reflected the shape of their colonial ambitions rather than existing  geographic, religious, or linguistic realities

why most african states have altitude and longitude borders

how new institutions were established and new laws enforced tended to reflect the  capacity and autonomy found in the imperial state itself

social identities 

democratic practices were introduced to only few even if imperial country practiced it -  individuals considered subjects, not citizens and had little rights

imperial territories remained economically and politically underdeveloped, institutional  limbo, with a hybrid of western and traditional institutions

imperial powers introduced ethnicity and national identity

national identity became a powerful force in the industrializing world, bringing  competition

the state, as a form of political organization, was imposed of much of the world outside  of Europe

ethnic and national identities were created where none had existed before colonization gender roles from the imperial country were often imposed on colonies dependent development 

using mercantilist political-economic system, empire sought to extract revenue from  their colonies and using captive market for goods they didn’t have in home country

large businesses established to oversee extractive economies, often dominated by a  single monopoly

economic institutions of imperialism 

traditional agricultural economies were transformed to suit the needs of the imperialist  power

economic organization under imperialism impeded domestic development in the  colonies

free trade was often suppressed as colonies were forced to supply goods only to the  imperial country, creating extractive economies in the colonies


challenges of post-imperialism 

major challenge- creating effective political institutions

capacity - state’s ability to fulfill basic policy tasks

autonomy- ability to act independently of the public and foreign actors both are difficult to achieve for post-imperial countries  

challenges to building autonomy & capacity

absence of professional bureaucracy (following departure of foreign imperial  bureaucrats)

clientelism, rent seeking, and corruption the handling of the state jobs and  revenue

sovereignty often compromised by external actors (other states, international  organizations)

many of these countries struggle with forging a single nation from such diverse societies group divisions lead to economic implications  

some ethnic/religious groups favored under colonialism continue to monopolize  wealth in post-indsependenc society

many civil conflicts driven by economic concerns intersection with ethnic  differences

similarly complicate politics  

where populations are heterogeneous, battle for political power often falls along  ethnic or religious lines as each group seeks to gain control over the state in  order to serve its own particular ends

where such divisions are strong we often see a form of patrimonialism - one group  dominates

serious degradation of females  

3 paths to economic growth

import substitution - countries restrict imports, raising tariff or non tariff barriers to spur  demand for local alternatives


resulted in economies with large industries reliant on state or economic support  and unable to compete in the international market

export oriented industrialization - sought out technologies and developed industries that  focused specifically on export, capitalizing on what is known as the product life cycle

problem- relied on high levels of government subsidies and tariff barriers by led to higher levels of economic developed  

structural adjustment- based on liberalism. stat involvement is reduced and foreign  investment is encourages. often follows import substitution.

criticized as a tool of neocolonialism and for its failure in many cases to bring  substantial economic development

what explains variations in development?

interplay between ethnic divisions and borders

resources - resource trap

question of governance

essential readings  

why has Africa grown slowly? by Collier and Gunning

explanations for lack of economic development in Africa - no decisive approach, very  complicated  

improving trade policy is the only thing that showed much improvement  

in the first half century Africa increased and developed more quickly than Asia and grew  free from colonialism, making room for new governments

in the 70s, political and economic matters in Africa deteriorated — leaderships turned  into autocracy and dictatorship

purpose - to determine causes of failure of economic growth in sub-saharan Africa 2 main sides: policy & exogenous destiny AND domestic & internal factors some theories

tariffs and quantitative trade restrictions are higher in Africa than elsewhere 49

crisis due to deteriorating and volatile terms of trade

adverse climate = poor health, low life expectancy, disadvantage at development adverse climate= leached sold and unreliable rainfall, constraining agriculture

more ethnic diversity than other poor nations, harder to develop interconnected  economy

Collier & Gunning have emphasized domestic policy factors such as poor public service  delivery

poverty helped keep birth rate high but also may have increased the incidence of civil  wars

during mid-90s, performance began improving; they’re assessing these explanations to  guide whether this improvement is likely to be transient or persistent


Africa has many geographic and demographic characteristics which may  predispose it to slow growth

1) much of the continent is tropical and this may handicap economy, partly  due to diseases and partly due to hostile conditions for livestock and  agriculture

2)soil quality is poor and much of the continent is semi-arid with rainfall  subject to long cycles and unpredictable failure

3) continent has very low populations density

4) because of colonial heritage, Africa has much smaller countries in term  of population than others


public employment expanded - main priority  

poor public service delivery also handicapped households through inefficient  education, health, and extension services

political base of gov was urban, so agriculture was heavily taxed  

same urban bias led gov to favor urban wage labor force

financial markets were heavily regulated, bank lending directed to gov 50


Africa is better located than Asia for most developed economy markets but many  africans live far from coast and face higher transport costs for exports

Africa’s exports are concentrated in a narrow range of commodities with volatile  prices that have declined since the 60s

attracted much more aid per capita than other regions


African gov adopted exchange rate and trade policies that were atypically anti export and accumulated large foreign debts

has higher trade barriers and more misaligned exchange rater than others exports were sharply reduced as a result of export crop taxation

policy - people of country can change & destiny - they cannot

The Myth of Asia’s Miracle by Krugman

the speed of their industrialization surpassed any other country

leaders of those nations didn’t share our faith in free markets or unlimited civil liberties

they believed they were superior: societies that accepted strong, authoritarian  governments and were willing to limit individual liberties

the gap between western and easter economic performance eventually became a  political issue

previous experiences with perceived economic threat form developing country Soviet union in 60s and 70s had very high rates of economic growth

all the time the west was concerned with potential for soviet/communist model to  out perform free market liberalism

in the end communism was revealed to have a critical weakness economically the economic miracle that was not really so miraculous

post WWII society poured resources into increasing economic inputs increased labors force and education level

vast investments in capital infrastructure


the outcome was impressive growth rates, but these were not sustainable give  limitations on continuing investments inputs

lesson: “input driven growth” not sustainable long term

Asian ‘economic miracle’ may be similarly misunderstood

the asian model is misnomer because there are multiple different models

at the core, however, all have spurred their economic miracles by investing  heavily on the input side, without increasing output efficiency to the same degree

country side is critical because it impacts availability of input resources conclusions

sustained growth in a nation’s per capita income can only occur if there is a rise  in output per unit of input

extrapolating future growth rates from past trends without an evaluation of  efficiency leads to inflated expectations of growth

there are critical differences between the “asian tigers”

asian miracle similar to cases seen in the past

Disease & Development: the effect of life expectancy on economic growth by Acemoglu & Johnson

correlation between life expectancy and economic growth BUT correlation is not  causation 

HIV is exception because its killing off younger population and thus, they’re  workforce so that might actually be causation  

This article investigates the effect of general health conditions, proxied by life  expectancy at birth, on economic growth.

studies showed importance of health for individual productivity, but did not resolve the  question of whether health differences are at the root of the large income differences we  observe because they do not incorporate general equilibrium effects

theoretical link between disease and economic growth and performance

cross-country analyses show a correlation between life expectancy and  economic development


but correlation is not causation

the international epidemiological transition

begins in 40s and incorporates major advances in medicine and disease  prevention and cure

the availability of these cures/preventions vastly increases life expectancy in poor  and middle income states

by 2000, these countries have achieved nearly the same life-expectancy as rich  countries

real impact of increased life expectancy

in most poor countries increases in life expectancy led to increases in population because there was no concomitant decline in fertility

no discernible increase in per/capita economic growth despite predictions

in small countries with limited resources the opposite can actually occur  (more people with fewer available resources)

situation may be difficult with HIV/AIDs because mortality occurs at a different life  stage

unlike infant mortality, HIV/AIDs strikes people when they are at their  productive peak and may have a more direct impact on economic growth

Ch.11 Globalization & Future of comparative politics

black book  

globalization is a process that creates intensive & extensive international connections,  changing traditional relationships of time & space

globalization has a number of potential implications for comparative politics

due to thickening of connections between people across countries, globalization  breaks down the distinction between international relations and domestic politics

globalization can also work in the other direction, essentially “internationalizing”  domestic issues and events


globalization is associated with the growing power of a host of non state or supra-state  entities — most can be grouped into 3 categories:

multinational corporations (MNCs) - are firms that produce, distribute, and market  goods and services in more than one country - wield profits/assets larger than  GDPs and influence politics, economic developments, and social relations

Microsoft, General Electric

Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) - national & international groups,  independent of any state, that pursue policy objectives & foster public  participation

Greenpeace, Red Cross

Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) - groups created by states to serve  particular policy ends  


political globalization

globalized institutions complicate the ability of state to emanation sovereignty  

sometimes, states give it up intentionally - giving authority to IGOs to gain some  benefit or alleviate some existing problem — EU is good example

sometimes, unintentional - growth of the internet - important implications for  states regarding legal authority in many traditional areas, since it does not readily  conform to international boundaries or rules

developments like electronic currency may further erode powers of states by  undercutting their ability to print money, envy taxes, or regulate financial  transactions

argued also that globalization will change the nature of public participation & democracy

some see political globalization as a source of dangerous fragmentation & weakened  democracy

violence will not lose its utility in the international system as optimists hope; it will  simply change form

globalized criminal organization & terrorists groups are good examples 54

decentralized group empowered by globalized technology - cell phone,  social media, etc.

although deeper international connections may increase transparency, this does  not necessarily lay out a mechanism that enables individual to act on that info

economic globalization

Bretton Woods System - economic regimes created in 1944 to manage international  economic relations whose instability was commonly cited as a driving force behind the  great depression and WWII — 3 important institutions emerged from this:

(their objectives are to expand and manage economic relations between countries)

International Monetary Fund (IMF) - helps manage exchange rates between  countries and provide loans to states in financial difficulty

World Bank- provides loans and technical assistance to advance development in  less-developed countries

General agreements on tariffs and trade which became the World Trade  Organization (WTO) - overseas trade agreements between the member states to  lower tariffs and remove other non tariff barriers  

observes point to several important facets of economic globalization

the globalization of international trade — driven by one country’s advantage over  another in producing a given good; it has become increasingly extensive and  intensive, tying markets, producers, and labor together in a new way

financial globalization is the integration of capital and financial markets -markets  for money- around the world; banking and credit, stocks, etc.

for optimists, economic globalization is the expansion of international economic  connections making it possible to allocate goods and services. countries are able to  export what they produce best, encouraging innovation, specialization, and lower costs

others equate increased trade with increased dependence, arguing that trade creates  conditions whereby some countries will gain monopoly control over particular goods  vital in the international economy such as software, energy, etc.

societal globalization

societal globalization - traditional societal institutions are weakened, creating new  identities that do not belong to any one community or nation


some argue as globalization proceeds, aspect of individual and collective identity are  giving away

many find the internet particularly powerful in this regard (even where internet  concentration is weak, cell phones expand)

societal globalization engenders global multiculturalism; deepening of international  connections and the exchange of ideas between people will transfer the dynamics of  multiculturalism form the national to the international level

one result: global cosmopolitanism - universal political order that draws its  identity and values from everywhere

parallel to global cosmopolitanism is the idea of globalized democracy

when focusing on societal globalization and its effects on democracy - we return to our  notion of civil society

some are skeptical of the notion that increased globalization will benefit social progress

some content that globalization overwhelms people with innumerable choices,  values, ideas, and info that they are unable to understand, evaluate, or escape -  especially those who are not part of the globalized elite

a second criticism emphasizes not the reaction to societal globalization but rather  its eventual outcome

it will trigger cultural and intellectual decline

societies will trade their own cultures, institutions, and ideas for a common  global society shaped not by values or worldliness but by speed and  consumption

globalization can be limited or reversed in a number of ways - economic crisis  

many people’s concerns about how globalization might affect such things as  environment, labor standard,s and democracy practices around the world are being  translated into antiglobalization activism - aided by internet

essential readings  

The world is spiky by Richard Florida

many economists believe that advances in technology have leveled the global playing  field, making the world “flat”


Florida argues otherwise — he says “the world is not at all flat… it’s spiky”  population, innovation, and growth

the most obvious challenges to the flat-world hypothesis is the explosive growth of cities  worldwide; more people are clustering in urban areas ~50%

3 types of places that make up the modern economic landscape:

tallest peaks — cities that generate innovations, have capacity to attract global  talent and create new products and industries

hills — places that manufacture the world’s established goods, support

valleys — places with little connection to the global economy and few immediate  prospects

population and economic activity are both spiky, but it’s innovation - the engine of  economic growth- that is most concentrated

commercial innovation and scientific advances are both highly concentrated - but not  always in the same places - they few places that have both have little to fear and much  to gain from continuing globalization

although one might not have to emigrate to innovate, it certainly appears that  innovation, economic growth, and prosperity occur in those places that attract a critical  mass of top creative talent

the world today looks flat to some because the economic and social distances between  peaks world-wide have gotten smaller

use pattens to measure innovation

Leviathan Stirs Again from “The Economist”

leviathan - the state — gaining power because of financial crisis  

the great debate about the proper size and role of the state had been resolved about 15  years ago when Tony Blair and Bill clinton pronounced the last rites of “the era of big  government”

“the golden straightjacket”

today, big government is back — Britain’s public spending is set to exceed 50% and  america’s financial capital has shifted from new York to DC and the government has  been trying to extend its control over the health-care industry  


the obvious reason for changing devotion of GDP to public spending is the financial  crisis  

the expansion of the sate in both Britain and America met with widespread approval

the demand for public services will soar in the coming decades, thanks to the aging of  the population

state capacity - public spending - more control over people’s lives

the level of public spending is only on indication of the state’s power

america’s federal government employees many bureaucrats whose job is to write  and apply federal regulations

the power of these regulators is growing - they’re making new rules from the  amount of capital that banks have to set aside to what to do about them when  they fail

state capitalism - governments using the market as an instrument of state power fear of terrorism and worries about rising crime have also inflated the state Authoritarian informationalism by Min Jiang

main topic- Beijing’s effort to regulate the internet

clinton was confident that the US would benefit economically from greater access to  Chinese markets and that the internet would spread liberty in china

in retrospect both of those things happened BUT he underestimated Beijing’s  determination and capabilities to regulate the Chinese internet to its liking

the Chinese state council information office responded with the The Internet in China, a  white paper on Chinese internet policy

outlines basic principled of internet regulation in a country of 420 million internet  users

proclaiming the internet is under the jurisdiction of Chinese sovereignty and  should be respected and protected.

Beijing’s cyber approach and practices are inseparable from its legitimacy in 5 major  areas:

economy, nationalism (biggest two), ideology, culture, and governance 58

beyond the well-known “Great Fire-wall of China,” a technological filtering system  blocking “harmful” foreign content at china’s international gateway to the WWW, the  state also adopts a multi-layered censorship approach

in the future, China’s internet policies will continue to reflect what the author calls  authoritarian informationalism, an internet development and regulatory model that  combines elements of capitalism, authoritarianism, and confucianism  

we recognize their right to sovereignty but there are different ways we can help (4):  

technical- developing told for censorship circumvention, anonymity, and security  measures such as secure login, storage, and redistribution of deleted content and mirror  sites to replicate at-risk materials

legislative- enacting legislations such as Global Online Freedom Act to prevent US  internet companies from engaging in internet censorship

trade- pursuing actions through international trade organizations like WTO that treat  censorship as an unfair barrier to trade, controlling the export of US and european  censorship technologies  

research, education and community of practice- funding research and innovation  against internet censorship such as building block resistance platforms, sharing  “opposition research” to identify problems and solutions in an international  anticensorship community, educating users on privacy and rights issues, supporting  international exchange to increase the influence of indigenous experts, implementing  corporate responsibility mechanisms, promoting international acceptance of internet  freedom and respect for the rights of internet users.  


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