CSD 203 Midterm Study Guide
CSD 203 Midterm Study Guide CSD 203
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elaine Foster on Monday March 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CSD 203 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Rakerd in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 312 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communicative Sciences and Disorders in Language at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 03/02/15
CSD 203 Intro to Communicative Sciences and Disorders Midterm Studv Guide Chapter 1 Studv Questions 1 How does a discipline differ from a profession A discipline is a unique area of study A profession is an area of practice 2 How did World War II affect communication sciences and disorders The term audiology was used to describe a new science that focused on the aural rehabilitation of individuals who suffered warrelated hearing loss 3 How can you differentiate between a communication disorder and a communication difference A communication disorder is any communication structure or function that is diminished to a significant degree A communication difference is communication abilities that differ from the mainstream culture without evidence of impairment ie foreign language speakers learning a new language 4 What are the differences between certification and 1icensure Licensure refers to parameters defined by the state Certification refers to standards defined by professional organizations or state agencies ex ASHA Vocab Acquired disorders Developmental disorders Developmental disorders occur during development ie childhood Acquired disorders occur after communication skills are already developed Certification Licensure Defined above question 4 Communication di erence Communication disorder Defined above question 3 Communication sciences and disorders The discipline that encompasses any study of aural and speech sciences Discipline Profession Defined above question 1 Evidencebased practice Decisions made by professionals about clinical service delivery are guided by highquality clinical research Functional disorder Organic disorder A functional disorder is one for which a physical cause cannot be found An organic disorder is one for which a physical cause can be found Impairment Disability Handicap An impairment is any loss or abnormality of psychological physiological or anatomic structure or function CSD 203 Intro to Communicative Sciences and Disorders A disability is a reduced competence in meeting daily needs A handicap is any social educational or occupational disadvantage that results from impairment or disability Chapter 2 Studv Questions 1 What is the difference between language production and language comprehension Production concerns the ability to physically communicate whether through speech writing or signing Comprehension concerns the ability to process and decode the productions from others 2 What linguistic systems are involved in language form language content and language use Language form phonology morphology syntax Language content semantics lexicon Language use pragmatics 3 Name one important development that occurs in each area of language form content and use during each of the four major developmental periods infancy the preschool years the schoolage years and adulthood Infancy Content twoandthree word utterances Form babbling expressive jargon Use looking at parent then at object Preschool Content can say approximately 2001800 words between 2 4 years Form plural and possessive morphemes Use production of short sentences SchoolAge Content metaphors and idioms Form complex sentence forms including multiple clauses Use longer conversations topic shifting Adulthood Content vocationspecific vocabulary Form Pronouns Use persuasion narration explanation 4 What are some examples of sounds that may be difficult for children to produce at the time they enter kindergarten I 6 s z o l r 3 Vocab Allophone An allophone is a variant of a phoneme American Sign Language CSD 203 Intro to Communicative Sciences and Disorders Hand movements which act as language when used with the proper grammar and syntax Communication Any exchange of meaning between a sender and a receiver Expressive jargon Essentially babbling but with adultlike intonation patterns Language A standardized set of symbols and knowledge about how to combine those symbols into words sentences and texts to convey meaning Language form Language content Language use Language form concerns the structures of language words sentences etc Language content concerns the meaning of language Language use concerns the goals of language and the means for choosing between combinations of words and sentences Lexicon A mental dictionary Phoneme Morpheme A phoneme is any sound in a language that causes a change in meaning A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit with meaning Phonology Morphology Syntax Phonology is the study of sounds Morphology is the internal organization of words Syntax is the linguistic conventions for organizing word order Phonological processes Simplifications of adultlike productions of words Pragmatics Sociolinguistic conventions that help us decide what to say to whom how to say it and when to say it Prosody Changes in pitch stress intensity and duration of sounds in connected speech production Reduplicated babbling Variegated babbling Reduplicated babbling is babbling repeating the same sounds ie bababa Variegated babbling is babbling with different sounds ie bafaga Semantics The linguistic representation of objects ideas feelings and their relations Chapter 3 Studv Questions 1 Compare and contrast the processes of socialization and acculturation Socialization is the process by which an individual learns hisher own culture Acculturation is the process by which an individual learns or adapts to another culture CSD 203 Intro to Communicative Sciences and Disorders a How might differences in socialization practices affect school performance Educators choose materials and delivery methods based on mainstream culture so outsiders to the mainstream culture are at a disadvantage b What are reasons for acculturation Reasons for acculturation include the nature of second language learning developing basic interpersonal communication skills and cognitive academic language proficiency differences in language form and different socialization expenences 2 Describe how dialects are formed Dialects evolve as the result of social transitions such as largescale geographical patterns of movement by people the development of transportation routes or the establishment of education systems and government Isolation due to geographical barriers can cause languages to develop differently on either side of the barrier 3 What are some examples of different types of bilinguals There are elective bilinguals circumstantial bilinguals simultaneous bilinguals and sequential bilinguals 4 Why would understanding how individuals become bilingual matter to a speechlanguage pathologist or audiologist The performance of children in school will vary depending on when they begin learning their second language Le a simultaneous bilingual child will be better at both languages than a child who is later exposed to English a sequential bilingual It helps to make judgments about how and when bilinguals came to know two languages and their language learning abilities Vocab Accent A particular nonnative stress on syllables in words which connotes the influence of a second language Acculturation socialization Defined above question 1 Basic interpersonal communication skills BI CS Language proficiency at a level that requires low cognitive load in situations that are highly contextualized Circumstantial bilingual Elective bilingual Code switching A circumstantial bilingual is someone who becomes bilingual as a result of living in a bilingual environment An elective bilingual is someone who has learned a second language by choice Code switching is the alternating use of two languages at the word phrase and sentence levels with a complete break between languages in phonology Cognitive academic language pro ciency CALP CSD 203 Intro to Communicative Sciences and Disorders Language proficiency at a level that requires high cognitive load in situations that are decontextualized Dialect Variation of a language hat is understood by all speakers of the mother language Sequential bilingual Simultaneous bilingual A sequential bilingual is someone whose second language is introduced after the primary language is already established A simultaneous bilingual is someone who acquires two languages early in development Socioeconomic status A family s status based on family income parental education level parental occupation and social status in the community Chapter 13 Studv Questions 1 Describe the interplay between the forces of momentum and elasticity during vibration If a taut string is pulled away from its resting position it will overshoot its original position when it is released due to momentum As the string moves away from its resting position again elasticity builds and eventually causes the string to return to the resting position 2 Sketch the waveform of a simple sound lfl3r r 3 What four measurable quantities characterize all simple sounds Period amplitude duration and starting phase 4 What are the two functions of the cochlea To give us our sense of balance and to convert the vibrations of the air into nerve impulses perceived by the brain as sound Vocab Amplitude Frequency Period Amplitude is the distance an object moves from its resting position during vibration Frequency is the number of cycles of vibration completed in 1 second measured in hertz Hz Period is the amount of time needed to complete one cycle of vibration Auditory cortex An area in the temporal lobe of the brain that is responsible for hearing Basilar membrane CSD 203 Intro to Communicative Sciences and Disorders A ribbonlike tissue in the cochlea that separates scala media above from scale tympani below It provides the foundation on which rests the organ of Corti Cochlea The coiled tube in the inner ear that houses the sensory cells for hearing a structure in the inner ear that converts the mechanical energy received from the middle ear into an electrochemical code for transmission to the brain Complex sound Simple sound A complex sound is a sound composed of at least two but usually more frequency components A simple sound is a sound composed of a single frequency component Elasticity Mass Elasticity is the property that enables an object to return to its original shape after being deformed Mass is the amount of matter an object has Eustachian tube The canal that connects the middle ear cavity to the back of the throat The Eustachian tube opens briefly to equalize pressure in the middle ear External auditory meatus The canal that directs sound from the pinna to the tympanic membrane Hair cells The sensory cells of hearing and balance that convert sound energy from one form to another Incus Malleus Stapes The incus is the middle bone in the ossicular chain attached at either end to the malleus and stapes respectively The malleus is the outermost bone in the ossicular chain One end is attached to the tympanic membrane the other end is connected to the incus The stapes is the innermost bone in the ossicular chain One end is attached to the incus the other end or footplate occupies the oval window Pinna The pinna is the cartilaginous flap of skin attached to the side of the head around the opening to the external auditory meatus Sound propagation The movement of vibration through a medium brought about by collisions between neighboring particles Spectrum A graph that shows the amplitude or phase as a function of frequency Tonotopic organization An arrangement where one of a structure s dimensions is systematically laid out according to frequency Transduction The process where energy is converted from one form to another The hair cells change mechanical energy to electrical energy Tympanic membrane CSD 203 Intro to Communicative Sciences and Disorders Chapter 14 The coneshaped layer of tissue that separates the external auditory meatus from the middle ear cavity The malleus is connected to the inner surface of the tympanic membrane Studv Questions 1 List causes for conductive hearing loss that are due to damage to the outer ear Occlusion of the external auditory canal loss of or damage to the pinna buildup of debris or swelling of canal walls tumors burns or canal collapse 2 List causes for conductive hearing loss that are due to damage to the middle ear Otitis media congenital disorders tumors trauma or otosclerosis 3 List causes for sensorineural hearing loss that are due to damage to the inner ear Damage to the cochlea or auditory nerve anoxia prolonged otitis media meningitis high fevers exposure to loud noises aging process acoustic neuroma tumor 4 What are the principal features of conductive hearing loss in terms of the relationship between air conduction and bone conduction There is impairment by air conduction but normal hearing by bone conduction 5 What is otitis media Vocab An infection of the middle ear or the accumulation of sterile fluid because of the negative middleear pressure that results from Eustachian tubes that do not function properly The fluid that forms the in the middleear space secondary to the infection can act as a sound barrier or the infection may cause thickening or destruction of the tympanic membrane or ossicular chain Air conduction Bone conduction Airbone gap Audiogram Audiometer Air conduction is the pathway of sounds that includes the outer ear middle ear inner ear and the structures beyond Bone conduction is the pathway of sound that bypasses the conductive mechanisms of the outer and middle ears by vibrating the skull and stimulating the cochlea of the inner ear The difference in decibels between the airconduction threshold and the bone conduction threshold A graph depicting the threshold of audibility in decibels as a function of different frequencies A device used for the measurement of hearing CSD 203 Intro to Communicative Sciences and Disorders Auditory brainstem response Measurable responses in the brainstem to a series of acoustic stimuli Conductive hearing loss sensorineural hearing loss Conductive hearing loss is a loss of earing sensitivity caused by damage to the outer andor middle ear can be treated andor cured Sensorineural hearing loss is hearing loss caused by damage to the inner ear andor auditory nerve cannot be treated or repaired Hearing level HL The reference that uses normal hearing in the scale of decibels Otoacoustic emission Either spontaneous or evoked sounds emanating from the inner ear Otosclerosis A hearing loss caused by bony fixation of the stapes in the oval window Speech recognition threshold The lowest intensity at which speech can barely be heard Threshold of audibility The lowest intensity at which a signal can barely be heard Word recognition score The score in percent that reveals the ability to discriminate among the sounds of speech Chapter 15 Studv Questions 1 List the four major components of a hearing aid Describe What each one does A microphone an amplifier a receiver and a battery 2 In a classroom situation What degrades the signal and makes it difficult to hear the teacher How might the listening environment be improved Background noise such as fans other students talking computer noises and general lack of soundabsorbing materials can cause reverberations in the environment that may make speech signals difficult to hear Classrooms can be improved by increasing the intensity of the speaker s voice by use of an assistive listening device or to add soundabsorbing materials such as carpeting or sound reduction cloth boards on the walls 3 List the different types of hearing aids Body aid behindtheear intheear inthecanal completely inthecanal 4 Who are candidates for cochlear implants Infants children and adults with profound sensorineural hearing loss Vocab CSD 203 Intro to Communicative Sciences and Disorders Alerting devices Assistive living devices Alerting devices are devices that change auditory alerting signals that are inaudible for individuals with earing losses into audibleacoustic visual or vibrotactile stimuli Assistive living devices are devices that transfer an acoustic message over distance so that the listener can hear the signal with greater intensity and signal tonoise ratio Audiologic habilitation audiologic rehabilitation Audiologic habilitation is amplification auditory raining and speechlanguage services provided to children with a hearing loss Audiologic rehabilitation is amplification and coping strategies for those who need rehabilitation Cochlear implant A device that is surgically placed in the cochlea and provides auditory stimulation for individuals with severe to profound hearing loss Detection discrimination identification Detection is the ability to hear whether a sound exists the first level in auditory processing Discrimination is the ability to hear differences between sounds the second level in auditory processing Identification is the ability to associate a sound with a symbolic representation the third level in auditory processing Gain The increase is sound intensity provided by an amplification system and measured in decibels Signaltonoise ratio A representation of the signal intensity compared to the background noise intensity calculated by subtracting the intensity of the noise from the intensity of the signal in decibels Telecoil switch An option on a hearing aid to use electromagnetic energy as the input instead of the microphone Chapter 16 Studv Questions 1 What are the primary consequences of prelinguistic deafness if left untreated Prevention of normal spontaneous acquisition of speech and language skills which can cause significant delays and deviance in language and speech acquisition which can in turn cause consequences for social and academic development due to a lack of functional communication system CSD 203 Intro to Communicative Sciences and Disorders 2 What are some of the differences between deaf children who have deaf parents and those with normalhearing parents What would be the key educational consequences of these differences Deaf children who have at least one deaf parent are more likely to naturally and spontaneously acquire American Sign Language in much the same way that a normally hearing child would acquire spoken language Thus these children would be more likely to develop a functional communication system that would help them avoid the consequences of untreated prelinguistic deafness 3 Compare and contrast the oral and Total Communication approaches to communication development with deaf children On what factors might one base a decision to follow one path or the other with a particular child Vocab Oral approaches incorporate intensive speech training and rely exclusively on oral speech for communication with deaf children ie the deaf children must learn speechreading Total Communication approaches include the use of oral approaches ASL if appropriatepossible and manual forms of English ie gestures and specific signs placed in the order of English syntax because they accompany English speech American Sign Language ASL Manual codes American Sign Language is the language of the deaf community in the United States ASL as its own set of phonological morphological semantic syntactic and pragmatic conventions that differ from those of spoken English It is produced by gestures of the hands arms face and body and has a complex grammar that is different from English Manual codes are systems of manual gestures that are used simultaneously with speech to present a redundant representation of the spoken signal in another mode Manual codes are not sign language they are used in conjunction with spoken language and the grammar is still that of the spoken language Bilingualbicultural A general term used to describe a number of related yet distinct approaches to help deaf children acquire communication facility in both sign language and spoken language while also helping them to discover their cultural identities in both the hearing and deaf communities Critical period Cued speech The idea that some biological events eg hemispheric specialization must occur by a certain time in order for language to develop normally A gestural system unrelated to sign language used to signal distinctions among spoken phonemes by use of particular hand configurations and positions that accompany speech M ultimodalism CSD 203 Intro to Communicative Sciences and Disorders The approach to communication that supports the deaf person s development of a variety of speech sign and writing methods for communication depending on the communication demands of the situation rather than being restricted to one mode only Oral method Total communication Oral method is the approach to communication with deaf individuals that fosters the exclusive use of speech speechreading and hearing sign language is not permitted
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