Cognitive Psych Study Guide Exam 2
Cognitive Psych Study Guide Exam 2 PSY 0422
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsay Notetaker on Monday March 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 0422 at University of Pittsburgh taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 284 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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great notes...I just thought it was gonna include more outlines for all chapters included in the test not just chapter 5...
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Date Created: 03/02/15
Cognitive Psych Section 2 3215 941 PM Chapter 5 Memory Introduction Memory something that allows one to store and retrieve facts memory system is organized as a natural inference system that allows us to store a few facts and derive others as needed Memory is important for 0 Recalling facts 0 Recognizing faces 0 Making inferences 0 Knowing how to do things 0 Deciding if you have studied enough 0 Knowing when to eat What role does memory play in perception 0 Object recognition matching processes 0 Context effects 0 Topdown processes Is memory important for determining when you are hungry and full 0 Rozin et al 1998 studied two amnesiacs dif cult to encode new info 0 Offered a meal Here s lunch 0 When done take meal away converse 1030 minutes 0 Offer a new meal in same way Here s lunch 0 Would these 2 groups eat different amounts 0 Results 0 Amnesiacs ate a second and sometimes third meal 0 Hunger ratings for both were exactly the same both times 0 One participant ate 3 meals in almost the exact same amount 0 Controlled subjects said they just ate and didn t eat more than one meal 0 Strong evidence that memory plays a critical role in a physiological way Memory is Important 0 Not just for remembering facts etc 0 Memory is critical of all cognitive processes language eating 0 Much of our regulation of behavior is based on 0 Memory of what we have done 0 Memory of what has happened to us 0 Something everyone knows and cares about 0 People have theories of how memory works and what should be remembered 0 Practical implications eyewitness testimony studying for exams Extreme Rememberers Mnemonists o Rajan M 40000 digits of pi o S in book rich images 0 AJ amazing autobiographical memory 0 Amnesiacs o H M remember no new information o Korsakoff thiamine de ciency retrograde de cits little ability to learn new material and experience dif cult recalling events from the past Issues many one could ask 0 Different types of memory 0 Why do we forget 0 How can we remember better 0 Why are some people better at it 0 How can we measure memory How to Study Memory Ebbinghaus list of nonsense syllables to study memory 0 Tested on himself 0 SAB BUP LOC 0 Presented every 2 seconds to prevent using a strategy 0 Continued until could remember all in list What could he measure Ebbinghaus 0 How many trials it took to learn 0 How well the list is remembered 0 At different retention intervals 0 Different ways of testing memory What did he measure Ebbinghaus 0 Try to retrieve list later 0 If not perfect then relearn how long 0 How much savings in relearning very sensitive measure of memory 0 Savings score original trials relearning trials original trials x 100 Results Ebbinghaus after 20 minutes you lose about 40 of the information you learned Common Measures Tasks 0 Free recall remember list 0 Cued recall word pairings or partial word 0 Stick glue stick o Bandage ban 0 Recognition which words did you see 0 Reaction time did you see these words and how long it takes to react how quickly someone can retrieve a memory Memory Structure and Processes Process operations 0 What steps are involved in forming a memory 0 How does the way we learn relate to what we remember 0 How do we retrieve memories Information Processing what are the rules that operate on the symbols PDP how does activation spread through the system Structure parts 0 What do we know content 0 What are the different kinds of memories 0 What is a memory trace Information Processing what symbols How are they organized PDP what nodes How are they interconnected 0 Need both process and structure Memory Processes Encoding acquiring information 0 How do we get information into memory Storage effects on learning other information 0 How is information retained or maintained in memory Retrieval how do we nd what we want Memory Models Structure Traditional Atkinson amp Shiffrin Structure Sensory stores 0 Shortterm memory 0 Longterm memory Processes for each focus on STM 211 Memory Short Term Memory Working Memory Duration of STM Sensory memory is lost in half a second Shortterm memory is between 10 and 20 seconds Capacity of STM 7 2 chunks of information Primacy Effect remembering the rst word very well it encodes better into longterm memory Recency Effect remembering the most recent word in the list last word because you just got it and it s still in shortterm memory 0 Disappears when recall is delayed by performing some other task rather than immediate Serial Position Effect effect of where the word is positioned in the list on how likely you are to remember it graph Chunking 0 We can increase our apparent working memory capacity by grouping numbers into chunks The chunks usually have to be familiar we need to have some memory of chunks 0 Size of the chunk depends on a person s prior experience with the particular material being remembered how familiar you are with the information ShortTerm Memory 0 Shortterm memory keeps objects around for longer 10 20 seconds and depends upon the number of chunks not the number of objects 0 Is this physical characteristics or semantic characteristics Both Mental Addition Study What went wrong 0 Longterm memory forgetting addition facts 8 4 12 0 Working memory retrieval forgetting partial products column 2 sum is 11 Working memory 0 Shortterm working memory you keep things around while you are thinking 0 Not just a storage medium manipulate information active 0 Two subsystems and coordination system 0 Phonological loop 0 Visuospatial sketchpad 0 Central executive Phonological loop Two parts important for acquiring language especially learning new words evolved to help people maintain the phonological forms of new words while more permanent memory records were being constructed 0 Articulatory control process inner speech voice we hear in our heads when we re thinkingprocessing information o Allows us to subvocally rehearse information to ourselves helping to keep the information available by refreshing the phonological store 0 Phonological store storage capacity where we retain auditory information for about 2 seconds 0 Explains phenomenon of how we can repeat back the last 2 seconds of what someone said even if we weren t listening 0 Reliance on this leads to acoustic errors in shortterm recall Phonological loop 0 Word length effects the longer the word the harder it may be to remember 0 Articulatory suppression effects we try to block the phonological loop by putting some other information in there 0 Ex repeating the while trying to remember 0 People who talk faster 0 Different languages have different rates of pronunciation ex numbers 0 Implication if it takes longer to say the particular word you should remember less of them over time Visuospatial Sketchpad 0 Maintain and manipulate visual and spatial images p 148 149 0 Important for planning and executing spatial tasks 0 We need to constantly update how the location of moving objects are changing keeps track of recent visuospatial information 0 We ve developed 2 different skills for these 2 types of information leading to 0 Selective interference interfered with by spatial or visual tasks not verbal p 145 Central executive must be some way to coordinate this information across subsystems Allocate attention to subsystems 0 Coordinate information from these systems 0 Uses output of subsystems Summary of STM WM 0 General Characterization processes and structure 0 Processes encoding storage retrieval 0 Structure models for memory traditional 0 Duration and capacity of STM Chunking 0 Working memory actively manipulate memory think of it as a resource Lecture 11 Memory Working Memory Long Term Memory Long Term MemoryH0w do we get things into longterm memory Encoding Levels of Processing 0 How we process information is critical 0 Don t think just in terms of the representation but the processing 0 Range from shallow analysis of physical characteristics to deep level of meaning 0 Differences in encoding processes are crucial because they can have large effects on what is remembered Hyde and Jenkins 1969 Study Task 0 Rate pleasantness of the word amp respond with number of letters in word Test free recall 0 Subjects performance on memory test 0 Pleasantness 69 0 Number of letters 43 Implications active nature of remembering different ways of processing Intention to Learn 0 Performance with intentional learning 0 Is intention important to learn Do you learn something better when you want to learn it vs when you don t 0 Compare to incidental learning Hyde and Jenkins 1969 0 Divided into 2 groups one that knew there was a test one that didn t 0 Subjects told before the study phase of memory test intentional learning 0 Pleasantness 69 0 Number letters 43 0 Subjects NOT told before the study phase of memory test incidental learning 0 Pleasantness 68 0 Number letters 39 0 Results having the intention made no difference intention doesn t really matter Intention to Learn 0 Does intending to learn something improve learning Indirectly only 0 Processing matters 0 Intention is usually linked to some kind of study strategy Organization if items can be organized in some way performance often increases 0 Studies show that organization of information at encoding can greatly improve memory performance Encoding Elaboration 0 In STM elaborative rehearsal leads to better later memory 0 Elaborate explain and connect to prior knowledge 0 Many types of elaboration making story imaging together Droodles Bower Karlin Dueck 1975 0 Droodles with or without explanation 9 they are meaningless but they assigned the lines of the image you saw different semantic objects that could provide retrieval cues later on 0 After looking at a set of them draw 0 Without explanation 51 0 With explanation 70 0 Why When you re able to elaborate the word to the picture and making those connections you can use that knowledge to recall the new lines you associated with them 9 better memory 218 Warm Up How can we improve our ability to remember information Chunking 0 Levels of processing physical vs semantics vs elaboration 0 Integration into prior knowledge Experiment What if we did an experiment like the levels of processing but one condition is self reference Will recall be better or worse 0 Compared to the semantic meaning Is it something special about the self 0 Get something we know a lot about and see if we get a similar effect 0 For each noun take a name either generated by subject or experimenter and make a sentence with the name and the noun 0 At test recall nouns Judgments about the self lead to better recall than other common tasks 5 Particularly good type of elaboration because we already know a lot about ourselves Elaborations Easier to remember by relating it it to what we know 0 Helps to augment and interpret the information we have 0 Helps to build a coherent representation using information from our knowledge Real World Application notes on the video The Woman Who Can t Forget 0 Woman remembers details of everything that happened in her life since age 14 0 Dates times what she was doing what was happening in current events 0 Can memorize her life but not other things like poems or things in school SelfReference Effect tendency for people to encode information differently depending on the level on which the self is implicated in the information 0 When people are asked to remember information when it s related in some way to the self the recall rate can be improved How do we get information out of longterm memory Encodingretrieval interactions 0 How information is encoded has a HUGE effect on how well it is remembered 0 However it is not everything 0 The match between encoding and retrieval is critical too 0 Not just on representation but in terms of the processing see text page 161 o How is the information processed Picturesuperiority effect 0 Pictures lead to better memory than words lots of studies showing this 0 But depends some on how it is retrieved 0 Usually free recall 0 People recall more words when doing a wordcompletion test rather than pictures and people recall more pictures when doing straight recall Encodingretrieval interactions 0 Encoding specificity effect how one encodes information matters the match between processing at encoding and retrieval matters too 0 Transfer appropriate processing transfer our memory back out there when the encoding matches Context Effects 0 Claim that context is an important part of what we represent amp should in uence what we remember 0 Context dependent learning Context Voice of Speaker 0 Common all speech has a voice 0 Even if we are listening to content some information about voice may be encoded 0 If so it may lead to an encodingretrieval interaction State Dependent Learning 0 Our internal states act as a type of context how one feels 0 Ex a person who s had too much to drink may have little memory of the evening s events the next day 0 Is it true that information learned in one state may be better remembered when in the same state later Why should it be Mood Effects 0 Much debate about whether mood is a context effect 0 Mood feelings diffused pos or neg Emotion speci cdirective eeting 0 However we do nd mood congruence results if there s a match between encoding and retrieval in terms of mood we re more likely to retrieve that information than when there s a mismatch 0 Learn list in neutral mood list contains positive negative neutral words 0 At recall test experimenters induce mood into participants positive or negative 0 Those in a positive mood remembered more positive words 0 Those in a negative mood remembered more negative words 0 People often recall memories from similar mood state Context Effects Why should context affect memory 0 We rely on our context to help us accomplish what we re focused on 0 Context is often a good predictor of what information is going to be relevant 0 Our brains have adapted to our conscious awareness that context matters 0 Having the context in uences our retrieval 0 Ex having another cookie depends on if you re home or if you re away more likely when you re home with people you know 0 How does the brain gure out what to remember Relevance heuristic Spacing Effect memory is better for repeated information if the repetitions occur spaced over time than if they occur massed one after the other 0 In studies as the number of events between repetitions increased the probability of recall increased 0 Long spacings lead to worst memory than shorter spacings at short retention intervals 0 Depends on the change in encoding and context between presentations and their relationship to the retrieval context Retrieval Factors How we encode is critical to how we retrieve 0 What it is content of what we re trying to recall encoding speci city 0 How it is processed transfer appropriate processing match or mismatch Context effects relevance heuristic what memories are relevant to this situation now and its associated goals 0 Some other retrieval factors recency last time you saw this information and frequency how many times you ve been exposed to this information A larger question Why do we forget 0 There s a lot of information 0 We can t recall everything with equal probability or there d be mass interference Forgetting is an active part of helping us remember Knowledge Effects Schema active organization of past reactions or past experiences 0 Lists what parts to expect 0 Could make a prediction of what s to happen if you re only presented with the rst few lines of the schema story 0 Mind generates predictions based on your past experiences 0 Lists default values if didn t read about what would you expect 0 Schemas in uence what we can comprehend 0 You have to know what schema to use for it to in uence your comprehension the schema has to be activated 0 General knowledge structure used for understanding 0 One s knowledge about the world 0 General encodes information about a particular type of situation 0 Structured doesn t just consist of some set of facts but also includes how these facts are related 7 Structure allows a schema to be used for inferring additional information Comprehension structure of the schema includes how the knowledge is related in this type of situation but doesn t include information about any exact situation Includes slots for particular information lling in slots of information Allow us to treat knowledge about events as connected rather than independent 0 Provides information about how facts t together and supports inferences about things not stated directly Generate expectations about what s likely to be true Script knowledge structure containing the sequence of events that usually occurs in a particular stereotyped situation common schema for routine events Key words and events that occur in a context help trigger appropriate schema Helpful with retrieving memory of what we have stored Problems with Schemas It s not clear how to implement the desired properties of schemas It s straightforward to have slots with default values but hard to implement the idea that the values in some slots constrain the acceptable values in other slots Schemas may create situations in which we misremember something that came from our prior knowledge as being a part of the event itself Schemas and Memory Our prior knowledge of how what typically happens schemas shapes 0 Our comprehension of events 0 How we encode events 0 How we retrieve information later Misinformation Effect Choosing a misleading suggestion Misleading information can be suggested after an event occurs that affects what answers a person gives to later questions Evidence eyewitness testimonies Presenting misleading postevent information can affect people s responses and increase the probability that they will respond with the misleading suggestion Can be used to examine deceptive advertising and whether believing that you drank alcohol in uences your memory and con dence in your memory Explanations o Overwriting assume misleading information alters original trace with the misleading information 0 Source confusion misleading information may not impair original memory but instead provide some competing information that can be retrieved and used at times as if it were the original memory because the source of the memory is not clear 0 Misinformation acceptance people may use misleading information because they don t know better and assume the misleading information is true Flashbulb Memories Memories that involve a distinct biological mechanism that we ve developed through evolution so that highly consequential surprising events are very well remembered because such events may be crucial for survival Have exceptional amount of detail 0 Most people can remember events om many years ago in great detail but most likely may not be very accurate 0 Events that have a large effect on our lives Metamemory People s ability to know how likely they are to be able to remember something or how effective some strategy may be 0 We don t have direct knowledge of how well we know something we make an inference based on some aspect of our remembering 0 We may think we know something when really it s just the primacy effect in action or just fast recall Types of Long Term Memory 0 Procedural Declarative 0 Semantic o Episodic Autobiographical Explicit amp Implicit Declarative Memory Knowing that 0 Things that you can declare 0 Examples The name of the class is cognitive psychology My brother called last night The Brook Trout is Pennsylvania s state sh 0 Simple facts can be learned relatively quickly 0 Relational relates parts parts and context in a network of associations 0 Flexible can be applied to many different situations ex Darwin s theory can be used to explain many different phenomena in the world 0 Episodic memory everyday situations memory for speci c events or episodes in our life 0 Semantic memory our ability to store and retrieve facts such as categories and types of events 0 Content permits us to make inferences about properties of concepts information in it isn t tied directly to information about the source of knowledge Procedural memory Knowing how 0 Procedures of how to do things 0 Examples how to drive a car how to speak English how to play a sport 0 Learned relatively slowly requires skill amp practice 0 Not exible used in speci c ways 0 Dif cult to express let me show you Explicit Memory memory of an event om a certain time and place Implicit Memory memory of which some previous experience affects performance without being associated with any direct recollection of the experience 0 Differ in whether there s a direct recollection or conscious experience associated with the memory Warmups are help il for improving memory because of levels of processing spaced practice and it activates prior knowledge schemas helping with encoding and retrieval Amnesia severe memory impairment 0 Retrograde have trouble remembering information before brain damage 0 At some point in life there s an accident memories before accident are lost but can encode new memories after the accident normally 0 Anterograde have trouble forming new memories after brain damage 0 Our old memories are intact before the accident but after the accident we can t encode new memories Infantile childhood inability of adults to retrieve episodic memories before the age of 2 4 years as well as the period before age 10 of which adults retain fewer memories than might otherwise be expected given the passage of time 0 Can be caused by alcoholism car accidents etc Retrograde Amnesia 0 Can form new memories but lose memories from before brain damage 0 Characterization 0 Most likely to recover oldest memories 0 Most likely to lose ones nearer trauma 0 Does not affect procedural memory or social skills 0 Temporal gradient memory loss is gradual forgetting curve older memories are better preserved than newer ones across a variety of causes of the amnesia and measures of memory de cits 0 Why might they show this 0 Forgetting o Encoding Autobiographical Anterograde Amnesia 0 Can remember memories from before brain damage but can t form new declarative memories Characterization famous case subject HM performance on mirror drawing 0 Shortterm memory is ne 0 Doesn t affect procedural memory can even learn some new skills 0 Couldn t learn new people 0 Disassociation between explicit and implicit memory 0 Sparing of some implicit Equate study and test 0 See difference in explicit cued recall vs implicit word stem completion 0 Shown mar and ll in with word on list or rst word that comes to mind 0 Explicitly knowing and getting the cue vs people having no conscious awareness 0 Suggest anterograde amnesia people are able to implicitly learn some new declarative information Amnesia Clip 0 Accident then medical complications seizures coma 0 Good retention of old memories 0 Poor learning of new though some good at learning through doing Amnesia and Memory 0 Rich source of data constraints 0 Supports procedural declarative distinction 0 Suggest distinction between processes that help to form a memory and the representations formed Application Memory and Acting Verbatim Memory for Actors 0 Memory near perfect for many even 20 months later 0 Some examined 28 years later memory obviously worse but still pretty good for recognition of detailed verbatim parts 0 Issues how do actors learn their lines How do instructions on how to learn their lines in uence gist vs verbatim memory Claims of actors read script many times don t try to remember wording until after blocking work on actions and intentions words come as byproduct Usual ndings people remember gist meaning gist instructions help more than rote 10 Experiment Noice 1993 0 Actors and undergrads 0 Learn script for 20 minutes 0 Test given other character s lines recall surprise test 1 week later Results Noice 1993 0 Gist is better than rotememorization 0 No delay 37 vs 10 0 Delay 23 vs 6 0 What does this mean People are trying to remember the underlying meaning not just strictly the words Memory Summary General characterization Processes and structure 0 Processes encoding storage retrieval 0 Structure models for memory traditional Duration and capacity of STM Chunking 0 Working memory Phonological loop Visuospatial sketchpad Central executive LTM encoding and retrieval 0 Encoding Processes Levels of processing intention to learn 0 Elaboration builds a coherent representation selfreference Encodingretrieval interactions 0 Processing View levels revisited picture superiority effect 0 Context effects environment related phenomena state dependent learning mood 0 Effects of prior knowledge 0 Schemas Types of memory declarative and procedural Amnesia retrograde anterograde Application acting and memory meaning is important for verbatim memory 11 Imagery 3215 941 PM Imagery the mental representation of a nonpresent object or event 0 Ammonia re engine 0 Can have many different types of sensory images can generate an image of the smell 0 Used in many ways examples 0 Accomplishing tasks creativity visualization therapies desensitization practice physical skills sports surgery 0 Dif cult to study by introspection What is an image like Mental rotation most people report the subjective impression of having rotated the image in their minds until it was upright Rotating through intermediate positions takes time 0 Propositional verbal descriptions represents some object in the world with a set of labels verbal descriptors propositions 0 Analog captures structural relationships of the image depending on which modality you re dealing with 0 Mental rotation is strong evidence of this Scanning maps subjects had to memorize map of an island 0 During test had to image the island 0 Given starting location target location and to press button when they ve located target 0 Even though the decision is mentally going there people take a little bit longer to get to a farther location 0 Strong evidence you encode spatial information into your images Mental psychophysics the bigger the difference the faster at differentiating between 2 images 0 Line length animal size 0 Analogous representation Imagery requires commitment 0 Small details are more likely to be seen when closer to an object 0 A is next to B make an image in nite alternate images 0 When you image something you have to commit the various properties of that image Relation to visual perception 0 When people image an object they activate the same brain regions they do when they see an object 0 Patients who lose color vision cannot image in color suggests strong neural link between these processes 0 Spatial neglect same kind of detriment in their images But imagery is not the same as seeing Reversals being able to reverse information 0 Dif culty hard to go back and forth between reversed objects 0 Generative can generate lots of additions to imagery rare with perception hallucinations Incompleteness images are incomplete certain features missing Reality Monitoring 0 Need to keep track of what is real and what is imagined 0 Reality Monitoring Paradigm o On each trial present item book or tell people to imagine it 0 At end ask how many times they really saw a book Two results 0 Imagining leads to increased judgments 12 0 Individual differences What is imagery good for speculations 0 Preparing us for motor actions 0 Mental simulations 0 Effects on physical skills 0 Incidental properties can generate images to help us answer questions in the world Incidental Properties 0 Won t always know what information will be needed later 0 If noteworthy make explicitverbal and store 0 If not can call up later and inspect image to generate an inference 0 Prediction faster to verify explicit properties by nonimage and nonexplicit properties by image 0 What is an image like 0 Size rotation scanning psychophysics 0 Relation to Visual Perception 0 But reversals dif culty generative and incomplete 0 Reality monitoring 0 What is imagery good for 13 14 3215 941 PM
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