Study Guide for test 2
Study Guide for test 2 Bio106
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Hummel on Monday March 2, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio106 at Washington State University taught by Dr Asaph Cousins in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 465 views. For similar materials see Biology 106 in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/02/15
Biology Notes Lectures 14 and 15 Photosynthesis consists of the light reactions photo partand CalvinBenson Cyle teh synthesis part What are the 3 steps of Calvin Benson cycle carbon fixation Reduction Regeneration of COZ acceptor RuBP A This is a Cycle constantly renewing itself Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixations that further limit the availability of carbon dioxide in plants Dehydration is a problem for plants What happens On hot dry daysto the plant close stomata which conserves H20 but also limits photosynthesis This increases the potential of oxygen uptake and lowers carbon dioxide intake These conditions above favor what Photorespiration C3 plants 3 carbon compound plants initial fixation of COZ via Rubisco forms three carbon compundsquot Rubisco also reacts with 02 instead of COZ photorespiration Photorespiration Consumes 02 and energy reeases without producing ATP or sugar What are Alternative Mechanisms for C02 fixation Minimize photorespiration by concentrating COZ Examples of C4 plants Corn Sugar Cane Use compartmentalization to pump 002 Example of Crassulacean acid metabolism CAM also tell me what it is Ex Pineapple They Open their stomata at night incorporating COZ into organic acids Stomata close during the day and COZ is released from organic acids and used in the Calvin cycle PLANT NUTRITION SoiA living finite resource limited resource minerals water with solutes Gases Living organisms Organic matter living or dying Ex Sand silt clay Top Soil Combo of organic and inorganic material Mineral particles living organisms and humus the decaying organic material Loams equal parts sand silt and clay Anions negatively charged ions in soil nitrate phosphate and sulfate Not bound tightly to negatively charged and release easy But also leach out into ground water Cations Magnesium Potassium and calcium Bound tightly to negatively charged soil Clicker question Most of the water taken up by a plant is used as a solvent Used as a hydrogen source in photosynthesis lost during transpiration Converted to COZ Used to keep cells turgid W999 Transpiration is the movement of water from the rot system absorbed by th soill around the rot system moved with the xylem cells vascualr system root to stems then our though the leaves Fertililizers Enriched in nitrogen phosphorous and potassium Nitrogen synthesized with large fossil fuel energy input Memorize essential elements just in case on test table 37 1 Fsum ol Elements in Plants Poem Avdab o Mass in Element lo Hm Dry lissue Mm fundmns Nationmam Cutor CO 339 H110 amp3mm J plum 015mb mpounds Oxygen 1 X My ccmponem ci phm mrymc czmpounds Hydmgm H30 lt95 H110quot ccmpocm 4 plan rpri a rapen41 Nuogen NO NM 25 Gayarm of Luzldc ands pmmns hclmzou chixv phy J cmyna Pouuium 399 10 Ants on luncnom m pmuin synthesis tap arhtr mmonin r mm balance ogmtion o Mama39s Calcium Co 051 lnpzron in form sm no 0th lt4 cc wall md in munemnce l mesh wwmte btd emeohiuy 3041 as 111141 arguing any Mtgmm 0 cell 2 and Magnesium Mg 0 quotb anymemoichlcmphy ll31755 many enzymes I39hcsphzw JO 39 NP39Oz 39 01 lacy3mm of nucleic wads phugtp1 lidgtAI5 ml cocame Sulfa SOz 01 Galamt a gmmm czcmymm Nmnum um Quintin Cl 002 395 Requked he mmxiimng any u phowawthoim funnyam 439 rue 39mhnce lmn Fvquot Fquot 0 O b Crayarm o gmrhramn rtivam mmo mgr Mmpnae Mr quot 0033 Acme In hmu on of nah beds warns same was reququ for mmspling slep cf rhotmylthnb Rotor B1330 OJODJ Co achzt in chlxoph nd033 nay Ec invalvod in cutzhyinr mn 9231 mi mulet bud syntheu n k m to mll martian but In 003 A iw in omul39mn 01 chic mphyl 9119 cmr new Coppc Cu39 Cuquot lt 0032 Component 0 many cdzot mJ twinbizaymhc cyan Nth Nib 7 0033 Cc ucur h an am handmm it 3305quot monk4 mt McIyidenum M20quot 391 003021 Essenml 5 symbb 0c MIN23115 with nwogeninng bumuumfubx 39Ju39 unbum m mew oJuciJ What are symptoms of mineral deficiency Deficiency of a mobile nutrient Usuay affects older organs more than younger onesthe nutrients is getting pulled out of the older tissue and utilized by the younger tissue Deficiency of less mobile nutrient Usually affects younger organs more than older ones cause older ones have already acquired the minimal nutrients and it is not transferable Know what each deficiency looks like Common Deficiencies are nitrogen potassium and phosphorus First one healthy secondPhosphate de cient third Potassium de cient fourth Nitrogen de cient Plant Nutrition often involves relationships with other organisms What are they 0 Symbiotic nitrogen xation Rhizobacteria Mycorrhizae What is the role of bacteria in symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation 0 Provide some plant species With a built in source of xed nitrogen 0 From and agricultural standpoint symbiotic plants and nitrogen xing bacteria occur in the legume family peas beans and other similar plants Have nutritional adaptions that use other organisms in nonmutualistic ways 0 Epiphytes Ex staghorn fern Parasites Ex Mistletoe dodder indian pipe 0 carnivorous plants Ex venus y trap CLICKER QUESTION Most of the organic material of a lang come from AWater B Carbon Dioxide C Soil Minerals D Atmospheric oxygen E Nitrogen Think pair share Describe the relationship between rhizobacteria and their host plant the host plant will receive more nitrogen thanks to the bacteria the rhizobacteria receives sugars and nutrients from the plant Signal transduction pathways link signal reception to response After receiving stimulation a receptor initiates a series of biochemical steps Couples the reception of stimulas to a response KNOW THIS 0RDERReception transduction and response What is Transcriptional regulation Transcription factors control transcription expression of genes What is Post translational modification involves activation of existing protein in the signal response Plant hormones help what coordinate growth development and responses to stimuli Hormones are chemical signals that coordinate different parts of an organism tropisms are often caused by hormones Examples listed below Gibberellins Stem elongation Fruit Growth Germination The single transduction pathway occurs in which order Reception transduction response been asked several times Tell me about how plants respond to attacks by herbivores and pathogens Pants are base of the food chain Attacked by wide range of planteating herbivores animals Aso susceptible to infection by viruses Some plants recruit predatory animals to stop herbivores Ex Parasitoid wasps lay their eggs within caterpillars and they start to digest the caterpillar from the inside out Defense mechanisms against Pathogens are First line of defense physical Barrier Second line of defense attacks pathogen and prevents it from spreading degrading of proteins and genetic information to minimize pathogen reproduction and access to nutrients Clicker Question Plants often use changes in day lengthphotoperiiod to trigger events such as dormancy and flowering It is logical that plants have evolved this mechanism because photoperiod changes are more predictable than air temperature changes alter the amount of nutrients available to the plant are modified by soil temperature changes are correlated with moisture availability powgt FUNGI Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by absorption Heterotrophs and absorb nutrients from outside of their body Use enzymes to break complex molecules Ecological Success Decomposers Parasites mutualists Early colonizers of land probably as symbionts with plants Tell me about Hyphal Structure Most are multicellular Ces divided by septa Cd NLlthC Col 03 x 393 39 N 39M 39 1 39 3 Scamn 39 O quot moo u out mm alt u 39039 Some have no cross wallCoenocytic Explain the Body Structure of multicellular fungi enhances ability to absorb nutrients Chitin Think pair share Provide a example of an analogous feature between plants and fungi roots stems Fungi Produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles Fungi propagate themselves by producing vast numbers of spores either sexually or asexually When a mycelium infiltrates an unexploited source of organic matter what is most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter A Fungal fruiting body Spornia fungal enzymes Increased oxygen levels WPPF Larger bacterial populations Fungal Phylum Distinguishing Features of Morphology and Life Cycles Chytridiomycota chytridsFageated spores Zygomycota zygote fungi Resistant zygosporangium as sexual stage Glomeromycota arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Arbuscuar mycorrhizae formed with plants Ascomycota ascomycetes or sac fungi Sexua spores ascospores borne internally in sacs called asci vast numbers of asexual spores conidia produced Basidiomycota basidiomycetes or club fungi Distinguishing Features of Morphology and Life Cycles Eaborate fruiting body basidiocarp containing many basidia that produce sexual spores basidiospores Mycorrhizae mutually benefits relationships between fungi and plant roots Mycorrihizae fungus roots deliver minerals and receives organic nutrients Define Ectomycorrhizal fungiGrow in extracellular space of roots Endomycorrhizal Fungi Hyphae go through cell wall to plasma membrane Give a background on Ascomycetes Live in marin freshwater and terrestrial habitats Produce scalelike asci contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps commonly called sac fungi Think pair share What are some potential implications if there were no decomposers If there were no decomposers there would be piles of organic material building up It would be like a garbage man not coming 3 big things to know about Basidiomycetes nclude mushrooms puffballs and shelf fungi mycorrhizae and plant parasites The basidiomycetes are also called fungi Many are decomposers of wood Fungi plant key roles in nutrient cycling ecological interactions and human welfare DecomposersEssential recycling between the living and nonliving Tungusplant symbiosis What does Mycorrhizae increase plant productivity Tungusanimal symbiosis helping break down plant material Lichens Symbiotic association of photosynthetic microorganisms held in fungal hyphae The fungal component is the most often an ascomycete Algae or cyanobacteria occupy an inner layer below the lichen surface in both lichens and mycorrhizae what does the fungal partner provide to its photosynthetic partner ACarbohydates BFixed nitrogen Cantibiotics Dwater and minerals Eprotection from harmful UV Pathogens About 30 of known fungal species are parasites mostly on or in plants List 3 Practical Uses of Fungi Make cheeses alcoholic drinks and bread Genetic research on fungi is leading to applications in biotechnology Antibiotics produced by fungi treat bacterial infections Chapter 29 Plant diversity I How plants colonized land Chlorophytes include Unicellular colonial multicellular forms Morphological and biochemical evidence Five key traits Similarities in cell wall synthesis photorespiratory enzymes structure of sperm similarities during cell division homologous chloroplast BIO NOTES March 2 NAME Five key traits appear in nearly all land plants but are absent in the Charophyceans Apica meristems Aternation of generations Walled spores produced in sporangia muticeuar gametangia muticeuar dependant embryos Define Cuticle waxy layer over leaves for protection and minimizes water loss Based on the presence or absence of vascular tissue Define Vascular tissue cells joined in tubes to transport water and nutrients Define Byrophytes and give examples non vascular plants Example Liverworts Hornworts and Mosses What types of Vascular plants are there Seedless vascular plants Seed vascular plants Clicker Question Evidence indicates tthat plants increase the number of stomata in their leaves as atmospheric COZ levels decline Increasing the number of stomata per unit surface area should have the effect of doing which of the following 1 increasing dehydration of leaf tissue 2 Decreasing dehydration of leaf tissue 3 countering the effect of declining COZ on photosynthesis 4 reinforcing the effort of decline COZ on photosynthesis A1 and 3 B 1 and 2 C1 and 4 D2 and 3 E2 and 4 Life Cycles with dominant Sporophytes sporophytes are seedless vascular plants are the larger generation Gametophytes are tiny Think pair share Why would the vascular system be so important for land plants so they can get water and nutrients What are the purposes of roots are organs that anchor vascular plants absorb water and nutrients from the soil What are Sporophylls modified leaves with sporangia look at lecture 18 last slide What is the Evolution of seed plants Seed plants originated about 360 million years ago A seed consists of an embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat Seeds changed the course of plant evolution enabling their bearers to become the dominant producers in most terrestrial ecosystems Dominant producers in most terrestrial ecosystems are gymnosperms and angiosperms Seeds and pollen grains are additions for life on land reduction in gametophytes heterospory microspores and megaspores Ovules and pollen Megasporangia megaspores give rise to female gametophytes Microsporangiamicrospores give rise to male gametophytes
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