Test #4 Study Guide
Test #4 Study Guide 11781 - GPY 235 - 02
Popular in World Regional Geography
Popular in Geography
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Klawr13 on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 11781 - GPY 235 - 02 at Grand Valley State University taught by Michael Gutowsky in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see World Regional Geography in Geography at Grand Valley State University.
Reviews for Test #4 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/24/16
Regional geography Winter 2016 semester Mr. Gutowsky Test #4 study guide Archipelago Group of islands Caribbean: Bahamas (north) Trinidad and Tobago (one island, south) Trade winds Wind blowing from the tropics to the equator (20 degrees 0) Brings rain to the Caribbean and east coasts of Central America and Brazil Hurricanes Westerlies Heavy rains to southern Chile Altiplano Flatter, cooler, wetter environment El Nino Periodic warming of sea surface temperatures in tropical Pacific droughts and floods La Nina Periodic abnormal cooling in tropical Pacific more intense Pacific hurricanes Coral reefs Coral organisms build colonies in the warm and shallow waters and encourage other marine life Hurricane Mitch Honduras 1998 Extractive reserves Protected areas for responsible use Green Revolution Higher yielding seeds, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Circle of poison Intense irrigation, water depletion, salinization “cide” = killing of something Between Europe and Amazon Ecotourism Keeping natural landscape Bring in tourism to generate income Contract farming Contract with multinational corporations Negotiations that binds time to growing crop to only a certain amount In exchange for a certain price for that commodity Ex Dole, Chiquita (bananas) Megacities Very large city, typically over 10 million Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janiero Barrios doityourself homes ranging from cardboard or plastic shanties to wood or brick structures with aluminum or tile roofs Favelas informal settlements that grow up around urban cores, lack of good housing, and services Urban primacy large gap between largest cities and those that come after Urban bias tendency of governments and others to concentrate investment and attention in urban rather than rural areas Altitudinal zonation Vertical classification of environmental and land use according to elevation based mainly on changes in climate and vegetation. Tierra caliente, tierra templada, tierra fria Bracero Guest worker from Mexico given a permit to work farm labor in U.S. Informal economy economic activity beyond official record not subject to formal regulation Remittances money sent back to family/home country Latin America and the Caribbean 1. Be able to describe the extent of Latin America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. Latin: 30 countries, Mexico Chile, Argentina Central: Belize, Guatemala Panama South: Colombia Chile, Argentina Caribbean: Bahamas Trinidad and Tobago 2. Which of the above is Mexico considered a part of? Latin America 3. Describe the differences in land use and general conditions of the 4 altitudinal zones. What effect is global warming having on these zones? Tierra caliente: warm (0 – 3000 feet) o Lowest zone o Sugar, bananas; rainforest Tierra templada: moderate (temperate, 3000 – 6000 feet) o Higher zone, less forest more grasses for herding o Coffee, cattle Tierra fria: cold (6000 – 12,000 feet) o Soil is dry, less moist o Potatoes, barley; grasslands Tierra helada: icy (12,000 feet and higher) o Highest zone o Soil is very rocky, little grown here Global warming is shifting these zones higher 4. What are the overall effects of climate change in this region? El Nino: waters in eastern pacific become warmer Glaciers melting o Communities rely on runoff to sustain water sources in warmer months Irrigation, drink water, hydroelectric power Higher levels of CO2, droughts, deforestation o Drying the Amazon reducing ability to store carbon 5. What Central American country suffered the most from the impact of Hurricane Mitch in 1998? Honduras (poor to begin with, still recovering) ~4 feet of rain in 2 days 70% infrastructure destroyed ~10,000 dead, ~20,000 missing >2.5 million need emergency aid 6. Name and describe the location of the world’s largest river basin. Amazon River Basin (watershed) 40% South America o Roughly 48 US states Water tributaries drain into Amazon o Flow from west and empty into Atlantic Ocean 7. What attributes make this basin so unique and so important to protect? Transports 20% worlds fresh water >100,000 species 8. What is being done to reduce deforestation and keep a strong biodiversity in this basin? Less tax breaks given to developers, ranchers More monitoring and control of deforestation Establishment of parks and reserves (Jaro National Park) 9. Describe 2 practical alternatives to reduce deforestation and maintain biodiversity. Discuss the downsides to these approaches. Green Revolution o Circle of poison Ecotourism o Too many tourists, too greedy o Trampling, littering, environment suffers 10. Name two other major river basins in South America? Where are these river basins located? Plata Basin: Andes Mountains, Brazilian Highlands o Parana, Paraguay, Uruguay Rivers Orinoco Basin: Colombia, Venezuela o Feeds grasslands (llanos) o Cerrados (Brazil), Pampas (Argentina) 11. What major body of water does all three of the above river basins flow into? Atlantic Ocean 12. Name 2 large freshwater lakes in this region, one in Central America and one in South America. Lake Nicaragua, Lake Titicaca (Peru, Bolivia) 13. Name and locate 2 breathtaking waterfalls in South America. Iguaca Falls (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay) Angel Falls (Venezuela) o Tallest waterfall in the world (>3000 ft) 14. Be match to match the country with the single product it is overlydependent upon. Venezuela: 90% of their exports from oil Chile: ~ ½ of their exports from copper Panama, Ecuador: bananas 15. Give a reason why Brazil’s economy is so strong. Its economy is diversified o producing cars, planes, TVs, appliances, oil, minerals, and much more 16. Compare the Latin American economy with the economies of the other world regions we have studied thus far. 3.2 trillion, 5% of world total o 1/5 of American GNP 17. What problem do the U.S. and Latin American economies share? Large amounts of debt Latin America: > $825 billion 18. Be able to describe the ways in which the people of Latin America make a living. Contract farming Fishing: Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Costa Rica Mining Informal economies 19. Which countries in Latin America are the poorest, making less than $1/day? El Salvador ,Venezuela, Honduras 30% make less than $2 20. In which countries is there the most acute inequality between rich and poor? Colombia and Haiti 21. In which major social indicators does Latin America compare very favorably with the developing world? Which Latin American country has the best results from these indices? Literacy 91% compared to world 81% Life Expectancy ~73 years o Best: Costa Rica 79 years, 96% literacy o Worst: Haiti 60 years, 61% 22. How does the overall Latin American population compare with that of the U.S.? Latin America: 570 million U.S. 322 million 23. What is the most populous country in Latin America? Brazil 196 million 24. What is the population of Central America like? What effect will its population likely have on its supplies and infrastructure? ~570 million o Highlands, Andes Mts, coastlines 3x by 2050 o Greater stress, not able to support 25. Describe the topography and general climate of Mexico City and how this setup adversely affects the health of its residents. Surrounded by high mountains, sits in a bowl shape Houses/barrios on hillsides, bottom of valleys, dry lake beds o earthquakes, mudslides, dust storms Air pollution: CO2 trapped by warm air above 26. Describe the general living conditions that exist for the residents of the people who reside in megacities such as Mexico City, Sao Paulo, and Rio de Janiero. Mexico City o 18 million people o ½ housing= barrios o Cold air drainage: CO2 trapped by warm air above cool air (temperature inversion) Sao Paulo o 18 million o Large telecommunications, IT sector, international banks Rio o 6 million people o Favelas basic services scarce o Overcrowded, poverty, crime 27. What countries suffer the most from urban primacy and the urban bias of national governments that spawns from it? Chile: Santiago = 34% 28. What is the dominant language in Latin America? What is the dominant language in the most populous country in Latin America? Spanish Brazil Portuguese 29. What nation in this region has the greatest percentage of African descendants? Haiti 90% Brazil 50% 30. What countries show the greatest influx of European descendants? Argentina, Uruguay, Costa Rica Know: Mestizo: a mix of European and American Indian ancestry Mulattos: (Spanish and African ancestry) Zambo: (African and Indian ancestry) 31. How have the attempts of the U.S. government to stymie drug production in Latin America been minimized? Too hard to contain, technology and strategies to grow drugs and transport is advanced 32. Describe the general trend in the government ideology of Latin American countries in recent decades. Explain how well this trend has established itself. Backlash from authoritarian and repressive gov. Democracy shaky footing U.S. and Canada: Lakeeffect precipitation When cold air, continental polar, moves over a large warmer body of water (Great Lakes) Superfund sites Locations deemed by the gov. as extremely polluted Requires extensive, supervised and subsidized clean up Dry farming Arable farming techniques that allow cultivation of crops without irrigation Wheat and barley Santa Ana winds Warm, dry wind Louisiana Purchase It comprises 23% of the U.S. and encompasses all or part of 14 U.S. states. Thomas Jefferson made the deal with Napoleon Bonaparte for $15 million. Staples economy Based on natural resources that are unprocessed, or minimally processed Exported to other areas, manufactured into end products Hate crimes Acts of violence committed because of prejudice against women, ethnic, racial, religious, homosexual Jim Crow laws Segregation and discrimination legalized against blacks in the South Assimilation People of different cultural backgrounds who occupy common territory achieve cultural solidarity Multiculturalism Where all ethnic groups have the right to continue practicing their own culture. ‘Main Street’ Dominant corridor in Canada Quebec Windsor, Ontario Megalopolis Continuous chain of metropolitan development Ex. Boston D.C. Capandtrade programs Cap: government imposed limit of Carbon emissions, permits and quotas are given/sold to states Trade: unused permits sold by states who reduced emissions beyond the quota to those who didn’t Internal migration Movement of populations within a national territory Suburbanization The growth of population along the fringes of large metro areas U.S. and Canada 1. Describe the general precipitation pattern across the U.S. Eastward, moving west to east Exception: o Lots of rain west of Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mts. 2. What is the body of water that is the source of moisture for Muskegon and areas east of the Rocky Mountains? Gulf of Mexico 3. What air masses collide for lakeeffect precipitation/snow to occur in Muskegon and areas around the Great Lakes? Cold dry continental polar (cP) air masses move over warmer bodies of water 4. Describe how the U.S. got so rich over time in comparison with other world regions we’ve studied. Abundance of resources o Minerals, forests, fisheries, fertile soils, wildlife, beauty Developed technology to use resources (ex. Coal) Improvement in machinery to grow more crops 5. What do the locations of older industries in the Midwest have in common? All located adjacent to waterways 6. What types of employment is the U.S. economy concentrated in? Trade (wholesale and retail) and Manufacturing 7. Be able to discuss the downside of excessive materialism and consumption of U.S. citizens. Air and water pollution o Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) from increasing fossil fuel consumption o Acid rain Soil contamination on the edges of major urban areas Physical evidence of global climate change: warming o Melting of glaciers in the Arctic and mountain regions Glacier National Park in Montana/Alberta, Canada o Northward and upward shift of flora and fauna Extinct and endangered species o U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service declared the Eastern Cougar extinct (2011) More insect and animal genetic mutations Growing interest in ‘green’ technology goods and services Hybrid cars, architecture, furniture, clothing, etc. o Canada gave tax breaks to purchasers of hybrid electric cars 8. Are carbon dioxide and methane concentrations in the lower atmosphere increasing or decreasing with time? Increasing 9. Discuss the difficulty and expense of the cleanup of Superfund sites contaminated with chemicals. 10. Name and describe the major physical regions of North America. Canadian Shield o Old rocks and minerals Interior lowlands o Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Missouri Appalachians o Mts Maine Georgia Atlantic Coast, Gulf o Virginia, N. Carolina, S. Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi o Sandy soils, intense agriculture in Mississippi valley Great Plains o N. Dakota, S. Dakota, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Kansas 11. Discuss general agricultural conditions across the U.S. Easter half: good, fertile Pacific Coast valleys: o Wine valley: San Fran Sacramento o CA: ½ fruits, veggies, nuts o Washington: apples Interior lowlands and Great Plains o Dry farming: wheat, barley, oats GulfAtlantic o Sandy, rocky, infertile Lower Mississippi fertile 12. What was the important result of the Mississippi and Missouri River system? Most extensive and navigable river system Allowed for interior of U.S. to develop 13. Name and describe the regions within the western U.S. between the Pacific Coast Mountains and the Rockies. Intermountain regions o Colombia Plateau: Washington, Oregon, Idaho o Great Basin: Nevada, Utah o Great Salt Lake in Utah o Colorado Plateau: Colorado, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico o Deserts of the Southwest Mojave (southeastern California), Sonoran (Phoenix, Tucson), and Chihuahuan (southern Arizona and New Mexico) 14. What natural risks are the residents of the West Coast of the U.S. susceptible to? Earthquakes and mudslides 15. What makes Canada’s huge oil reserves less enticing than Saudi Arabia’s? Oil is deep in sand shale, hard to extract 16. Where are most of the oil reserves of the U.S.? Gulf of Mexico, California, Louisiana, Texas, Alaska 17. What country has the most coal reserves? How does this answer affect U.S. energy policy? U.S. has most coal reserves U.S. highest energy consuming nation 18. Where in North America are their pronounced signs of French influence? Spanish influence? What country has had the greatest influence on North American cities and culture? How? French: Upstate NY, Vermont, New Orleans, southern Louisiana Spanish: SW U.S. and Florida Greatest influence: British o Connected resources, goods and people o Cities on east coast interior US back over to Europe 19. What percentage of the U.S. consists of the land acquired by the Louisiana Purchase of the year 1803? 23% 20. From what economic sector did Canada achieve most of its growth until recent times? Primary sector: o Agriculture, fishing, mining, forestry 21. What country is Canada’s major trading partner and what commodities does that country import? U.S. – ½ Canada’s imports Oil, natural gas 22. What percentage of the world’s GNP does the U.S. and Canada together produce? ¼ or 25% 23. What can we say about the comparison of wealth between the richest 1% of Americans and the bottom 90%? Richest 1% more wealthy than entire bottom 90% 24. Is the income gap between richer and poorer Americans increasing or decreasing? Income is increasing Middle class is diminishing 25. Where do the U.S. and Canada rank in the percentage of its children living in poverty relative to other developed nations? st nd U.S. is ranked 1 and Canada 2 U.S. 40% children 26. Where do about ¾ of the Canadian population live? Within 1 ½ hour drive of US border 27. What is the origin of most of the Canadian populous? 1/3 – British ¼ French 28. What is the U.S. population? Canada: 35 million 322.3 million 29. Be able to describe the percentages of the white, Hispanic, and black American populations. White 2/3 or 67% Hispanic 14% African Americans 13.2% 30. Describe the 3 waves of immigration to the U.S. st 1 Irish and German 2 southern and eastern Europe st o Backlash from 1 wave, antiCatholicism o Blamed for economic depression 3 Latin America and Asia 31. Describe the 3 waves of immigration inside the U.S. (internal U.S. immigration). st 1 east coast west coast o 1800’s 1900’s manifest destiny 2 African Americans o Rural south Midwest and CA o Jim Crow Laws set o Black communities Chicago, NY rd 3 post WW2 1990’s o Sun belt doubled o Rust Belt only 1/3 o Land and labor cost cheaper 32. Describe the different U.S. and Canadian government policies and attitudes toward immigrants. U.S. assimilation o Welcome as long as assume our language and culture Canada multiculturalism o Ethnic groups can practice their own culture 33. What are the two official languages in Canada? Does the U.S. have an official language? Canada: English and French English is unofficial 34. Describe Megalopolis and Main Street in North America. Megalopolis: Boston Washington D.C. o Traditional eastern big cities, concrete jungle o NY city, Philly, Baltimore Main Street: Detroit Quebec City, Canada o Windsor, Toronto, Hamilton, Ottawa, Montreal, Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee 35. Be able to associate certain products/services with where in America they are made/conducted. Minneapolis, MN – grain Milwaukee, St. Louis – beer Seattle, WA – defense Grand Rapids – furniture Battle Creek – cereal Side notes: Intermountain west Montana, Wyoming, Colorado (rocky mountains), New Mexico Native American Coding WW2 Vietnamese couldn’t decode language
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'