Exam 1 CH 1-4 Notes/Vocab
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Chapter 1 Introducing Social Psychology Definition of Social Psychology 0 The scientific study of the way in which people39s thoughts feelings and behaviors are in uenced by the real or imagined presence of other people What do we mean by quotSocial Influencequot Behaviorism o The objective situation 0 or in uences behavior life is a series of and events that teach us how to behave o Rewards reinforce the desire to continue behavior 0 Punishments weaken the desire to continue behavior Gestalt Psychology subjective manner 0 An approach to perception based on a philosophy that argues in order to understand perception one needs to understand all of the in uences on the perceiver conj ointly o Emphasis on the subjective way in which an object appears in people s minds An Example of Gestalt Psych Illusions 0 The mind is actively involved in interpreting perceptual input rather than passively recording it Illusion of old womanyoung woman cuptwo faces Social Psychology 0 How do people interpret a social situation Construal the way a person perceives comprehends amp interprets a social situation 0 Jane s boss has not responded to her e mail for a week How will Jane respond It depends on how Jane construes the situation 0 quotMy boss must be angry with me or dissatisfied with my workquot 0 quotMy boss must trust me to make the decision on my ownquot 0 quotMy boss has been extremely busyquot 0 quotMy boss is a jerkquot The Fundamental Attribution Error 0 The tendency to overestimate the extent to which people s behavior is due to internal dispositional factors and underestimate the role of situational factors 2 Basic Human Motives 0 First The Self Esteem Approach 0 O O The Desire to Feel Good About Ourselves Most people have a strong need to maintain reasonably high self esteem People will often distort the world in order to feel good about themselves instead of representing the world accurately J ustifying Past Behavior The motive to feel good about ourselves can lead people to distort memories of the past in order to preserve their self esteem Acknowledging major deficiencies in ourselves is very difficult even when the cost is seeing the world inaccurately Normal people can put a slightly different spin on the existing facts one that puts us in the best possible light Suffering amp Self Justification Voluntarily undergoing a painful or embarrassing event hazing may result in justifying the behavior by in ating the rewards associated with the event my fraternity is the greatest thing ever The more unpleasant the procedure the participants underwent to get into a group the better they liked the group For example they might prefer people and things for whom they have suffered to people and things they associate with ease and pleasure Second The Social Cognition Approach accurate understanding of the world 0 0000 The Need to be Accurate People try to understand and predict their social world Expectation can Interfere Revisit the quotJane Examplequot Self fulfilling Prophesy How we construe social in uence is more important than actual social in uence Self Esteem Maintenance 0 The Desire to Feel Good About Ourselves Social Cognition Approach 0 The Desire to Be Accurate About the Social World 0 Both Motives Can Apply Simultaneously What makes social psychology unique 0 Focus on how individuals are in uenced by their CONSTRUAL of social situations Construals are determined by basic motives o Self Esteem Maintenance feel good about self 0 Social Cognition need to be accurate Social Psychology Compared to Related Disciplines table on page 7 Sociology Social Psychology Personality Psychology Provides general laws and Studies the psychological Studies the Characteristics that theories about societies not processes people have in make individuals unique and individuals common with one another that different from one another make them susceptible to social in uence Major Assumption of Social Psychology 0 Questions about social in uence can be studied scientifically Example 0 Does watching violent television increase aggressive behavior Chapter 2 Methodology Why do we need to talk about Methodology 0 As with any academic discipline the purpose of conducting research is to gain knowledge 0 How do we gain that knowledge 0 How do we share that knowledge 0 What do we do with that knowledge 0 The key is consistency How Social Psychologists Do Research 0 Methodology 0 Ideas can be tested scientifically Figuring Out The Question 0 Questions about social in uence can be studied scientifically Example 0 Does watching violent television increase aggressive behavior 0 How do we get to the question Hypothesis Generation 0 Social Psychology as with all academic disciplines is cumulative 1 We quotcannibalizequot previous theories and research 2 Social Psychologists use their personal experiences to generate ideas 3 Types of Experimental Methods Observational Method 0 Question answered description 0 Post victory pride is greater than post loss Correlational Method 0 Question Answered prediction 0 Sat scores show likelihood of success in college 0 Experimental Method 0 Question Answered causality Observational Method Ethnography o Researcher observes a group from within o Tries not to in uence the behavior of the group 0 Trained Observers o Unobtrusively watch subjects quotfrom outsidequot 0 Use a coding scheme to record behavior Archival Analysis 0 Examine accumulated documents of a culture The and of The Observational Method 0 Pluses o Often the easiest and cheapest way to gather information just sit there watch and record 0 Minuses 0 Some behaviors are hard to observe o The observer can t always be unobtrusive 0 Consistency in coding is hard to get The Correlational Method Systematically measuring the relationship between two or more variables some kind of scale Surveys 0 Ask people about their attitudes or behaviors Correlate Observations 0 Observe behaviors and see how they relate to other variables What s a Correlation Correlation Coefficient ranges from 1 to 1 0 Positive correlation indicates that as one variable of interest increases the other increases higher SAT scores higher GPA r30 Negative correlation indicates that as one variable of interest increases the other decreases higher drug use lower GPA r 12 Very small or or zero correlation indicates that the two variables have no predictable relationship 0 Strength comes from absolute value 0 Example 0 Suppose correlation between watching violent TV and aggression is 034 o What does that mean CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION 0 Even if variables A and B are perfectly correlated we cannot determine their causal relationship 0 Three possibilities o A causes B o B causes A 0 Third variable C is causing both A and B Examples 0 Television and aggressiveness 0 Exercise and heart disease 0 Self esteem and drug abuse 0 News report college students who had sex at least once a week were less likely to get colds The Experimental Method Often thought of as the prototypical quotLab Experimentquot 0 Question answered 0 Causality o Experimenter alters one variable to see what affect it has on another 0 One variable is quotmanipulatedquot to see how an observed variable is changed Independent Variable IV What the researcher manipulates changes Dependent Variable DV What the researcher measures to see if the change in the IV had any effect IV and DV An Example 0 Latan and Darley 1968 0 Some results we discussed last week 0 What s the IV 9 the number of witnesses What s the DV 9 percentage of helpers How Can We Tell If An IV Significantly In uences a DV 0 Probability Level p value What is the probability that the experimental results would occur by chance if there was actually no relationship between the IV and the DV 0 p lt 05 o The probability that the results obtained could be observed by chance and be wrong is less than 5 out of 100 o p lt 05 is the standard cutoff of significance Inferential Statistics P values are one example of inferential statistics 0 Inferential meaning we infer some relationship it s our best guess of reality 0 The research you will learn about in this class is all considered good because the results obtained meet the field s statistical standards How do we know we are conducting a good experiment 0 Questions of Validity o Are we manipulating only what we want to manipulate o Are we measuring what we want to measure o Are our results applicable to a wide range of situations Internal Validity Keep all variables constant m change the Independent Variable and only the Independent Variable in a predictable way to see how it in uences the Dependant Variable Internal Validity Some Terms you should know 0 What do we mean by quotexperimental conditionquot 0 Different levels of the Independent Variable 0 You will often hear something like quotThis was a 2 X 3 between subjects designquot 0 This tells you that there are 2 Independent Variables 0 One IV has 2 levels or conditions 0 The other IV has 3 levels or conditions quotThis was a 2 X 3 between subjects designquot 0 Between Subjects Design means each participant was only exposed to one set of conditions 0 Within Subjects Design means each participant was exposed to all of the conditions 0 Mixed Design means each participant was exposed to all levels of one IV but only one level of the other IV 2 X 3 design example Hours of Sleep 8 6 4 5 Digit Number Difficulty of Distraction Task 10 Digit Number Internal Validity Some Terms you should know 0 Random Assignment to Condition l A way to ensure that it s not something about your participants that is causing the results 2 Each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to a particular condition 0 Control Group 1 Participants assigned to a condition where the manipulation of the IV is withheld 3 X 3 design example with a control group Hours of Sleep 8 6 4 5 Digit Number 10 Digit Number Difficulty of Distraction Task No Number External Validity The extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations or other people External Validity o Generalizing Across People 0 How do you ensure that the results that your participants gave would be the same as another group of participants 1 Random selection from population 2 Replicate the study with different groups of people External Validity Generalizing Across Situations o How do you ensure that the results that you found in the lab would be the same as in the real world 0 Mundane realism o The extent to which the experiment is similar to real life situations Psychological realism o The extent to which the psychological processes triggered in your experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life o Replicate the study in different settings How Do We Share Knowledge 0 Researchers have developed ways to standardize the presentation of information 0 Abstract a short synopsis of the research project 0 Introduction an overview of previous research telling the story of how the idea came about Method How the idea was tested Results A statistical description of what you found Discussion A verbal description of what you found References A list of the sources that the researcher drew ideas from 0000 Chapter 2 Methodology wrap up Chapter 3 Social Cognition Chap 2 Ethical Issues 0 When does the cost of research cost in terms of harm to your participants outweigh the benefit 0 What are some situations where the potential for harm to your participants exists 0 Milgram 1963 o Haney Banks amp Zimbardo 1973 Deception 0 Why is it used 0 When is it justified Safeguards o Informed Consent 0 Institutional Review Boards 0 Debriefing Chapter 3 Social Cognition How Do We Form Beliefs About Ourselves and the Social World 0 Maintain Self Esteem o Dissonance Theory more to come in Chapter 6 0 Use Strategies to Increase Accuracy 0 Social Cognition 10 Amadou Diallo 0 February 4 1999 four white policemen mistook Diallo for a serial rapist 0 When he reached for his wallet they fired 41 shots killing him instantly How did this happen Self esteem maintenance 0 The officers saw what made them feel good about themselves 0 Social cognition approach 0 They were doing their best to be accurate but made a tragic mistake Two modes of social cognition Automatic thinking 0 Nonconscious unintentional involuntary effortless 0 Controlled Thinking o Conscious intentional voluntary effortful Automatic Thinking Payne 2001 0 People presented with a Black or White face for 200 ms 15 of second 0 Immediately followed by a picture of a weapon or tool 0 Participants told to ignore face judge as quickly as possible whether second picture was a weapon or a tool Results of Payne Study 2 people had to respond within 500ms 0 25 weapon black face 9 37 tool black face 0 27 weapon white face 9 30 tool white face Other Examples of Automatic Thinking Schemas 0 Mental structures people use to organize their knowledge around themes or topics 0 In uence the information people notice think about and remember Examples 0 The haystack was important because the cloth ripped 9 parachute 0 The notes were sour because the seam split 9 bagpipe Schemas are Automatic 0 Non conscious Unintentional o Involuntary o Effortless 11 Schemas are Functional Guide Attention and Memory 0 Help us interpret ambiguous situations 0 Which schemas are applied has important consequences for how we construe a situation 0 In other words we may have several possible schemas that could be applicable to a given situation The one we focus on will impact our interpretation of the situation Mary was late meeting me that night She said she is always nervous about going to parties so it took her a long time to get ready We got there about the same time as other guests About an hour later Mary s boss asked her to dance but she said no Later she was chatting with a few people about politics but she spoke so softly I couldn t follow what she was saying We both had to work the next day so we left early and agreed to have lunch later in the week 0 How shy do you think Mary is Depends on the accessibility of your schemas about shyness 0 Accessibility Extent to which a schema is at the forefront of our minds 0 Chronic Accessibility constant accessibility gender 0 Priming the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema trait or concept Schemas Can Get Us Into Trouble Distort What We See amp Remember Hastorf amp Cantril 1954 Princeton Vs Dartmouth 9 dirtybrutal game brought students from the schools in to watch game film Dartmouth students thought Princeton students were worse and vice versa Selffulfilling Prophecy Step 1 Formng an expectancy 0 Category based Personal experiences first impression o Implicit Personality Theories 1 Theories of what kinds of personality traits go together 2 What is beautiful is good theory 0 Step 2 Perceptual Confirmation 0 We see what we expect to see 0 quotI wouldn t have believed it if I hadn t seen itquot But we should really say 0 quotI wouldn t have seen it if I hadn t believed itquot 0 We are not aware of this process 0 Automatic 12 0 Step 3 Behavioral Confirmation o Expectations lead us to behave in such a way that the target unintentionally confirms our expectation Believe target is unfriendly Act nervous 0 Target responds with anxious behavior SelfFulfilling Propechy Step 1 perceiver forms expectancy about target 9 perceptual confirmation Step 2 perceiver interprets target behavior through bias of expectation Step 3 perceiver acts according to biased perception target responds in kind to perceiver s behavior 9 behavioral confirmation back to step 1 Behavioral Con rmation Word Zanna amp Cooper 1974 see p 373 in text 0 Step 1 Procedure 0 White Ps come to lab to interview job applicants 0 Carefully trained confederates Black amp White give identical answers to questions 0 Step 1 Results 0 quot mmediacyquot White confederates received more smiles interaction encouragement and time o Perceptual confirmation White interviewers saw what they expected in White quotapplicantsquot 0 Step 2 Procedure 0 White Ps come to lab to be interviewed 0 Carefully trained confederates interview Ps o Interviewers either high or low in quotimmediacyquot Step 2 Results 0 Those in quothigh immediacyquot condition interviewed extremely well compared to those in quotlow immediacyquot condition Behavioral Con rmation Snyder Tanke amp Berscheid 1977 0 Participants engage in 10 minute quotgetting to know youquot phone conversation wopposite sex Observers 1 Rate M conversation in isolation 2 Rate female conversation in isolation Males given expectation through bogus photograph attractiveunattractive o If man thinks he s talking to an attractive woman he will talk about more interesting things eliciting the expected behavior 0 Photograph made the phone call successful or unsuccessful l3 SelfFulfilling Prophecy Rosenthal amp Jacobson 1968 o All children given quotHarvard Test of In ected Acquisitionquot at beginning of year bogus Teachers told that 20 of their students were quotbloomersquot RANDOMLY CHOSEN Only teachers told not kids or their parents 0 End of year Bloomers did better on IQ test Why Did Bloomers Do Better 0 Climate 0 Teachers created a warmer Climate for the bloomers treated them more warmly 0 Feedback 0 Teachers gave bloomers more DIFFERENTIATED feedback 0 Input 0 Taught more material to the bloomers Output 0 Teachers gave bloomers given more opportunities to respond and shaped their answers Who Did Teachers Like the Most Did Well Did Poorly Bloomers Liked Disliked Non Bloomers Disliked the most Liked Replications o Preschoolers in Headstart program 0 Children learning swimming at camp 0 Air force recruits learning mathematics 0 Manual workers learning trades SelfFulfilling Prophecy Practical Advice 0 All things being equal 0 Once people think you re going to succeed you are more likely to succeed 0 Once people think you re going to fail you are more likely to fail 0 Do not allow yourself to be quotpigeon holedquot categorized into the wrong hole 0 Set high but not unreasonable public expectations of your performance Chapter 3 Social Cognition Part 2 14 SelfFulfilling Prophecy What about Gender 0 Elementary School 0 Girls outperform boys in all subjects reading writing math etc 0 Middle School 0 Girls start to fall behind 0 High School 0 Boys surpass girls on many standardized tests including the SAT 0 College 0 Males score higher than females on the GRE test Beliefs about Gender 0 Teachers mention boys more often than girls as their most gifted students 0 Parents on average report that their sons are more gifted than their daughters Adolescents boys believe they have higher academic ability than girls do Other Kinds of Automatic Thinking Judgments amp Decision making in everyday life 0 We often rely on automatic thinking and quotmental shortcutsquot when making decisions 0 Heuristics availability heuristic representativeness heuristic anchoring and adjustment heuristic Schemas vs Heuristics Schemas mental models of some aspect of the social world that can in uence the use and or impact of information related to that part of the social world Heuristics mental shortcuts people use to increase cognitive efficiency Availability Heuristic People base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind Often Quite Useful but can Lead to Errors Schwarz et al 1991 p58 in text 0 Another group asked to think of 12 times when they were assertive Asked to rate how assertive they were 0 Which is more likely Killed by an accident or killed by a stroke Twice as likely to die by stroke 0 Why are more people afraid to y than drive 0 Sometimes our decision making process leads us to fear the wrong things 15 0 Death by shark attack or by u 42 deaths by shark 250000 by u Representativeness Heuristic 0 Mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case 0 Often quite useful 0 Can lead to errors 0 Ignoring base rate information Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic 0 Mental shortcut that involves using a numeric value as a starting point and then adjusting one s answer away from this anchor 0 Useful if anchor value is valid 0 Errors if anchor value is invalid o Identified by Tversky amp Kahneman 1974 0 Initial starting points serve as anchors 0 Estimate by adjusting up or down from anchor 0 We often do not adjust enough 0 Estimates biased toward anchor Controlled Thinking o Conscious Intentional Voluntary Effortful o A way of correcting automatic thinking 0 Automatic Believing Controlled Unbelieving 0 Automatic 9 initial acceptance of information o Controlled 9 asses truthfulness of accepted belief o Controlled 9 unaccept as necesssary Controlled Thinking Not Always Beneficial o Racial Profiling 1 Police target and stop pedestrians airline passengers and motorists on the basis of their race 0 Ironic processing amp Thought suppression l Desire to avoid thinking about something Monitoring process automatic Search for evidence of unwanted thought 16 Operating process controlled Distract self by finding something else to summary 0f SOCial cognitiOH think about 0 People often motivated to see the world accurately o Humans are the best thinkers on the planet 0 But we can make mistakes 0 Automatic vs Controlled Thinking o A good way for the mind to work 0 Either kind of thinking can be awed Can Human Thinking Be Improved Reconsider Automatic Assumptions 0 Consider the Opposite Teaching Reasoning Skills Nisbett Fong Lehman amp Cheng 1987 0 Statistical amp methodological reasoning can be taught o One time sessions or by taking statistics classes Chapter 4 Social Perception Continuation of Social Cognition Approach Assumption is that people are trying to be accurate in understanding other people 0 How do they do so 0 What information do we use and how do we use it 17 Nonverbal Behavior 0 One of the first things we notice 0 Hand gestures body posture facial expressions Implicit Personality Theories 0 Another type of schema 0 Fill in the blanks by grouping personality traits together 0 Ex nerd goth From acts to dispositions 0 We want to know what s inside other people 0 feelings motives dispositions How do we figure this out Attribution Theory The all important quotWhyquot Question 0 How do we explain the causes of other people s behavior 0 Why is it important to do so Attributions to internal versus external factors Harold Kelly s Covariation Model 0 Look at the characteristics of a particular behavior at a particular time 0 And compare it with what you know about previous examples 0 You can make attributions to either the actor internal or the situation external Kelly s Covariation Model 0 There are 3 pieces of information that you need 0 1 How does the actor s behavior toward a stimulus compare to other people s behavior toward that stimulus 0 2 How does the actor s behavior toward a stimulus compare to his or her behavior toward other stimulus 0 3 Is the actor s behavior always the same toward that stimulus Kelly s Attribution Theory Consensus Information To what extent do other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus Do other people kiekfido o Distinctiveness Information To what extent does the actor behave the same way toward other stimuli Does joe kick other dogs Consistencv Information Does the actor behave in the same way toward that stimulus at different times and in different situations Does joe always kiekfido Internal vs External Attributions Internal 0 Low Consensus no one else kicks fido o Low Distinctiveness joe kicks all dogs including fido 18 o igh Consistency joe always kicks fido 0 External 0 igh Consensus everyone kicks fido o igh Distinctiveness joe kicks only fido o igh Consistency joe always kicks fido o What if Consistency is Low 0 Unique occurrence is difficult to classify 0 External Attribution often made to the particular circumstances 0 Situational attribution Correspondent Inference Theory 0 One would think that logically there must be some necessary precursors before internal dispositional inferences can be made 0 Free choice 0 No social desirability A Test of Correspondent Inference Theory Jones and Harris 1967 0 People given essays to read that had been written by another student 0 Essay was anti or pro Castro 0 People told author either had choice or nochoice on which position to take 0 Asked to guess author s true attitude toward Castro Results of Jones amp Harris 1967 Guesses about Author s Attitude Pro 70 60 50 4o 3o 20 1o Ant1 l ProCastro D AntiCastro Choice No Choice Condition Correspondence Bias 0 People demonstrate a clear M to perceive a correspondence between behavior and attitudes 0 We eXpect that one s values attitudes beliefs and opinions will determine behavior 0 We assume behavior shows disposition 19 o quotCausal misattributionquot Using Mental Shortcuts to Make Attributions o The Fundamental Attribution Error FAE Tendency to overestimate dispositions personality as causes of behavior and underestimate situational in uences 0 At heart people are personality theorists at least in the West Research on Personality Traits How well do they predict behavior 0 Personality Trait An internal state or disposition that produces consistent behavior in different situations and is stable over time 0 People view each other in terms of personality traits especially these five 0 Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Creativity Openness 0000 Traits do not predict behavior as much as we think 0 Mischel 1968 cheating on spelling test 0 Meta analysis correlation lt 30 Honest in one situation but not in another Hartshorne amp May 1929 help sick kids in hospital 0 Average correlation 23 Helped in one situation but not in another Cultural differences in FAE Fundamental Attribution Era Both Westerners and East Asians 0 View behavior in terms of dispositions i e personality traits 0 Show the correspondence bias the tendency to infer that people s behavior re ects their dispositions But East Asians are more likely to take into account the situation as well Morris amp Peng 1994 0 Westerners 0 Personality psychologists East Asians 0 Personality amp social psychologists o gt These are generalizations much within group variabilityilt Confusing Terms 0 Correspondence Bias 0 The Fundamental Attribution Error 20 Tendency to overestimate dispositions personality as causes of behavior and underestimate situational in uences 0 Both Easterners and Westerners show the correspondence bias Westerners less likely to correct Reasons for the Correspondence Bias CB 0 Perceptual salience of actor Two step process of attribution 0 Assume it s something about the person 0 Correct for the situation 0 More information about self than observers do ActorObserver Differences in Attribution People more apt to see others behavior as dispositionally caused than their own 0 Therefore we commit the FAE more when explaining other people s behavior than our own III Actors 5 IObservers 4 3 2 1 0 No Tape Tape Same Tape Different POV POV Howard Dean s scream Camera directly on Dean mic amplified only his voice 0 Camera from audience View mic amplified both crowd and his voice Selfserving attributions 0 My own success is due to internal dispositional factors 0 BUT 0 My own failures are due to external situational factors Motivated attributions 0 Spotlight effect 21 1 We re aware of the attributions that people make about us as if there is a spotlight shining on us 0 We often try to compensate for the dispositional attributions that others are likely to make toward us Summary of Research on the FAE o In general Westerners tend to make dispositional rather than situational attributions 1 CB amp FAE 0 But we are better at detecting situational pressures when they happen to us 1 ActorObserver Effect 0 But we will manipulate those attributions to protect our self esteem when necessary 1 Self serving attributions Dissonance Research insufficient justification Why do people agree to tell lies write counter attitudinal essays eat grasshoppers Why don t people know why they do these things The FAE SelfEsteem Maintenance vs Social Cognition Approach People often view themselves and the social world in ways that protect their self esteem People often put this need aside and try to view the world accurately Can both be true How do we know which motive is operating Ross amp Sicoly 1978 Study 1 Each spouse in married couples estimated what of the time they did household chores Sum in each couple greater than 100 Study 2 Pairs of students worked on problem 12 told they succeeded 12 told they failed Later they estimated what of the group s performance was due to their contributions Success 80 Failure 60 If self esteem maintenance is goal I should minimize my role in total input when failure happens But if availability heuristic should still be over 50 because remember more of what I did 22 False Consensus Class answers Reasons for False Consensus 0 Accessibility 0 Our own opinions more at the forefront of our minds 0 Our construals of the event are highly accessible alternative ways of construing the event are not 0 Evidence 0 False consensus less likely to occur when there is less room for interpretation of the event 0 Less ambiguous more likely that most people construe it in the same way SelfEsteem Maintenance 0 When it comes to attitudes It makes us feel better to think that we are part of the majority leading to the false consensus effect 0 When it comes to abilities We want to think that our talents are unique leading to a false uniqueness effect SelfEsteem Maintenance vs Social Cognition Approach 0 What Difference Does It Make 0 Both motives could play out at the same time 0 To know how to change attitudes and behavior you have to know what causes them 0 Reducing Prejudice 0 Why do people hold prejudicial attitudes o Self esteem maintenance 0 Social cognition 23 Vocab Chapters 14 Chapter One Social Psychology the scientific study of the way in which people s thoughts feelings and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people Social Influence the effect that the words actions or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts feelings attitudes or behaviors Individual Differences the aspects of people s personalities that make them different from other people Fundamental Attribution Error the tendency to overestimate the extent to which people s behavior is due to internal dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors Behaviorism a school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior one need only consider the reinforcing properties of the environment Construal the way in which people perceive comprehend and interpret the social world Gestalt Psychology a school of psychology stressing the importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in people s minds rather than the objective physical attributes of the object SelfEsteem people s evaluations of their own selfworth that is the extent to which they view themselves as good competent and decent Social Cognition how people think about themselves and the social world more specifically how people select interpret remember and use social information to make judgments and decisions Chapter Two Hindsight Bias the tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing that it occurred Observational Method the technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior Ethnography the method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside without imposing any preconceived notions they might have lnterjudge Reliability the level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data by showing that two or more judges 24 independently come up with the same observations researchers ensure that the observations are not the subjective distorted impressions of one individual Archival Analysis a form of the observational method in which the researcher examines the accumulated documents or archives of a culture diaries novels magazines newspapers Correlational Method the technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them how much one can be predicted from the other is addressed Correlational Coefficient a statistical technique that assesses how well you can predict one variable from another for example how well you can predict people s weight from their height Surveys research in which a representative sample of people are asked often anonymously questions about their attitudes or behaviors Random Selection a way of ensuring that a sample of people is representative of a population by giving everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected for the sample Experimental Method the method in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable the one thought to have a casual effect on people s responses Independent Variable the variable a researcher changes or varies to see if it has an effect on some other variable Dependent Variable the variable a researcher measures to see if it is influenced by the independent variable the researcher hypothesizes that the dependent variable will depend on the level of the independent variable Random Assignment to Condition a process ensuring that all participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment through random assignment researchers can be relatively certain that differences in the participants personalities or backgrounds are distributed evenly across conditions Probability Level pvalue a number calculated with statistical techniques that tells researchers how likely it is that the results of their experiment occurred by chance and not because of the independent variable or variables the convention in science including social psychology is to consider results significant trustworthy if the probability level is less than 5 in 100 that the results might be due to chance factors and not the independent variable studied Internal Validity making sure that nothing besides the independent variable can affect the dependent variable this is accomplished by controlling all extraneous variables and by randomly assigning people to different experimental conditions External Validity the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people Psychological Realism the extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life 25 Cover Story a description of the purpose of a study given to participants that is different from its true purpose and is used to maintain psychological realism Field Experiments experiments conducted in natural settings rather than in the lab Replications repeating a study often with different subject populations or in different settings Meta Analysis a statistical technique that averages the results of two or more studies to see if the effect of an independent variable is reliable Basic Research studies that are designed to find the best answer to the question of why people behave as they do and that are conducted purely for reasons of intellectual cunos y Applied Research studies designed to solve a particular social problem CrossCultural Research research conducted with members of different cultures to see whether the psychological processes of interest are present in both cultures or whether they are specific to the culture in which people were raised Evolutionary Theory a concept developed by Charles Darwin to explain the ways in which animals adapt to their environments Natural Selection the process by which heritable traits that promote survival in a particular environment are passed along to future generations organisms with those traits are more likely to produce offspring Evolutionary Psychology the attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that have evolved over time according to the principles of natural selection Informed Consent agreement to participate in an experiment granted in full awareness of the nature of the experiment which has been explained in advance Deception misleading participants about the true purpose of a study or the events that will actually transpire Institutional Review Board IRB a group made up of at least one scientist one nonscientist and one member not affiliated with the institution that reviews all psychological research at that institution and decides whether it meets ethical guidelines all research must be approved by the IRB before it conducted Debriefing explaining to participants at the end of the experiment the true purpose of the study and exactly what transpired Chapter Three Social Cognition how people think about themselves and the social world more specifically how people select interpret remember and use social information to make judgments and decisions Automatic Thinking thinking that is nonconscious unintentional involuntary and effortless Schemas mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects and that influence the information people notice think about and remember 26 Accessibility the extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of people s minds and are therefore likely to be used when making judgments about the social world Priming the process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema trait or concept SelfFulfilling Prophecy the case wherein people have an expectation about what another person is like which influences how they act toward that person which causes that person to behave consistently with people s original expectations making the expectations come true Judgmental Heuristics mental shortcuts people use to make judgments quickly and efficiently Availability Heuristic a mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind Representativeness Heuristic a mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case Base Rate Information information about the frequencies of members of different categories in the population Analytic Thinking Style a type of thinking in which people focus on the properties of objects without considering their surrounding context this type of thinking is common in Western cultures Holistic Thinking Style type of thinking in which people focus on the overall context particularly the ways in which objects relate to each other this type of thinking is common in East Asian cultures China Japan Korea Controlled Thinking thinking that is conscious intentional voluntary and effortful Counterfactual Thinking mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been Overconfidence Barrier the fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgments Chapter Four Social Perception the study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people Nonverbal Communication the way in which people communicate intentionally or unintentionally without words nonverbal cues include facial expressions tone of voice gestures body position and movement the use of touch and gaze Encode to express or emit nonverbal behavior such as smiling or patting someone on the back Decode to interpret the meaning of the nonverbal behavior other people express such as deciding that a pat on the back was an expression of condescension and not kindness Affect Blend a facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different 27 Display Rules culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display Emblems nonverbal gestures that have wellunderstood definitions within a given culture they usually have direct verbal translations such as the OK sign Implicit Personality Theory a type of schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together for example many people believe that someone who is kind is generous as well Attribution Theory a description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people s behaviors Internal Attribution the inference that a person is behaving in a certain way because of something about the person such as attitude character or personality External Attribution the inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation he or she is in the assumption is that most people would respond the same way in that situation Covariation Model a theory that states that to form an attribution about what caused a person s behavior we systematically note the pattern between the presence or absence of possible causal factors and whether or not the behavior occurs Consensus Information information about the extent to which other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus as the actor does Distinctiveness Information information about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli Consistency Information information about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances Fundamental Attribution Error the tendency to overestimate the extent to which people s behavior is due to internal dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors Perceptual Salience the seeming importance of information that is the focus of people s attention TwoStep Process of Attribution analyzing another person s behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for the behavior after which one may adjust the original internal attribution SelfServing Attributions explanations for one s successes that credit internal dispositional factors and explanations for one s failures that blame external situational factors Defensive Attributions explanations for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability and mortality Bias Blind Spot the tendency to think that other people are more susceptible to attributional biases in their thinking than we are Belief in a Just World a form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people 28
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