Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide SOC 350
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katelyn Paccione on Tuesday March 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 350 at Purdue University taught by Dan Weiss in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 353 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology of Marriage in Sociology at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 03/03/15
Sociology 350 Midterm Exam Study Guide Chapter 1 A Sociology of the Family Genealogy A study of our origins ancestry family history De ning families 0 Groups of related people bound by connections that are biological legal or emotional o Implies a strong level of caring 0 Personal Family 0 The people whom we feel related to and who we expect to de ne us as members of their family as well 0 Legal Family 0 A group of individuals related by birth marriage or adoption 0 This is the government s de nition of family 0 Family as an Institutional Arena 0 A social space in which relations between people in common positions are governed by accepted rules of interaction 0 Examples your relationship varies between your parents and your siblings it also varies within being a sibling being the oldest versus being the youngest As we grow old we too will become parents and our parents will become grandparents and our sibling will become auntsuncles 0 Family Arena Institution where people practice intimacy childbearing and socialization 0 State The institutional arena where through political means behavior is legally regulated violence is controlled and resources are redistributed 0 Market The institutional arena where labor for pay economic exchange and wealth accumulation take place Daycare The market makes it available or not available Marriage Licensees The law and regulations of the state decide you can and cannot marry Welfare Developed by all three arenas US Census A periodic count of people in a population and their characteristics usually performed as an of cial government function 0 Legal reason we do the census political representation 0 Household o A group of people that lives and eats separately from other groups oWhat is a census family o Must live within one speci c house oThe reason for a household count is so no one is double counted The Family in Sociological Theory Broad perspectives o Consensus Projects an image of society as the collective expression of shared norms and values I Breadwinner homemaker family an employed father a nonemployed mother and their children 0 Con ict The view that opposition and con ict de ne a given society and are necessary for social evolution 0 Contemporary theories 0 Feminism The process by which individuals internalize elements of the social structure in their own personalities 0 Exchange lndividuals or groups with different resources strengths and weaknesses enter into mutual relationships to maximize their own gains oSymbolic interactionism Concerned with the ability of humans to see themselves through the eyes of others and to enact social roles based on others expectations 0 Modernity Historical emergence of the individual as an actor in society and how individuality changed personal and institutional relations Persona choice taste style Famiy wage the amount necessary for a male earner to provide subsistence for his wife and children without having them work for pay o Demography and the Life Course Demographic perspective Study of how family behavior and household structures contribute to larger population processes Life course perspective oStudy of how family trajectories of individuals and groups as they progress through their lives in social and historical context These perspectives look at a Cohort A group of people who experience an event together at the same point 0 Examples millennial generation and baby boom generation Studying Families 0 Bias 0 The tendency to impose previously held views on the collection and interpretation of facts 0 Sample surveys o ldentical questions are asked of many different people and their answers are gathered into a large data le 0 Longitudinal surveys 0 Same people are interviewed repeatedly over a longer period of time lndepth interviews Observations 0 Time use studies 0 Surveys that collect data on how people spend their time during a sample period such as a day or week Chapter 2 The Family in History The Family in History 0 Many people today are living much longer than in the past 0 Today people are having fewer children Family members perform fewer functional tasks at home Families have become more diverse in recent decades Family types and terms 0 Monogamy The marriage of one person to one other person 0 Polygamy A marriage in which one person has several spouses Watched the rst episode of Sister Wives essay question on a test pros and cons of a polygamous relationship 0 Nuclear Family A married monogamous couple living with their own biological children no extended family members 0 Conjugal Family A nuclear family that is functionally independent of extended family members 0 Patrilineal A family system where wealth and power are transmitted from fathers to their sons This was during an era when women could not own land or inherit money Not egay codi ed anymore However women do often take the last name of their husband 0 Matrilineal More common among the Native Americans A family system where wealth and power are transmitted from mother to their daughters 0 Patrilocal A living arrangement in which a young married couple lives or near the husband s family home 0 Matrilocal A living arrangement in which a young married couple lives near the wife s family home 0 Patriarchal A family system where the power is welded by men within the family More common what we see in the US 0 Matriarchal A family system where the power is welded by the women within the family More common among Native Americans and indigenous tribes o Heterogamy Marriage between a man and a woman 0 Homogamy Marriage between two people of the same sex Ea rlv HistorV o Prehistory o Cooperation and survival 0 From Europe to the United States 0 Patriarchy Men s control over property and fathers authority over all family members Colonial America before 1820 0 American Indians The family as social structure 0 Respect to the elders Huge reliance on the family 0 Colonial Americans quotSo Chosen He is Her Lordquot Marriage were practical arrangements Coverture o A legal doctrine that lasted until the late nineteenth century under which wives were incorporated into their husband s citizenship 0 Children and Families More Work and Less Play Extended families family households in which relatives beyond parents and children live together Children contributed to the economy and survival of the family Average number of kids per family 7 Largely due to infant mortality Stem family 0 The household formed by the parents and their rst offspring who lives with them with their spouse and children 0 African American Families Enslaved o The Emerging Modern Family 18201900 0 Marriage New ldeals New Traditions Democracy formed Marrying by choice not so much practical needs Courtship The mate selection process in which couples begin in a relationship with supervised contact in public then proceed to additional dates in the woman s home and then if the parents approve to marriage 0 Children and Families Fewer and More Tender Number of average children are decreasing and the mortality rate is decreasing Children individuality emerged and so did the ideas of child s play with toys and nurturing 0 Institutional Arenas Separate Spheres o The cultural doctrine under which women were to work at home to make it a sanctuary from the industrial world in which their husbands worked for pay 0 Family and market men and women separate and together 0 Men work outside the home 0 The wife worked in the home and was to make the home a sanctuary for the husband Family and state quotMonogamous Moralityquot State lawed monogamy No families Widows and orphans 0 Those without a father or husband in the mist 0 When we started creating the pension and welfare systems Race African Americans Asian Americans Mexican Americans Families Apart 0 Within the black community there was a lot of kinship Asian families had a lot of split households 0 Men went to go work on the railroads Mexican families also had a lot of split households 0 Had to travel the country to work 0 The Modern Family 190019605 0 Companionship family An ideal types of family characterized by the mutual affection equality and comradeship of its members 0 Companionate marriage Marriage is a friendship companionship and a romance rather than as a practical platform for cooperation 0 Dating Mate selection process in which young adults spend time with a variety of partners before making a longterm commitment When couples started going on dates without their parents 0 Family wage 0 Baby Boom Marriage unequal companions Children and families From Bust to Boom o WWII people were having lots of children due to war and deployment Today birthrates are declining and women in the workforce is increasing Suburbs started becoming in command result of the baby boom and expansion outwards away from the cities Period of high birth rates in the US 19561964 0 New Family Diversity 1960sPresent 0 Only about 50 of families are made up of married couples 0 There is an increase in single parent families 0 Marriage Out with the old 0 Change in how the housework is being done women are still doing the majority even though a majority are now working 0 Modern relationships modern identities 0 Independence Women could get a job and income take care of themselves and children 0 Children and families emotional bonds 0 Childhood and young adulthood 0 Cherish our children more with less birth rate 0 What s in a name 0 Taking the last name of your husband Chapter 3 Race Ethnicity and Immigration Race Ethnicity amp Race Ethnicity Race o A group of people believed to share common descent based on perceived innate physical similarities 0 Ethnicity o A group of people with a common cultural identi cation based on a combination of language religion ancestral origin or traditional practices oRacial Ethnicity o An ethnic group perceived to share physical characteristics 0Endogamy o Marriage and reproduction within a distinct group 0Exogamy 0 Marriage and reproduction outside your group o Example interracial marriage oWhat about whites o Whites make up the majority group 0 Minority group A racial or ethnic group that occupies a subordinate status in society A group that is numerically not the majority American Stories oAmerican Indians 0 Population is beginning to grow again o Has a higher rate of interracial groups o Families are high in stress with tradition o More open to same sex marriage o Most groups have left tribal land Mosty due to history oVioence again women obesity suicide alcoholism are all common trends amongst this group oAfrican Americans o History of slavery oThe Moynihan Report 1965 New York Senator Said that the black family is fundamentally awed 0 Most black families were dominated by the females in the home o Family resilience More likely to rely on extended family and close friends o Urban Poverty Does not apply to all cities 0 Example New York is mostly white Milwaukee is the most racially segregated city White ight Whites moving away from the cities into suburbans 0 Example Chicago Shamburg Naperville o All wealthy white predominant towns o Retreat from marriage Higher rates of unemployment Higher rates of blacks in our prisons This creates a smaller pool for marriage within group Latinos o Very diverse group Mexicans Cubans o Most rapidly growing group in the US 0 Familism A personal outlook that puts family obligations rst before individual well being Asian Americans 0 Family traditions 0 We essentially invited Asian Americans to immigrate as cheap labor to work on the intercontinental railroad o More likely to live in intergenerational families o Lower poverty rates higher incomes Immigration oThe new immigrants 0 We currently have the highest percentage of immigrants in the history of the US oUniting and Dividing 0 Children are not necessarily being raised by their parents so they can assimilate to American culture and essentially achieve a better life 0 Lot of immigrant families come over to the US without the whole family so they can afford to bring the whole family over with a home ready 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act 1924 Immigration Act 1945 War Brides Act 19421964 Bracero Program Work permits to Mexican workers 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act 2002 Homeland Security Act 2005 International Marriage Broker Regulation Act Generations 0 1st generation those that actually immigrated o 2nCI generation the children of the immigrants o Acculturation I Dissonant Acculturation OIOIO o The children are merging into the popular culture quicker than their parents 0 Assimilation Gradual reduction of ethnic distinction between immigrants and the mainstream society 0 lntermarriage Marriage between members of different racial or ethnic groups 2000 census was the rst time you can choose multiple races to identify yourself Black and white marriage 0 First law to deny interracial marriage between whites and blacks happened in Maryland in 1961 Why do we study interracial marriage Heteroga my 0 Alabama was the last state to overturn interracial marriage laws 2000 Some experiences of interracial marriages oFee ostracized Can cause problems with law enforcement o Visual scrutiny Marriage clerk can decline their marriage certi cate Loving vs Virginia 0 Overturned interracial marriage laws Used to defend same sex marriage o Perez v Sharp Denied religious freedom o McLaughlin v Florida Sexuaization in interracial marriage Interracial marriages today 0 In 2000 there were 31 million 54 mixed marriages In 2010 there were 45 million 8 mixed marriages Varied by group 0 3 white o 7 black o 16 Asian o 46 native Hawaiian o 56 American Indian amp mixed race Implications of marriage laws oUnder state control 0 Age o Closeness in relationships Siblings cannot get married First cousins can t get married o Same sex marriage 16 states still have laws against it o Under the in uence Rare and hard to prove Chapter 4 Families and Social Class Families and Social Class Theories of social class 0 Division and labor The social process of determining who does what work and for what rewards o Exploitation The process which the labor of some people produces wealth that is controlled by others 0 Life chances Practical opportunity to achieve desired material conditions and personal experiences My income will control the potential life chances of my kids 0 How 0 What kind of education will you be able to provide for your kids Where will you be living poorer community versus a richer community 0 Social capitol The access to resources people have by virtue of relationships and connections within a social network Families in their social classes Generations of wealth and privilege Generations of working poverty o Don t have the same networks that the wealthy have oFamily networks o Class identity the awareness of and sense of belonging to a speci c social class There is one problem Many times when you ask someone what social class they are a part of they will say middle class most of the time Most likely it s not true What are middle class standards oSocial class categories 0 Capitalist and corporate managerial class The very rich A very small percentage of the population Have a lot of economic and political in uence 32 o Middle class Jobs based on higher education able to meet all basic needs higher rate of home ownership 432 0 Working class Lot less stable then the middle class Jobs that need less education less training and are more unstable 0 Lower class Low income high instability lack adequate medical care and housing some rely on government assistance programs 8 identi es realistically it s a lot larger American class structure o Increasing inequality At the bottom keeping that poor from improving their lot In the middle divergent fortunes Some are doing very well some are not Education gap At the top the new superrich o Gini index A measure of inequality in which 0 complete equality and 1 complete inequality 0 Poverty and policy Poverty line 0 Who is eligible for these various programs 0 Level of income below which the federal government de nes a family or individual as poor o Poverty in the united states Poverty rate increased dramatically during the 20005 0 15 0 465 million people were living below the poverty line Poverty is concentrated by race and ethnicity Poverty is closely related to family structure People in poverty suffer from serious deprivation Homelessness has declined but remains a serious problem oThe story behind the numbers unmarried maleheaded families 28 million 17 of that population oThe story behind the numbers unmarried femaleheaded families 165 million 34 of that population oThe story behind the numbers married couple families 139 million 8 of that population Why a lower percentage Possibility of dual income o If there are not two workers then one parent can watch the kids 0 Decrease in day care expenses Social Class Mobilitv and Class Persistence Social mobility oThe movement up or down between social classes 0 Family structure o Money o Time How many of you who had parents come to everything you were involved in Media time 0 Reading television mobile apps video games computers etc 0 Parents with a college degree limit their child s time with media 0 Increase in reading rather than to the children of nondegree parents 0 Social capitol oFamily practices 0 Concerted cultivation Middle class parents have the tendency to expose their kids to things that are used to enhance their social and development cognitive Play groups signing them up for sports or music lessons 0 Studies have shown that this is useful for kids o Accomplishment of natural growth Successfu development is a natural process Stems from protection and care 0 Working class parents do not schedule as many activities for their children as middle class parents oThese children tend to be less assertive and more willing to engage in conversationdebate with authority gures Middle class children are more likely to grow up with con dence a sense of entitlement oEducational inequality oThe poorest have the highest dropout rate and lowest college completion rates o The richest have the lowest dropout rate and the highest college completion rates Chapter 5 Gender De nitions 0 Sex 0 One s biological category male or female based on anatomy and physiology 0 Sexual identity 0 Recognition or internalization of which sex one identi es themselves with 0 Gender 0 The social realization of biological sex 0 Gender Identity 0 The identi cation with the social category boyman or girlwoman o Requires learning behaviors that is associated with being male or female Gender expression One s pattern of outward behavior in relation to common standards of a gender category 0 Actually expressing those behaviors How Different Are We 0 Sex differences made social o How you are expected to look what colors you are expected to wear what your expected to play with 0 Sexual dimorphism Physica differences between the sexes Height oMen are generally taller than women quotThe average American man in his 205 is about 6 inches taller than the average woman of the same agequot Cohen page 154 0 Example 5 11quotmedian height in husbands 5 5 median height in wives o We are not all that different physically but society expects taller men Restroom signs even depict the small differences in body shape between male and female as expected from society The female is wearing a dress her legs and shoulders are smaller and her arms are outward suggesting broader hips Sexual diversity o Who live longer Woman live longer in 99 of countries More women in the US who are widowed Male infants have a higher vulnerability to birth complications or being premature This vulnerability also feeds into there being more male infants than female 0 lntersex Aka hermaphrodites a condition in which a person s chromosomal composition does not correspond with his or her sexual anatomy at birth or the anatomy is not clearly male or female Happens in 18 out of 100000 births this does not mean that they were born with both it can be many different things The population of intersex is higher than the population of Jews Male or female oCongenital adrenal hyperplasia o Excess of androgens develop ambiguous gentaHa oAndrogen insensitivity o Male but their body does not use male hormones so their external anatomy is female and the interior anatomy is male 0 Transgender lndividuals whose gender identity does not match their assigned sex This does not necessarily mean that they are attracted to the same sex 0 Transsexual Sexual identity does not match their assigned sex o Feminism versus Masculinity We learn that we are a boy or a girl through a process I known as socialization Perspectives on Gender 0 Biological 0 Women focus more on childbearing and rearing than men 0Feminism o quotGender inequality is central to family lifequot Cohen page 164 o Male socially has dominance over the female the female is expected to play the housewife and constantly pressured to look their best through media portrayal 0 Women are more nurturing and emotional caretakers Masculinity o It is harder for gay men to be viewed as masculine Symbolic Interaction o quotdoing genderquot Enhancing the aspects of our boy that match our gender and are socially accepted and diminishing the rest Gender Socialization It s a lifelong process oParents o How they dress their children 0 How they decorate their room o What toys they buy for them o Household chores that are assigned or activities that they are signed up for o The mother sets the example of gender identity for their daughters and fathers sets the example of gender identity for their sons oSiblings 0 Birth order and sex of your siblings can change the gender socialization olnteractive circles of Socialization o the community reigion cassmates friends coworkers o Parents sometimes use the ways that we were raised to socializeraise their own kids o Other families in the community set examples for socialization oSchool oTeachers treat students differently based on gender o Men are more likely than women to excel and pursue careers in mathematics oFriends o Activities Type of activities children do and their friends correlate What boys do versus what girls do o Neighborhoods Low income versus high income neighborhoods oLow income neighborhoods and peer in uence are going to tend to have more adverse outcomes oWork o Paid and unpaid work In paid positions there is a gap between men and women salaries Women make about 81 of what men make o Educational and occupational segregation Gender dominance in certain majors oExample Women in nursing and men in construction More and more women are achieving a college education today even more so than men Chapter 6 Sexuality Sexual Identity and Sexual Orientation Sexual Orientation 0 Pattern of romantic or sexual attraction to other in relation to one s own gender identity 0 Homosexual and heterosexual o Asexuality having no attraction to either of the genders 1 of the population 0 Same sex attraction tends to be more common in women than men Attitudes about sexual orientation 0 Stigma A quality that is perceived as undesirable and that sets a person apart from other in his or her social category Meaning what you like to do Sexual fantasies o Homophobia Fear of or antipathy toward homosexuality in general and gays and lesbians in particular 0 Compulsory heterosexuality The pressure to conform to the majority sexual orientation 0 Coming out The process of revealing one s gay sexuality Older generations have more negative views about sexual attraction to the opposite sex The Biology of Human Sexuality Where does sexual orientation come from 0 Some studies say that there is a genetic component 0 Heterosexual attraction is believed to be programmed into us as a natural human instinct Evolutionary purpose to reproduce and develop 0 Evolution and Human Sexuality 0 Changing in our perceptions of gay marriage and gay couples raising children Example story of the gay penguins at the zoo who raised an abandoned egg as their own Modern Intimacy sexual constraints are higher on women than men 0 however overall sexual behaviors have become less constrained osex before marriage o sex outside of marriage is becoming more acceptable o men typically have more partners than women approximately the average age of rst sexual encounter for both men and women is 17 Having many partners is relatively uncommon Sex without consent is relatively common 95 of Americans have sex before marriage Average age of rst marriage has increased we are marrying at older ages oThe sexual double standard The practice of applying stricter moral or legal controls to women s sexual behavior then to men s There are more negative names for women who have multiple partners than men Men have more positive names for having multiple partners than women Women are thought to be more passive and inhibited Whereas men are thought to be more active and achievement oriented 0 People who attend religious services rather than just having a faith are more less likely to have sex outside of marriage Teen Sex 0 Use of a condom for protection is higher 0 Black adolescents are more likely to have sex at younger ages 0 Teen sex is more likely to lead to o Nonconsensual sex 0 STDs o Unplanned pregnancy 0 Emotional outcomes 0 Girls who have sex at younger ages are at a higher risk for depression or depression like symptoms Sexually Transmitted Diseases STDs Importance of sex education oSocial networks 0 Who you have sexual contact with and who that person has had sexual contact with and so on and so forth 0 Connecting the lines of the spread of disease olnequality o African Americans are 2x more likely to contract STls Erectile Dysfunction Primary cause is age 0 Inability to reproduce on liability of the man oOther causes 0 Lack of exercise diet o Smoking oTreatment Viagra o Expensive at 10 per pill oAnother cause decreased interest in sex oThought to be an psychological disorder Chapter 7 Love and Romantic Relationships Scripting Diversity Social script 0 Commonly understood pattern of interaction that serves as a model of behavior in familiar situations Interacting by seeing yourself in the eyes of someone else 0 Changes and new found diversity in forming and building relationships 0 Forming a relationship is more variable and individualized 0 There is an increasing acceptance of living together This is a newer step in the relationship sequence from past generations This adds more uncertainty to a relationship 0 Divorcees and older adults are now added into the mix of looking for relationships Creating a larger pool of single individuals 0 Technology incorporated into relationships Love Love 0 A deep affection and concern for another with whom one feels a strong emotional bond Romantic love 0 Passionate devotion and attraction one person feels towards another 0 Modern version mythical love or ideal love Four qualities Love is ambiguous and clear 0 quotlove at rst sightquot Love is unique 0 quotone true lovequot 0 Individuals seek to prove and to demonstrate their true character by overcoming obstacles 0 Social obstacles Example family feud in Romeo ampJuliet 0 Personal obstacles Example manwoman giving up bad habits for their signi cant other 0 Love is permanent eternal oMaking it work 0 COMMUNICATION o The other culture of love Utilitarian love 0 Practical rational dedication of one person to another based on shared understanding and emotional commitment Rational example weighing the pros and cons of a relationship with a certain individual oRomantic relationships Mutually acknowledged ongoing interactions featuring heightened affection and intensity 0 Our choices are individual Relationship Rituals oScripts are diverse 0 Online dating 0 Increased numbers of older adults in the dating scene o Gay and lesbian couples Dating o Dating in young people improve Personaity Life experience Persona poise Socialization skills Preparation for marriage oThe dating system Passionate romantic attraction Stable mature love Acceptable timing of sexual intercourse 0 quotdatequot Single event that includes a combination of goals generally include 0 Having fun Pursuing a sexual attraction Learning more about the other person oPossibly sexual interaction 0 quotgoing steadyquot Being with only one person romantically o Public and private dating Dates are usually in public settings but the decision in who to date is private A dating relationship is often deemed real if it is viewed publicly by peers o Dating among students College students Socialize in mixed gender groups O O O O 0 0 O O O O O O oBoys and girls There is a larger pool of potential partners so dates are more numerous 90 of students have been on at least one date Majority expect men to make the rst move Men are more likely to have a sexual goal Women are more likely to have a goal in developing a romantic relationship Hooking Up Uncommitted sexual encounters Hooking up Casual sexual or romantic encounter without explicit commitment or exclusivity More than half of individuals who have had intercourse have done so outside of a romantic relationship 34 reported having hooked up with someone Most were multiple hookups with the same person Young people who are more religious are more likely to stay abstinent The quothookup culturequot is found to be in correlation with alcohol and drug use Connecting Online 1st national single database Matchcom 19956 Most online dating sites cater to older adults because 1 they have more money and 2 they don t have the means to meet potential dates the same way that younger people do 22 started relationships online 10 were online dating sites More than half of gay and lesbian couples met their partners online However there is 13 inaccuracy in information portrayed online Example pro le pictures Women are more likely to engage in this Online Dating 2003 29 million took part in online dating 2006 31 know someone who is involved with online daUng 2010 industry of online dating was worth around 4 billion Several possible selves Actual self oWho lactually am ldealseW 0 Who I want to be Ought self o What I ought to be Other concerns other than photos 0 Grammer spelling within the pro le The time at which messages are sent 0 Sending messages later at night for example 0 Speci c word choices Misrepresenting age 0 MEN are most likely to lie about height 0 WOMEN are most likely to lie about weight Older Singles and Single Parents o Cause postponing marriage for education and career Pros highly educated nancial stability emotionally mature o Vast majority of single parents who have never been married and are looking for a partner are women More likely to date someone who also has children o Divorced adults Gay and Lesbian Relationships o Dif cult due to the stigma in our society o Many states still illegalize same sex marriage oquotrelational ambiguityquot lncreases stress and insecurity Resulting experience of gay and lesbian couples Tend to have their rst serious relationship at older ages due to hiding their sexual orientation at younger ages More likely to have depression and suicidal thoughts Mate Selection 0 How and why people choose each other 0Mate selection o Process by which people choose each other for sexual or romantic relationships Three ways families in uence the broader society o Inequality Poor versus rich couples or individuals Whether remaining in one s social class or crossing the divide Pairing like with like o Inclusion versus exclusion Members of different groups 0 Often culture and ethnicity groups 0 Family dynamics How families work together How couples choose each other And how these choices affect their relationships oEvolution o Utilitarian relationships today are more important 0 Evolution lncrease the odds of survival lncrease reproductive ability lncrease competition with other potential mates Present gimmicks that fools potential mates into thinking that other good traits are present o Example waisttohip ratio The smaller ratio represents to men a women who is more likely to survive and has increased ability to reproduce hips Gender 0 Why people want what they want o Socialization plays a role in developing our personality o Example wearing high heels Positive effects on a woman s sexual appeal Make woman quotdo genderquot oRaceEthnicity o Internal obstacles mental or cognitive barriers to romantic attraction o Social and cultural boundaries Divide groups from each other 0 Homophin The principle by which similar people have more of a given kind of contract than dissimilar people 0 Endogamy Marriage and reproduction within a distinct group Utilitarian love often reinforces endogamy lncrease social support and familial con ict Men are more likely to go out with women of the same group Men were twice as likely as women to want to date someone of lighter skin Black woman are more susceptible to white standards of attractiveness Endogamy online oRestrictions o White men placed on their searches restrictions against black women oWhite men were more likely than other men to receive a reply oBack women were the least likely to receive a reply from men that they approached o Exogamy Marrying outside of your group
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