COMM 2900 Final Exam Study Guide
COMM 2900 Final Exam Study Guide COMM 2900
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marie Markoff on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 2900 at Tulane University taught by Ozcan, Esra in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Communication Studies in Communication Studies at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Section 1 Topics Fields that influenced Communication studies ● sociology and political economy ● journalism ● psychology ● linguistics ● film studies Historical milestones for communication ● WWI and Russian Revolution (pro war propaganda) ● WWII ● Cold War ○ Government funded projects Important Names ● Walter Lippmann ○ coined the term “stereotype” ● Raymond Williams ○ contributed to the Marxist critique of culture and the arts ● Theodor Adorno ○ fled from Germany and is associated with critical theory ● Jurgen Habermas ○ focused on the foundation of social theory ● Roland Barthes ○ influenced the development of semiotics and the social theory The Linear Model of Communication Information (source and message) transmitter channel Receiver Destination Constructivist Perspective ● focuses on how communication can create shared meaning among groups The 1960’s as a turning point ● more technology ● social norms of the 60’s (feminist movement, anti war) ● TV: white men dominated ● violent messages as a marketing strategy ● TV as a one way communication method ● children shaped psychologically by TV (cultivation) Approaches of Communication 1. Social Scientific ● quantitative ● marketing 2. Critical/Cultural ● qualitative ● representation 3. Political Economy ● media ownership ● capitalism ● Rules and Regulation Most people take from each of these approaches! Representation ● connects meaning to and language to culture ● In communication studies, we look for how things stand for other things Three Approaches to Representation 1. Reflective Approach ● Each word stands for something else. For example, everything has a name. The word “chair” sands for something people sit on 2. Intentional Approach ● The meaning comes from the intention of the speaker. 3. Constructionist ● Language is constructed and words do not mirror things. There are different ways to name the same thing. (This approach leads to Semiotics) Semiotics ● Defined as the study of meaning making and sign processes ● Made of 3 parts: ○ the sign, signifier and signified Sign ● Is what you see ● Example: A tree Signifier ● helps you conjure meaning for what you see ● Example: the letters TREE stand for the tree Signified ● Your mental image of the object when presented with a sign ● Example: your mental image of a tree when you hear the word “tree” Langue ● part of language that was stable (grammar) Parole ● language that changes (example, words that you use that your grandparents don’t) Indexical signs ● spoken word, does not have resemblance to what it represents Roland Barthes Two Levels of Signs 1. Denotation 2. Connotation Denotation ● Level of reading that is descriptive (literal meaning). Example, the word “chair” refers to a chair Connotation ● the level that refers to the associations that come with the object (associated meaning). Example, a chair can represent relaxation to some people. Myth ● The cultural meaning of a sign Discourse ● Defines a way of talking, thinking, acting, and feeling about an idea or area of concern. ● in short, discourse is ways of talking about things ● the concept of discourse is related to the idea that language and meaning are not fixed ● language is composed of different discourses ● discourse changes as we change Premises of discourse 1. Analytical ● our knowledge is a product of our cultural surroundings 2 ntiessentialism ● argues that we are fundamentally historical human beings ● non belief in an essence, example, God ● Language is structured in patterns of discourses ● language is fundamentally unstable ● meanings are flexible and can be permanently fixed Hegemony: ● refers to the ability to exercise social and cultural leadership and maintain this power ● works by winning consent by making sense of the world ● the process of meaning making Ideology ● distorts reality ● ideals are taught and enforced Differences between Hegemony and Ideology: ● hegemony maintains its dominant position by persuasion ● ideology stands for the things we believe and do not question Textual analysis ● interested in contemporary cultural meaning Steps of textual analysis 1. intensive and repeated reading 2. look for central themes ● what is considered normal? ● whose voices are heard? ● who is silenced? ● who is the ideal reader? 3. are there patterns or binary oppositions? 4. what are the cultural and ideological assumptions at the core of the text? Intertextuality ● different media texts borrow from each other/refer to each other Section 2 Topics THINGS TO KNOW FROM READINGS Key: Bold = Article name and author “Identity” Julia Wood (Blackboard) ● Know: That identity is fluid “Identity Politics” John Hartley (Blackboard) ● Know: Limits and strengths of identity politics ● Politics of recognition Islam Keywords Page 137 ● Know: How/why did Muslims come to the U.S.? Meaning of Islam in America and how it has changed over time (specifically post 9/11) Latino, Latina, Latin@ Keywords Page 146 ● Know: Latino refers to Latin American males living in the U.S., Latina refers to Latin American females living in the U.S., and Latin@ includes both male and female Latin Americans and refers to the LGBTQ community. ● Do we refer to them as Hispanics? Some do but many people find it offensive because they do not speak Spanish. White/Black/Color blindness Keywords Pages Web essay section and page 30 ● Be familiar with the documentary “White Like Me” ● Post racial society Asian Keywords Page 26 ● Challenges Asian Americans have faced in the U.S. (Internment camps, etc) Outwhiting the Whites Blackboard ● Know: the article’s definition of a stereotype Nation/America Keywords pages 175 and 21 ● Know: what the term “America” means to different people in different cultures Gender/Queer/Normal: Keywords Web essay section ● Know: gender creates binary distinctions (male/female) ● People who do not conform to this are seen as “abnormal” in society ● Know the definitions of heteronormativity and normativity Men and Women are From Earth (Given to us in class) ● Know: Connection between nation and gender and ideology. (Army Strong commercial) ● How differences lead to inequality ● Ideologies turn differences into institution and inequality ● Marriage is an institution (Religious, arranged etc) Answers: Limits and strengths of Identity politics: ● Strengths: Identity politics aim to provide a form of political participation for those who are excluded from the traditional means of representation (Feminist movement, LGBTQ Movement, etc) ● Weaknesses : Identity politics is by no means selfevidently radical or progressive. ● The concept of identity is now often viewed as relying on shared characteristics that are cultural rather than natural/biological. ● Political alliances based in nature rather than made in culture are viewed with alarm within racial circles. Islam Article: ● America holds a terrorist misconception about Muslims post 9/11 ● Orientalism: Used by historians to depict Middle Eastern culture ● Western attitude patronizing ● Most Islamic people came to America to avoid the labor force during the years following WWII. The earliest known migration was in the 17th century as a mean to escape slavery. ● Americans were fascinated with Muslims pre 9/11, but after 9/11, Islam has been seen as a source of global terrorism. Oprah video clip: ● Muslims described American identity as people banding together ● Oprah described it as a “melting pot” to which the Muslim participants objected and told her it was a “salad bowl” made up of individuals rather than one melted together. White/Black/ Color Blindness ● “Post Racial Society”: Color blind laws that try to promote race neutral but instead reap racial privilege to whites ● The continued deconstruction of normative whiteness is essential to the creation of truly liberatory identities, knowledges, and collaborative strategies aimed at social and political transformation. ● We are not yet in a post racial society. Asian ● Struggle with Orientalism ● Ongoing struggle to expand the meaning of “We the people” ● Internment camps of Japanese Americans during WWII ● Interview with George Takei Outwhiting The Whites ● Stereotype: Stereotypes unnecessarily separate groups of people. We stereotype because it makes thinking simple and lets us avoid examining a complex reality ● Stereotypes create an “Us vs. Them” mentality ● Discourse vs stereotype: discourse creates the stereotypes, you break stereotypes by thinking outside of discourse Nation/America ● In the U.S.A. the term America is a shorter version of saying “The United States of America” even though America is made up of many other places such as South America, Patagonia, etc ● During the 1920’s when immigration was surging, the term “Americanization” was popular and used to describe these new comers. ● People who are not from the U.S.A. don’t necessarily view the word “America” with the same appropriation as citizens of the U.S.A. Gender/Queer/Normal ● Heteronormativity: The attitude that heterosexuality is the only normal and natural expression of sexuality ● Brought to light to convey the ways in which technologies of normalization operate through forms of power that privilege and institutionalize heterosexuality ● Normativity: to make one conform to what is seen as normal Men and Women are From Earth ● Connotation between gender, nation, and ideology: Gender creates categorization with our bodies, nation creates categorization with where we come from, and ideology explains how these ideas (along with many others) become dominant in society. ● Differences lead to inequality because one group will see the other as abnormal and develop a prejudice Section 3 Topics TERMS ● FCC ○ “Federal Communications Commission” ○ Established in 1934 ○ Distribution of public airs were fair, and companies paid debt to public ● FTC ○ “Federal Trade Commission” ○ Regulates the marketplace ○ Aims to make sure there is a fair marketplace for all companies including small business ● 1996 Telecommunications Act ○ Deregulated the media ● MPAA ○ “Motion Picture Association of America” ● NAB ○ “National Association of Broadcasters” ○ Invented the movie rating system ● CC ○ “Creative Commons” ○ If anything is CC’ed, anyone can use it without the risk of copyright infringement CONCEPTS ● Identity Politics ○ Applied to movements that seek to fight for the rights of oppressed groups ○ The feminist movement and the gay rights movements are examples of ID politics ● Strategic Essentialism ○ 2 or more groups facing similar problems put past their differences temporarily to help each other solve the issue. ○ Creates an umbrella identity ● Intersectionality ○ The combination of identity markers play into discrimination and oppression ○ For example, the combination of class and race = discrimination ● Aboriginals ○ How different minority groups around the world are labeled as “black” in their own nation ○ Example, australian aboriginal children getting taken away from their homes ● Orientalism ○ How colonialism created unfair power dynamics in the Middle East ○ How the idea of Western superiority is created in the representation of Muslims ● Queer ○ People who identify as gay or lesbian ● Self Regulation ○ Radio stations have their own way of regulating the industry ○ Both the government and companies can regulate ● Regulation ○ Protects smaller businesses and makes sure they have enough resources ○ Aims to make sure there is diversity in the media ○ Types of media regulation ■ Regulation of content ■ Regulation of ownership ○ Government regulation agencies ■ FCC ■ FTC ○ Selfregulation (by industries) ■ NAB ■ MPAA ● Sensorship ○ Aims to block diversity and keep certain information out of the public eye ● Deregulation ○ Definition: removal of previous restrictions ○ Corporations control airwaves post1996 Telecommunications Act ○ All modern digital technology was made possible because of this act, but it gave a lot of power to large media companies and took away from the small ones. ● Cross Ownership ○ Media Conglomeration ● Concentration of ownership ○ One company can own multiple other companies (monopoly) ○ Able to do this since 1996 telecommunications act passed ● Liberalism ○ Democrats: political variant of liberalism ○ Republicans: economic side of liberalism ○ Freedom = political equality ● Neoliberalism ○ Market liberalism ○ Globalization of capitalism after the 80’s ○ A period of uncontrolled capitalism ● Capitalism ○ A system in which capitalists produce commodities that will yield them a profit ○ Media and advertising is central to capitalism ○ Thrives off of the circle of work and spending ● The Frankfurt School ○ 1920’s ○ Germany and USA ○ Influenced by Karl Marx ● First generation members: ○ Max Horkheimer ○ Theodor Adorno ○ Herbert Marcuse ■ Wrote “One Dimensional Man” 2nd generation member: ○ Jürgen Habermas ■ Wrote “The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere” ● Concepts created in Frankfurt School ○ Critical theory (general approach) ○ Culture Industry (mass production) ○ Public sphere ● Art and Mass Culture ○ Pop culture ■ mass consumed (music, movies, etc) ○ High culture ■ unique, one of a kind, more expensive, not mass consumed (single art pieces etc) ■ High culture is dying out ● Legacy of Frankfurt school on Comm Studies ○ Political economy of media and comm ○ Media activism ○ Comm labor ○ Corporate power ○ Media and regulation ○ Media globalization
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