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Exam 1 Review

by: caity carney

Exam 1 Review S100 Introduction to Sociology

caity carney
GPA 3.86
S100 Introduction to Sociology
Anne Grogel

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This is a detailed outline of what will be on the Exam 1 Review for this class.
S100 Introduction to Sociology
Anne Grogel
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by caity carney on Tuesday March 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to S100 Introduction to Sociology at Indiana University taught by Anne Grogel in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views.

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Date Created: 03/03/15
denotes that you should know the de nition given in class and not the textbook All other terms are taken directly from your Giddens textbook Bolded terms could appear in the short answer portion of the exam Sociology the scientific study between the individual and social structure Social Structurebe able to provide examples Things that exist outside of our control EX Studying the effects of economic ression on seniors ability to get a job after college is the study of 9 Social structure Types of social structure Healthcare system Educational system job market family system Human Agencybe able to provide examples The actions of individuals and groups in society and the choices we make EX With dating We decide who we date agency but cannot decide who lives in Bloomington EX With majors You choose your major agency but can t control requirements of the major Sociological imagination The ability to look past individual actions to understand the relationship between both human agency and social structure the ability to see and understand structuration Structuration The twoway process by which we shape our social world through our individual actions agency and by which we are shaped by social structure EX Iob market 9 You can t control the number of positions available or the hiring process however you have agency to apply to get a position So you have agency to apply but because of the social structure of the job market you may not get the job EX Family You can t chose your family and what you re born into but you have agency in who your partner is C Wright Mills conception of public issues and individual trouble Public issues transcend the individual an issue is a public matter when some value cherished by the public is felt threatened Individual trouble occur at the individual level Know the Main Sociological Perspectives Functionalist perspective main theorists for each perspective Think of a body Emile Durkheim Robert Merton Con ict perspective main theorists for each perspective Think of a fight Karl Marx Max Weber Symbolic interactionist perspective main theorists for each perspective George Herbert Mead Functionalism Based on the notion hat social events can best be explained in terms of the function they performthat is the contributions they make to the continuity of a society Society is made up of parts that carry out functions that contribute to the whole Social facts Aspects of social life that shape our actions as indivudals Division oflabor Specialization of work tasks by means of which are combined within a production system Organic solidarity Social cohesion that results from the various parts of a society function as an integrated whole Social constraints Conditioning in uence our behavior of the groups and societies of which we are members Anomie Situation in which norms lose their hold over individual behavior Manifest functions Functions as a type of social activity that are known to and intend overt obvious functions of a social structure EX If you have a cell phone its manifest function is to call people Latent functions Functional consequences that are not intended or recognized by the members of a social system in which they occur hidden less intentional functions of a social structure EX IF you have a cell phone its latent function could be that you play games on it Power Ability of individuals or the members of a group to achieve aims or further the interest they hold EX Power is exerted through forces rules laws and ideologies Ideologies Shared ideas or beliefs that serve to justify the interest of dominant groups EX Ideological systems serve to legitimatize the power that groups hold Materialist conception of history material or economic factors have a prime role in determining historical change Capitalism economic system based on the private ownership of wealth which is invested and reinvested in order to produce profit Rationalization process by which modes of precise calculation and organization involving abstract rules and procedures increasingly come to dominate the social world Bureaucracy A type of organization marked by a clear hierarchy of authority and the existence of written rules of procedure and staffed by fulltime EX salaried officials Symbol One item used to stand for or represent another EX Red cross red cross Symbolic interactionism Theoretical approach in sociology developed by Herbert Mead that emphasizes the role of symbols and language as core elements of all human interaction Microsociology the study of human behavior in context of facetoface interaction Macrosociology the study of largescale groups organization or social system Rational choice approach theory that an individual s behavior is purposive most behavior is selfinterested Feminist theory A sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender analyzing the social world and the experience of women Postmodernism belief that society is no longer governed by history or by progress Social construction An idea or practice that a group of people agree exists maintained over time by people taking its existence for granted EX When you go to the bathroom you don t use the stall next to someone you don t socialize while using the bathroom EX Marriage engagement ring or wedding ring symbolize a commitment thinking of marriage as male and female eating cake or feeding cake at a wedding Socialization The social processes through which children develop an awareness of social norms and values and achieve a distinct sense of self an explanation for social order EX Elevator study where people face wrong way and eventually everyone does Social construction as a result of socialization EX Pink associated with girls blue with boys 9 helps you know how to react and interact Research methods diverse methods of investigation used to gather empirical material Population the people who are the focus of social research Sample a small proportion of a larger population Sampling studying a proportion of individuals or cases from a larger population as representative of that population as a whole Random sampling a sample chosen so that every member of the population has the same probability of being included Know the pros and cons of each research method Ethnography Surveys Experiments Understand the in uence of Robert Park and William Ogburn Empirical investigation factual inquiries carried out in any area of sociological study Social stratification structuring of inequalities between groups in society in terms of their access to material or symbolic rewards EX Slavery caste class Structured inequalities Social inequalities that result from patterns in the social structure Slavery A form of social stratification in which some people are literally owned by others as their property Caste A social system in which one s social status is held for life Class A system of social hierarchy that allows individuals movement between classes The four chief bases of class are ownership of wealth occupation income and education EX Differentiation from slavery caste and stratification systems 9class systems are uid class positions are in some part achieved class is economically based class systems are large scale and impersonal Wealth money and material possessions held by an individual or group Income money received from paid wages and salaries or earned from investments Working poor People who work but whose earnings are not enough to lift them above the poverty line Feminization of poverty an increase in the proportion of the poor who are female Poverty line an official government measure that defines those living in poverty in the US Absolute poverty minimal requirements necessary to sustain a healthy existence Relative poverty poverty defined according to the living standards of the majority in any given society Upper class a social class broadly composed of the more af uent members of society especially those who have inherited wealth own businesses or hold large numbers of stocks Working class People working in bluecollar or manual occupations Lower class Those who work part time or not at all and whose household income is typically lower than 30000 a year Middle class Whitecollar and lower managerial occupations Understand the arguments and counterarguments for culture of poverty Arguments Poverty is not a result of individual inadequacies but an outcome of a larger social and cultural atmosphere into which successive generations of children are socialized Counterarguments Opportunities available to people depends on gender race ethnicity education or social class Lowerclass behavior can be explained through structural circumstances Know the Main theories of stratification weber marx davis and moore Weber con ict theorist class divisions depend on skills credentials and socials status Marx con ict theorist class is based on one s relationship to the means of production Wright Class based on control over investments or monetary capital control over physical means of production control over labor power Davis and Moore stratification is functional important positions in society require special skills and offer greater rewards most qualified people fill the most important roles and receive the greatest benefit Means of production the means whereby the production of material goods is carried on in a society Capitalists people who own companies land or stocks and use those to generate economic returns Status social honor or prestige a particular group is accorded by other members of society Status groups normally display distinct styles of life patterns of behavior that members follow Pariah groups Groups who suffer from negative status discrimination they are looked down on by most other members of society Contradictory class locations positions in the class structures particularly routine whitecollar and lower managerial positions that share characteristics with class Social mobility movement of individuals or groups between different social positions Intergenerational mobility movement up or down a social stratification hierarchy from one generation to another between Intragenerational mobility movement up or down a social stratification hierarchy within the course of a personal career within Structural mobility mobility resulting from changes in the number and kinds of jobs available in a society Exchange mobility The exchange of positions on the socioeconomic scale such that talented people move up the economic hierarchy while the less talented move down Understand the research conducted by Annette Laureau Different parenting styles on the basis of social class position Natural growth parent cares for child and allow child to grow more creative working class Concentrated cultivation parent activity fosters and asses child s talents opinions and skills parents cultivating resources soccer practice upper class Sex the biological and anatomical differences distinguishing females from males Gender social expectations about behavior regarded as appropriate for the members of each sex Traits of masculinity femininity Pinkblue Social construction of gender the learning of gender roles through socialization and interaction with others We learn the physical behavioral and emotional traits believed to be characteristic of males and females Gender role socialization the learning of gender roles through social factors such as schooling the media and family Patriarchy dominance of men over women Gender inequality The inequality between men and women in terms of wealth income and status Know the theories of gender inequalities Functionalist men and women specialize in different tasks to achieve social solidarity and integration In families women hold expressive roles men hold instrumental roles Parsons Criticism today women aren t always stay at home moms single parents stay at home fathers Feminist emphasizes the centrality of gender Gender typing Women holding occupations of lower status and pay such as secretarial and retail positions and men holding jobs of higher status and pay Sex segregation the concentration of men and women in different occupations Glass ceiling a promotion barrier that prevents a woman s upward mobility within an organization Know the theories behind the Gender Pay Gap Human capital theory Individuals make investments in their own human capitalquot to increase their productivity and earnings Sociological explanations gender socialization discrimination and ineffective policies ensure unequal pay for equal work Comparable worth policies that attempt to remedy the gender pay gap by adjusting Feminism Liberal gender inequality is produced by unequal access to civil rights and social resources like education and employment based on sex tend to seek solutions through changes in legislation that ensure that the rights of individuals are protected Radical the result of male domination in all aspects of social and economic life Black highlights disadvantages of gender class and race that shape the experiences of nonwhite women reject the idea of a single unified gender oppression that is experienced evenly by all women and argue that early feminist analysis re ected the specific concerns of white middleclass women Postmodern challenges the idea of a unitary basis of identity and experiences shared by all women rejects the claim that there is a grand theory that can explain the position of women in society encourages the acceptance of many different standpoints as equally valid


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