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Study Guide for Exam #2

by: Allie Newman

Study Guide for Exam #2 BSC 215

Marketplace > Biology > BSC 215 > Study Guide for Exam 2
Allie Newman
GPA 4.0
Anatomy and Physiology
Jason Pienaar

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Chapters 20, 21, and 22
Anatomy and Physiology
Jason Pienaar
Study Guide
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie Newman on Tuesday March 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 215 at a university taught by Jason Pienaar in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 151 views.

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Date Created: 03/03/15
BSC 216 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapters20 21 and 22 Chapter 20 Required reading Section 201 All Section 202 All Section 203 All Section 204 All Section 205 SKIP Section 20 6 SKIP Section 20 7 SKIP Pages 7 74802 SKIP you Will cover this in lab 0 Can you describe the primary difference between arteriesveins associated with the pulmonary and systemic circuits 0 Arteries carry blood away from the heart oxygenated Except pulmonary artery which carries deoxygenated o Veins carry blood to the heart deoxygenated Except pulmonary veins carry oxygenated What are the layers of blood vessel walls called 0 Tunica lnterna innermost layer 0 Tunica Media middle layer 0 Tunica Externa outermost layer 0 What is the lumen of a blood vessel 0 Inner blood containing space internal chamber for which blood ows through 0 Allows RBCs to travel through in single le 0 What are the 3 tunics of a blood vessel Can you tell me which one is the innermost middle and outermost tunic o Tunica lnterna innermost layer 0 Tunica Media middle layer 0 Tunica Externa outermost layer 0 Which tunic is composed of epithelial tissue that allows a slippery surface over which blood can ow 0 Tunica lnterna Which tunic is composed primarily of smooth muscle and elastic bers 0 Tunica Media 0 De ne vasoconstriction and vasodilation o Vasoconstriction muscle contracts and lumen diameter is reduced 0 Vasodilation smooth muscle relaxes and lumen diameter increases 0 Which type of artery is the aorta Which type of artery is most abundant in our body 0 Conducting artery elastic or large is the aorta 0 Muscle artery is most abundant in our bodies 0 What is the difference between elastic and muscular arteries in terms of their tissue make up 0 Elastic l contain a layer of elastic tissue internal elastic lamina o Muscular l contain a thick layer of smooth muscle circularly arranged around the lumen This smooth muscle layer is innervated by postganglionic sympathetic nerve bers so that the luminal diameter can be controlled by sympathetic nerve impulses 0 Elastic arteries composed of thick walls made of elastin ber 0 Muscular arteries composed of smooth muscle and have thick tunica media 0 Which tunic predominates in the capillaries o Tunica lnterna 0 Compare and contrast the three capillary types in terms of the arrangement of their endothelial cells the presenceabsence of fenestra the width of their intercellular clefts and their location and function in the body o Con nuous Endothelial cells held together by tight junctions form a continuous tube Basal lamina surrounds the endothelium and separates it from the adjacent connective tissues The endothelial cells are separated by intercellular clefts 4 nm wide No fenestra lntercellular clefts between tight junctions allow uids and small solutes to diffuse but not big molecules proteins etc Occurs in most tissues speci cally in skin and muscle 0 Fenestrated Similar to continuous except contains fenestrations that allow capillaries to retain larger molecules Found where active capillary absorption occurs such as in the small intestines and in endocrine organs like the kidneys which allow hormones to gain rapid entry into the blood Filtration pores are 20100 nm wide allowing bigger molecules to ow through 0 Sinusoids discontinuous Irregular blood lled spaces in the liver bone marrow spleen and other organs Twisted pathways that are 30 to 40 um wide conform to shape of surrounding tissue No basal lamina and especially large fenestrations Large gaps between cells large lumens and large fenestrations Allow large molecules to pass between the blood and surrounding tissues Blood ows slowly allowing time for it to be processed or modi ed in various ways absorbing nutrients removing and destroying microbes I Connect the arterioles and venules in the liver bone marrow lymphoid tissues and some endocrine glands What is microcirculation o Circulation of blood in the smallest blood vessels include arterioles capillaries and venules What s the difference between the vascular shunt and true capillaries 0 Vascular shunt is a short vessel that connects arteriole and venule at opposite ends of the bed 0 True capillaries are the actual exchange vessels What is the arterial portion of the vascular shunt called 0 Arteriovenous anastomosis What is the venous portion of the vascular shunt called 0 Venous anastomosis What is the function of precapillary sphincters why does your body need these sphincters 0 Control which beds are well perfused function is to regulate blood ow 0 When sphincters are open relaxed the capillaries are well perfused with blood and engage in exchanges with tissues 0 Important because not enough blood in body to ll capillaries Describe two mechanisms that help venous blood to ow back to the heart despite low blood pressure 0 Respiratory pump mechanism Pressure changes occur in the thoracic and abdominal cavities during inspiration and expiration This compresses veins and assists blood return to the heart 0 Muscle pump mechanism Muscular contractions compress the veins squeezing blood back towards the heart Pocket valves inside the veins prevent the back ow of blood returning to the heart De ne blood pressure 0 The force that the blood exerts against a vessel wall De ne resistance Which 3 factors can impact resistance 0 Friction blood encounters as it moves through vessels in the systemic circulation 0 Opposition to ow 0 Three Factors that Impact Resistance 0 1 Blood viscosity thickness of blood 0 2 Blood vessel length longer vessels have greater resistance 0 3 Blood vessel radius smaller tubes greater friction Why is arterial blood pressure pulsatile 0 Because it is being driven by the heart What does the 120 mmHg peak correspond to o Systolic Pressure What does the 7080 mmHg lowend correspond to o Diastolic Pressure How can arteriosclerosis impact pulse pressure 0 It can impact pulse pressure by increasing the workload of the heart 0 Since the arteries are no longer elastic it would require greater pumping action to allow the blood to pass through the artery What pressure would you expect at the arterial and venous ends of the capillary bed 0 Blood pressure is higher at the arterial ends 0 Blood pressure is lower at venous ends more capillaries at venous end amp twice diameter Why is it important to have low pressure going into the capillary bed 0 High blood pressure would rupture thin walled capillaries How do capillaries manage to release uidssolutes into surrounding tissue despite the low blood pressure 0 High permeability of capillaries will force solutes out of blood into tissues even at low blood pressure How is Net ltration pressure calculated at the arterial end of a capillary bed hint remember Hydrostatic pressure arterial end Colloid osmotic pressure and oncotic pressure Also why does uid move from the blood stream into the tissues at the arterial end of a capillary bed 0 Net Filtration Pressure net hydrostatic pressure minus oncotic pressure 0 Fluid moves in and out due to hydrostatic pressure which is the force exerted by a liquid against a surface capillary wall Shifting balance between hydrostatic pressure and osmotic forces How is Net reabsorption pressure calculated at the venous end of a capillary bed hint remember Hydrostatic pressure venous end and oncotic pressure Also why does uid move from the tissues back into the blood stream at the venous end of a capillary bed 0 Net Reabsorption Pressure oncotic pressure minus net hydrostatic pressure 0 Why does blood pressure drop precipitously as you move from aorta to venae cavae 0 Greater distance smaller radii of arterioles and capillaries offer more resistance farther from heart What are the 5 mechanisms that allow for venous blood to return to the heart even though pressure in the veins is very low 0 1 The pressure gradient 0 2 Gravity o 3 The skeletal muscle pump 0 4 The thoracic respiratory pump 0 5 Cardiac suction Which part of the brain is involved in shortterm regulation of blood pressure 0 Baroreceptor re ex Are the vasomotor bers part of the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system 0 Sympathetic What happens to vessels upon stimulation from sympathetic nervous system 0 Increased sympathetic activity vasoconstriction l increased blood pressure What happens to vessels when sympathetic nervous system input is inhibited o Decreased sympathetic activity vasodilation l decreased blood pressure Can you describe how baroreceptors respond to changes in blood pressure And how they initiate changes in the medulla of the brain Which changes occur And how do these changes restore homeostasis 0 Increased blood pressure lbaroreceptors stretch send impulses to vasomotor center inhibits sympathetic nervous quotout owquot l decrease cardiac output ampdecreases resistance l decreases blood pressure 0 Hypothalamus cerebral cortex relay info to medulla ght or ight respond 0 Baroreceptors continuously generate action potentials in response to the ongoing pressure within the arteries 0 Barore ex is a negative feedback response to changes in blood pressure Changes are detected by baroreceptors of the carotid sinuses o Glossopharyngeal nerve bers from these sinuses transmit signals to brainstem 0 When blood pressure rises these signaling rates also rise 0 This inhibits sympathetic cardiac and vasomotor neurons and reduces sympathetic tone It also excited the vagal bers to the heart Thus reduces heart rate and cardiac output dilates arteries and veins and ultimately reducing blood pressure 0 Example shortterm regulation of blood pressure stand up too quickly feel dizzy What hormones in uence blood pressure and what do they do increase or decrease blood pressure 0 Angiotensin II increase 0 Aldosterone increase 0 Atrial natriuretic peptide decrease o Antidiuretic hormone ADH increase 0 Epinephrine and Norepinephrine increase Regarding longterm regulation of blood pressure which hormone and organ system is involved 0 Longterm blood pressure regulation involves renal regulation of blood volume 0 Through the angiotensin mechanism and aldosterone hormones o Kidneys water and salt retention What is the most important thing that this hormone does in the kidney to regulate blood volume how is it done 0 Aldosterone l Promotes sodiumsalt retention in the kidneys supporting water retention Chapter 21 Required readingAI sections required these are all very important What is the primary function of lymphatic vessels related to interstital uid and capillary beds Consists of vessels that assist in circulatory body uids closely related to the cardiovascular system transport excess uid away from the interstitial spaces in most tissues and return it to the bloodstream organs of lymphatic system help defend the body against infection and disease causing agents or pathogens o A specialized vessel called the lacteal is found in the small intestine and its job is to absorb and transport digested fats to the venous blood circulation There are more lymphatic capillaries than blood capillaries o Most of the cellular and tissue uid is picked up and returned by the lymphatic capillary and vessels o 3 main functions uid recovery immunity and lipid absorption Which circulatory vessels are lymphatic capillaries closely associated with Why do you think this is the case Most closely related to connective tissue capsule o Lymphatic capillaries are microscopic closedended tubes composed of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells called endothelium They are closedended tubes that reach up into the interstitial spaces space between the cells and tissue a They form complex networks that parallel the networks of the blood capillaries then walls allow tissue uid interstitial uid from the interstitial spaces to enter the lymphaticcapillaries 0 Special lymphatic capillaries lacteals in the lining of the smallintestine absorb digested fats then transport the fats to the nervous circulation In which direction does lymph ow 0 Flows toward the heart How do the minivalves of lymphatic capillaries work oOpen by different pressure take up uid by the capillaries How are lymphatic collecting vessels similar to veins oThey are similar because they have valves Can you outline the sequence of structures through which lymph ows from lymphatic capillaries to the heart 0 Lymphatic capillary gt lymphatic vessels lymphatic trunks collecting ducts gt subclavian veins superior vena cava gt right atrium 0 Lymphatic capillariesgtlymphatic collecting vesselsgtlymph nodesgtlymphatic trunksgtlymphatic ducts What are the main two lymphatic ducts and which areas of the body do they service 0 Right lymphatic duct l right upper arm head Thoracic duct l rest of body does most of work What is the cisterna chyli Found in lower thoracic duct It temporarily holds lymph Which mechanisms facilitate the transport of lymph from body tissues to the heart Which of these are similar to the mechanisms used by veins 0 Respiratory pumps valves to prevent back ow arterial pulses promote lymph transport 0 Valves are similar to mechanisms used by veins Which types of cells 4 main types reside in the lymphoid tissue What are the functions of these cells 0 1 Lymphocytes l WBC39s o T lymphocyteshelpers o B lymphocytes antibodies 2 Macrophages l phagocytosis activate T lymphocytes 3 Dendritic cells l like nets capture antigens transport to lymph nodes 4 Reticular cells l produce stroma supports lympohid cells What is the primary function of lymphoid tissue 0 Site for proliferation of lymphocytes where cells quothangout and learnquot What is the difference between diffuse lymphatic tissue and lymphoid follicles What is the germinal center within a lymphoid follicle 0 Diffuse lymphatic tissue l in all organs consists of scattered reticular tissue Lymphoid follicles l concentrations of lymphoid tissue from larger lymphoid organs like lymph nodes Germinal center provide prolifereation grounds from dendritic cells and B lymphocytes What are lymph nodes What are their primary functions Where are they located 0 Lymph nodes are rest stops for lymph where uid ltration occurs 0 Function ltration 0 Location clustered around lymphatic vessels embedded in connective tissue of body Which layer is the cortex inside or outside The medulla o Cortex outside 0 Medulla inside Which structures compose the cortex of a lymph node And which types of cells would you nd there 0 Follicles with germinal centers 0 B cells dendritic cells and active T cells surveillance Which structures compose the medulla of a lymph node And which types of cells would you nd in the medulla that are not found in the cortex 0 Medullary cord lymph sinuses o B and T lymphocytes plasma cells macrophages Where do macrophages reside within the lymph node medulla o Lymph capillaries and reticular bers Can you track the ow of lymph within a lymph node a Afferent lymphatic vessels lymph enters lymph node l subcapsular sinus l medullary sinus l hilum l efferent lymphatic vessels lymph exits lymph node What is the advantage of having fewer efferent than afferent vessels 0 Slows uid down What are buboes How does this relate to the Bubonic Plague o Swollen lymph nodes caused by large s of bacteria trapped in lymph node What are the major lymphoid organs Do any of these lter lymph like the lymph nodes do o Primaryl Red bone marrow and thymus o Secondaryl spleen lymph nodes and tonsils What are the primary functions of the spleen o Site of lymphocyte proliferation immune surveillance immune activation resident macrophages clean blood recycles iron from hemoglobin Where is the spleen located 0 Left side of abdominal cavity beneath diaphragm What s the difference between the red pulp and the white pulp of the spleen 0 Red pulp l breakdown of old red blood cells 0 White pulp l immune function Where is the thymus located 0 In inferior neck overlies heart Is the thymus more highly functional during childhood or adulthood 0 Childhood Does the thymus contain Tlymphocytes Blymphocytes o T Lymphocytes What is the primary function of the thymus And which hormone is secreted to facilitate this func on o T lymphocyte maturation and secretes hormones o Thymopoietin Which of the 4 types of tonsil is normally associated with quottonsillitisquot o Palatine tonsils In which region of the body are all tonsils located 0 Back of the mouth entrance of the pharynx What is the tonsillar crypt which type of tissue is it made up of and what is its function 0 A tonsil crypt is a pocket or pit on the surface of the tonsil that is present at birth 0 Made up of epithelium tissue 0 Often contains food debris dead leukocytes bacteria and antigenic chemicals 0 Function I traps bacteria and particles check it out then can activate immune system What are Peyer s patches And their function 0 Clusters of lymphoid follicles 0 Function l trap bacteria What are examples of where you might nd mucosaassociated lymphatic tissues Why are they needed in these areas 0 Bronchi mucosa of genital and urinary organs 0 Needed because protects these open passageways from infection What are the two major branches of the immune system 0 Nonspeci c innate defense 0 Speci c adaptive defense What does it mean for something to be an innate nonspeci c defense 0 Automatic born with it ghtingkeeping stuff out naturally 0 Doesn39t need a stimulus to be activated What are your two major external defenses against pathogens 0 Skin and Mucous membranes In addition to a physical barrier what kinds of protection do the skin and mucous membranes offer o Acidity pH of 35 inhibits bacterial growth a Direct toxicity to bacteria sebum Stomach secrete hcl What does it mean to say that the cells and chemical defenses of the innate immune system are nonspeci c 0 They recognize foreign substances but not speci c foreign substances What types of phagocytes exist in the body o Neutrophils eosinophils basophils lymphocytes monocytes How is phagocytosis initiated o Phagocytosis is initiated by adherence of a particle to the surface of the plasma membrane of a phagocyte o This step usually involves several types of surface receptors on the phagocyte membrane Can you bring me through the steps involved in the process of phagocytosis 0 Phagocytosis in three steps 0 1 Unbound phagocyte surface receptors do not trigger phagocytosis o 2 Binding of receptors causes them to cluster 0 3 Phagocytosis is triggered and the particle is taken up by the phagocyte How does opsonization assist with phagocytosis o Fragments bind to the microbial surface to which a phagocytic receptor can adhere to What is the main role of natural killer cells Continually patrol the body lookout for pathogens and diseased host cells What are natural killer cells and how do they recognize foreigners How do they kill foreigners 0 Lymphocytes Natural killer cells release perforin which forms a hole in the enemy cell then secretes granzymes to degrade the enemy cell What s an interferon What triggers their release What do they do once released 0 They are very speci c according to virus attack virus39s sends out signal and allows other cells to make antiviral proteins and can activate NK cells lnteferons are proteins produced and released by lymphocytes 0 The presence of pathogens like virus bacteria parasites or tumor cells near any infected cell warns the neighboring cell to release inteferons that inhibit the protein synthesis of both the host cell and pathogen cell 0 The cytokinin inteferon prevents the reduplication of any pathogen cell What are the functions of in ammation Functions of in ammation 5 Limits spread of pathogens then destroys them removes debris from damaged tissue initiates tissue repair What are the two major chemical signals involved in initiating in ammation Which cells secrete these chemical signals What do these signals do C3a stimulates mast cells amp basophils to secret histamine and other vasodilators o These signals speed pathogen destruction in in ammation Can you bring me through the steps of in ammation including leukocytosis see neutrophilia eosinophilia margination diapedesis and chemotaxis o 4 signs ofin ammation heat redness swelling edema and pain 0 1 Mobilization of Defensg Purpose is to get defense leukocytes to the site quickly through the process of hyperemia Hyperemia l increasing blood ow beyond normal via vasodilation Selectins attach and snag the leukocytes to make sure they stay in that area Margination l leukocytes adhere loosely to the selectins and slowly tumble along endothelium potentially obstructing blood ow if too thick Diapedesis emigration l leukocytes then crawl through the gaps between the endothelial cells mostly occurs across walls of postcapillary venules Cells and chemicals that have left the bloodstream are said to be extra vasa ted o 2 Containment and Destruction of Pathogens Fibroinogen that lters into the tissue uid clots in areas adjacent to the injury forming a sticky mesh that sequesters and isolates bacteria from other microbes Heparin a anticoagulant prevents clotting in the immediate area of the injury bacteria is essentially trapped Neutrophils accumulate in the in amed tissue within an hour 0 They exhibit chemotaxis Chemotaxis l attraction of chemicals such as bradykinin and leukotrienes that guide them to the site of the injury or infection 0As they encounter bacteria neutrophils phagocytize and digest them 0 Neutrophils also recruit macrophages by secreting cytokins ColonyStimulating Factors activated macrophages and T cells in the in amed tissue that secret cytokins and promote production of more leukocytes by red bone marrow leukopoiesis Neutrophilia l within a few hours of in ammation the neutrophil count in the blood can rise from the normal level 40005000 cells to 25000 cells Eosinophilia l elevated eosinophil count speci c to allergy or parasitic infections 0 3 Tissue Cleanup and Repair Monocytes are major agents of tissue cleanup and repair 0 They arrive within 812 hours emigrate form bloodstream and turn into macrophages Macrophages engulf and destroy bacteria damaged host cells and dead neutrophils 0Also act as antigenpresenting cells activating immune responses Edema also contributes to cleanup because the swelling compresses veins and reduces venous drainage 0While it forces open the valves of lymphatic capillaries and promotes lymphatic drainage Pus l accumulation of dead neutrophils Abscess l tissue area where pus accumulates in What is complement 0 Group of roughly 30 proteins that make powerful contributions to both nonspeci c resistance and speci c immunity What are two basic ways in which complement can help to destroy invaders o Phagocytosis and cytolysis Can you bring me through the steps involved in assembling the membrane attack complex MAC pg 824 including the types of complement proteins involved and the difference between the classical and alternative pathways gtllt Which chemicals are released by macrophages and leukocytes to induce fever 0 Pyrogens What s the adaptive value of fever in other words how can it be good for us 0 Enhances the actions of antimicrobial proteins and inhibits bacterial reproduction What are the major functions of the adaptive speci c immune system 0 Speci city l immunity directed against a particular pathogen 0 Memory when reexposed to the same pathogen the body reacts What are the hallmarks of the adaptive immune system 0 Cellular cell mediated immunity l T cells 0 Humoral antibody mediated immunity l B cells What does it mean for the adaptive immune system to be speci c How does this differ from the innate immune system 0 Immunity against a particular pathogen innate was just against defense What s the difference between passive and active acquired immunity 0 Naturally acquired 0 Active infection contact w pathogen 0 Passive antibodies pass from mother to fetus via placenta or to infant in her milk 0 Arti cially acquired 0 Active vaccine dead pathogens 0 Passive injection of immune serum What is the difference between humoral and cellular immunity Which major cell types are involved in each 0 Humoral Antibody mediated immunity l B cells 0 Mediated by antibodies that do no directly destroy a pathogen 0 Antibodies mark infected cells for destruction 0 Works on things outside of cell 0 Cellular cell mediated immunity l Tcells o Lymphocytes directly attack and destroy foreign cells 0 Best means of ridding the body of pathogens that reside inside the cell What is an antigen 0 Any non self substance that can provoke and immune response What s the difference between complete antigens and haptens o Antigens l markers every living cell has identi es as self o Haptens l part broken off oating still retain parts of antigen body recognizes as nonself makes antibodies against What is an epitope Can one antigen have gt 1 epitope Certain active regions of an antigen molecule that stimulates immune responses o Yes one antigen can have more than one epitope What is the major histocompatibility complex 0 Act as cell identi cation tags What is the difference between Class and Class II MHC complexes 0 Class I self tag found on all body cells o Class II found on Bcells macrophages any APC39s present antigen on surface of cell so T cells can read foreign antigens What are the 3 major cells associated with adaptive immunity hint they are B and T lymphocytes and antigenpresenting cells 0 T lymphocytes cell mediated immunity 0 B lymphocytes humoral immunity 0 Antigen presenting cells APC macrophages B cells and Dendritic cells Where do the B and Tlymphocytes originate Where are they educated o B lymphocytes l bone marrow o T lymphocytes I thymus In terms of B and Tlymphocyte education what two things must they learn 0 lmmunocompetence and self tolerance Can you describe how positive and negative selection work to educate T lymphocytes 0 Positive selection l BINDS and recognize own self and wont attack ensures self recognition 0 Negative selection l FAILS to recognize self then elimination Which selection process ensures self or MHC recognition 0 Negative Selection Which selection process ensures selftolerance 0 Negative Selection Can you name the two major types of antigen presenting cells 0 B cells and MCH In terms of Cellular immunity what 4 cell types are involved and how are they involved in recognition attack and memory this question is dense and requires that you put some time into it o 1 Cytotoxic T cells These are the effectors of cellular immunity and carry out the attack of foreign cells 0 2 Helper T cells These promote the action of cytotoxic T cells as well as play key roles in the humoral immunity and nonspeci c response all other T cells are involved in cellular only 0 3 Regulatory T cells These limit the immune response by inhibiting multiplication and cytokine secretion by other T cells They are important in preventing autoimmune diseases 0 4 Memory T cells Descended from cytotoxic cells and are responsible for memory in cellular immunity 0 Recognition Antigen presentation and T cell activation Involves MCH proteins to initiate immune response 0 Cytotoxic T cells respond only to MCHI proteins 0Helper T cells respond only to MCHII proteins 0 Attack HelperT cells secrete interleukins that attract the neutrophils and natural killer cells attract macrophages to stimulate phagocytic activity and stimulate T and B cell mitosis and maturation Cytotoxic cells are the only T lymphocytes that directly attack and kill other cells Perforin and granzymes kill target cell in same manner as NK cells Interferons inhibit viral replication and recruit and activate macrophages Tumor Necrosis Factor TNK aids in macrophage activation and kills cancer cells 0 Memory After clonal selection some T cells become memory cells and are longlived and much more numerous 0Also require fewer steps to be activated responding to antigens faster T cell recall response l reexposure to the same pathogen 0Time saving response destroys pathogens quicker How does the humoral immune response work including the initial antigen recognition B lymphocyte activation clonal selection and differentiation into plasma and memory cells o Antigen recognition antigen binds only to B cells with complementary receptors plasma cells Antigen presentation B cell internalizes antigen ampdisplays epitope o Helper t cell binds to b cell and secretes interleukin 0 Clonal selection interleukin stimulates b cell to divide repeatedly Differentiation some cells of the clone become memory b cells most differentiate into plasma cells How does the primary humoral response prime the body to show a more rapid strong secondary immune response 0 Memory cells so high after lst exposure 2nd exposure antibodies shoot up 0 Neutralization l Complement Fixation l Agglutination l Precipitation Which of the immunoglobulins is primarily involved in the humoral immune response and in activating complement o lgM Which of the immunoglobulins in responsible for allergic reactions 0 lgE Which of the immunoglobulins prevents pathogen attachment to epithelial surfaces 0 lgA Which of the immunoglobulins is always associated with B lymphocytes 0 lgD Which of the immunoglobulins is very good at agglutination often exists as a pentamer and can activate complement o lgM Distinguish between neutralization agglutination and precipitation What do these antibody driven processes do to assist the immune response 0 Neutralization l masks dangerous parts of bacterial exotoxins viruses o Agglutination l clump antigens prevents from spreading 0 effective with blood transfusion and defense against bacteria o Precipitation l soluble antigens a process where antibodies link antigen molecules clearance o These antibodydriven processes assist in the enhancement of phagocytosis What are the two main types of T lymphocytes associated with the cellmediated immune response Why do we need the cellmediated immune response 0 Cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells 0 We need them to directly attack speci c foreign substances Which glycoproteins de ne the helper and cytotoxic T cells 0 Helper l MHC II o Cytotoxic l MHC I Can you describe the process of clonal selection of T lymphocytes ie the process by which T cells are activated and stimulated to proliferate o Interleukin stimulates B cell to divide repeatedly Can you describe the role of helper T cells in assisting humoral immunity Secrete interleukins that attract neutrophils macrophages NK cells stimulate T and B cell mitosis and maturation Can you describe the role of helper T cells in assisting cellmediated immunity Help promote T cells and B cell action and nonspeci c resistance smart do most of reading How do cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells 0 When cytotoxic T cell recognizes a complex of antigen and MHC I protein on a diseased or foreign cell it docks on that cell perforin and granzmes kill cells in the same manner as NK cells interferons inhibit viral replication TNF aid in macrophage activation and kills cancer cells Chapter 22 Required Reading Section 221 All Understand anatomy in terms of air ow and basic location see notes Save detailed identi cation of anatomy for the lab Section 222 Read all subsections With the following exceptions Exclude Aveolar Ventilation pa 874875 Only need to know de nitions in Spirometry subsection and understand tabe 2218 pg 875876 Exclude Variations in respiratory rhythm pg 87687 7 22 0 Section 223 Read all subsections With the folo Wing exceptions Exclude Adiustment to the Metabolic Needs of individual tissues bu 885886and Exclude Blood oases and the resbiratorv svstem bu 886887 0 Section 224 Only need to read Smoking and Lung Cancer Know the seven main functions of the respiratory system 0 Gas exchange Communication Olfaction sense of smell Acidbase balance Blood pressure regulation Blood and lymph ow Blood ltration Expulsion of abdominal contents 000000 0 Name the main organs of this system as detailed in the notes 0 Nose pharynx trachea bronchi bronchioles larynx and lungs Trace the ow of air from the nose to alveoli Noseleasal cavityljpharynxljlarynxljtrachealjcarinaljprimary bronchusljsecondarybronchusljterminalbronchusljrespiratory bronchiolesljalveoli Conducting division LDOONGU39IDWNH Nasal cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea Main bronchi R amp L Lobar secondary bronchi Segmental tertiary bronchi Bronchioles Terminal bronchioles Respiratory division 10 Respiratory bronchioles 11 Alveolar ducts 12 Alveolar sacs Relate the function of any portion of the respiratory tract to its gross anatomy Tracheal rigid tube 0 Highly organized hyaline cartilage o Incomplete rings to allow esophagus to expand when eating 0 Mucociliary elevator ciliated until terminal bronchioles debris removal Respiratoryl gas exchange respiration inspiration and expiration 1 inch in diameter 0 Supported by Cshaped hyalin cartilages Opening of the C39s are on posterior end of trachea Keep trachea open drier hose to allow oxygen airway in and out of lungs Open sections of rings face posteriorly Trachealis smooth muscle spans C gap allows contraction and expansion 0 Example esophagus expands trachea contracts during swallowing Carina internal median ridge directs air ow in lower most tracheal cartilage to left and right bronchi 0 Outer layer adventitia brous connective tissue blends with adventitia of other mediastinum organs holds these organs in place 0 Mucociliary escalator o This is damaged when you smoke too much 0 Inner lining of trachea is pseudostrati ed ciliated columnar epithelium Contains mucous secreting goblet cells to trap any remaining pathogens 0 Move mucous back up to trachea and into esophagus directing the mucous o Cilia direct mucous to pharynx o Underlying connective tissue contains lymphatic nodules mucous and serous glands and C cartilages o Lymphatic nodules collection of cells with immune functions 0 Describe the function of the following muscles of respiration Diaphragm and intercostal muscles 0 Diaphragm inspiration 0 When it contracts the diaphragm attens which INCREASES the volume of the THORAX which then EXPANDS the lungs o Contracting the diaphragm therefore is associated with breathing IN 0 lntercostal Muscles forced expiration 0 Breathing out air leaving the lungs Diaphragm main mover of respiration contraction attens it which lowers pressure in thoracic cavity pulls air in 0 Relaxation bulges up and raises pressure which pushes air out 23 c lntercostal muscles expand and hold into place the ribs and thoracic cavity Describe the brainstem centers that control breathing and the inputs they receive from other levels of the nervous system 0 Reticular formation of medulla oblongatapons Two sides communicate so that the lungs contract symmetrically o Ventral respiratory group 0 Dorsal respiratory group 0 Pontine respiratory group Medulla Oblongata 1 Ventral respiratory group VRG Primary generator of the respiratory rhythm lnspiratory neurons in quiet breathing eupnea re for about 2 seconds signals sent down phrenic and intercostal nerves inspiration Expiratory neurons in eupnea re for about 3 seconds allowing inspiratory muscles to relax elastic recoil of thoracic cage expels air from lungs Produces a respiratory rhythm of 12 breaths per minute 2 Dorsal respiratory group DRG Receives in uences from external sources stretch recptors the pons chemoreceptors Modi es the rate and depth of breathing Pons 3 Pontine respiratory group PRG Modi es rhythm of the VRG by outputs to both the VRG and DRG Adapts breathing to special circumstances such as sleep exercise vocalization and emotional responses Explain how pressure gradients account for the ow of air into and out of the lungs and how those gradients are produced 0 Flow is related to the change in pressure over resistance o Changing volume creates a pressure gradient Interpulmonary pressure falls with more volume rises with less volume a Air ows to lowest pressure when lungs expand the pressure decreases so air ows in when lungs decrease the pressure increases to air ows out Describe the respiratory cycle 0 It is a time interval between two consecutive inspirations inhale exhale pause o 4 Phases 0 Inhalation l positive ow 0 lnspiratory pause plateau l zero ow 0 Exhalation l negative ow 0 Period of rest l absence of ow Be able to de ne respiratory volumes and capacities and give a basic interpretation of a spirometry graph 0 Tidal volume air inout normal breath o M inspiratory reserve volume max inward breath o m expiratory reserve volume mac outward breath Residual volume what cannot be expelled Vital capacity air inhaledexhaled with max effort lnspiratory capacity air breathed in normally 0 O D Functional residual capacity air remaining with normal breath Total lung capacity maximum the lungs can hold efine partial pressure and discuss its relationship to a gas mixture such as air 0 The separate contribution of each gas in a mixture is its partial pressure 0 Pressure of each individual gas can be added together like air Nitrogen 786 Oxygen 209 Water 05 Carbon dioxide 0004 Contrast the composition of inspired and alveolar air 0 Alveolar air has more H20 less oxygen and more C02 Discuss how partial pressure affects gas transport by the blood 0 The partial pressure affects the rate of diffusion in which gases are exchanged o They also affect the levels of gases that are exchanged when equilibrium is reached in 025 seconds a In the alveolar the pressure of the oxygen is greater in the air so the blood picks more up the C02 in the air is less than the blood so more diffuses from the blood into the air Describe the mechanism of transporting 02 and C02 0 Oxygen carried by haemoglobin as oxyhemoglobin o Carbon dioxide is transported o The bicarbonate ion 0 Carbaminohemoglobin o Dissolved gas Describe gas exchange between blood and the lungs AND between blood and the systemic capillaries 0 Ambient pressure of oxygen 0 Temperature gas expands with heat 0 Bohr effect pH and saturation Know structures associated with the lung trachea bronchi respiratory bronchioles alveolar sac alveoli capillary beds respiratory membrane 0 Trachea l a tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs allowing the passage of air 0 Bronchiljtwo main branches of the trachea that go into the lungs This further divides into the bronchioles and alveoli They are the main passageway into the lungs 0 Respiratory Bronchioles l bronchioles break off to form the alveoli which is how the lungs give oxygen too the blood Control of air ow resistance and air distribution in the lungs is controlled by the bronchioles o Alveolar Sac l Alveolar sacs contain tiny pouches called alveoli whose primary function is gas diffusion These clusters of alveoli have thin walls that allow oxygen to pass easily from the lungs into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide to ow from the blood to the lungs so it can exit the body 0 Alveoli l gas exchange and carbon dioxide take place here Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli and adjacent capillaries into the red blood cells The oxygen is then carried by the blood to the body s tissues Carbon dioxide produced by the body s metabolism returns to the lung via blood It then diffuses across capillary and alveolar walls into the air to be removed from the body via expiration Alveoli walls are thin large surface area uid lined allowing gases to dissolve and surrounded by numerous capillaries o Capillary Beds to allow the rapid and ef cient transfer of oxygen and nutrients glucose electrolytes from the circulation into the nearby cells and transfer the carbon dioxide and waste products out of the cell back into circulation 0 Respiratory Membrane it is a barrier across which gases are exchanged between alveolar air and the blood It helps prevent each alveolus from collapsing as air moves in and out during respiration Know and understand the gas laws of respiratory physiology Table 221 0 Boyle39s Law as volume increases pressure decreases inversely proportional Charles39 Law temperature and pressure directly proportional Dalton39s Law Partial pressures can be added to make a sum pressure Henry39s Law gases will diffuse across air and water to create equal gradients Given the environmental pressure eg atmospheric pressure at sea level at depth or at altitude and given the gas in a mixture can you calculate the partial pressure of that gas 0 Dalton39s Law Partial pressures can be added to make a sum pressure 0 Dalton39s Law the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases Given the environmental pressure and the partial pressure of a gas can you calculate the of the gas in the mixture o Dalton39s Law Partial pressures can be added to make a sum pressure 0 Dalton39s Law the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases If you had a gas with partial pressure of 100 mm Hg on one side of a membrane side A and 40 mm Hg on the other side side B in which direction would the gas diffuse 0 To the 40 mm side the lower side What is the partial pressure of oxygen carbon dioxide nitrogen and water at sea level and in your alveoli Why is there a difference between the gas partial pressures 0 Sea Level 0 Oxygen209 159 mmHg 0 Carbon Dioxide004 003 mmHg 0 Nitrogen 786 597mmHg 0 Water 05 37 mmHg 0 Alveoli 0 Oxygen 137 104 mmHg 0 Carbon Dioxide 53 40 mmHg 0 Nitrogen 749 569mmHg 0 Water 62 47mmHg When blood leaves the right ventricle into the pulmonary circuit what is the partial pressure of oxygen Carbon dioxide 0 P02 40mmHg o PC02 46mmHg What is the partial pressure of oxygencarbon dioxide in the alveoli 0 P02 104 mm Hg 0 PC02 40 mm Hg When blood in the pulmonary artery enters the capillary beds associated with the alveoli what happens in terms of gas exchange Why 0 See gure 2225 in the book on page 878 l 0 Oxygen loading promotes the decomposition of carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide Most exhaled carbon dioxide comes from the erythrocytes 0 Reactions in the lungs are essentially the reverse of systemic gas exchange 0 As hemoglobin loads oxygen its af nity for hydrogen declines 0 Hydrogen ions dissociate from the hemoglobin and bind with bicarbonate ions transported from the plasma into the red blood cells 0 Chloride ions are transported back out of the red blood cells reverse chloride shift 0 The reaction of hydrogen and bicarbonate reverses the hydration reaction and generations free carbon dioxide 0 This diffuses into the alveolus to be exhaled When blood leaves the pulmonary circuit destined for the left ventricle and systemic circuit what is the partial pressure of oxygencarbon dioxide 0 P02 95 mm Hg 0 PC02 40 mm Hg How long does blood typically stay associated with alveolar capillaries How long does it take blood to reach equilibrium with the alveoli what s equilibrium Why is it important that blood reaches equilibrium well before it leaves the capillary bed 0 Blood typically stays 75 second but only needs 25 to reach equilibrium How does the af nity of hemoglobin for oxygen change when oxygen binds to the heme group What is responsible for this change in affinity think about the protein itself At what partial pressure is hemoglobin almost completely saturated How does this compare to the equilibrium partial pressure that you might expect for blood coming out of the alveoli Why is this difference important If you decrease the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood slightly what happens to the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen How do carbon dioxide temperature and hydrogen ions affect the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen When carbon dioxide diffuses from the tissues to the blood what is it rst converted into in the red blood cell How Ultimately what is the end product of C02 conversions What is the chloride shift and why is it important to keep red blood cells happy What is the process through which carbon dioxide ows from blood plasma to the lung alveolus What happens to the thoracic cavity when the diaphragm contracts Will this cause inhalation or exhalation What happens to the thoracic cavity when the diaphragm relaxes Will this cause inhalation or exhalation 0 Pressure decreases which causes inhalation when it relaxes it bulges up which increases pressure which is exhalation Where are the quotrespiratory centersquot located in the brain To which muscles do these respiratory centers connect via phrenic and intercostal nerves 0 Medulla oblongata and pans o Diaphragm connect via phrenic and intercostal muscles via intercostal nerves How does your brain sense changes in carbon dioxide partial pressures in the blood How does this ultimately control breathing Chemoreceptors send signal to respiratory centers which override willing control over breathing


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